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Ch30 sec1

  1. 2. <ul><li>Preview </li></ul><ul><li>Starting Points Map: Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Main Idea / Reading Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Independence and Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Map: Religious Groups in India and Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>India after Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges in South Asia </li></ul>South Asia after Empire
  2. 4. <ul><li>Reading Focus </li></ul><ul><li>What events led to independence and conflict in India? </li></ul><ul><li>What happened to India after the nation won its independence? </li></ul><ul><li>What challenges face the countries of South Asia? </li></ul>Main Idea India gained its independence from Great Britain, but the region entered an era of conflict and challenges. South Asia after Empire
  3. 5. Great Britain had controlled India for nearly two hundred years, but by the early 1900s the British control of the region was starting to weaken. At the same time, religious tensions were pulling India apart. Independence and Conflict <ul><li>Movement for independence gained strength in early 1900s </li></ul><ul><li>By mid-1930s Indian National Congress, Mohandas Gandhi had won some self-rule for Indians </li></ul>Nationalism Grows <ul><li>British told Indians to fight for allies in World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to participate in war for democracy while being denied independence, INC refused to support war effort </li></ul>INC and War <ul><li>Gandhi began “Quit India” campaign </li></ul><ul><li>British imprisoned Gandhi, INC officials </li></ul><ul><li>Riots erupted </li></ul><ul><li>Convinced British maintaining control of India too costly </li></ul>Quit India
  4. 6. <ul><li>Religious Groups </li></ul><ul><li>India had long had two main religious groups: Hindus, Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>1940, home to 255 million Hindus, 92 million Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller numbers of Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim League </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad Ali Jinnah led Muslim League, worked for interests of India’s Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>1940, Muslim League called for a partition , division of India, creation of separate Muslim, Hindu countries </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim Fears </li></ul><ul><li>As hopes for Indian independence rose, so did religious tensions </li></ul><ul><li>Some Muslims feared large Hindu population would dominate independent democratic India, wanted separate nation to protect their rights </li></ul>Religious Conflict and Partition
  5. 7. British Favored Partition <ul><li>Great Britain formally ended colonial rule of India, August 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>Two new nations created: Muslim East and West Pakistan, Hindu India </li></ul><ul><li>Jawaharlal Nehru , India’s first prime minister: “A new star rises, the star of freedom in the East…” </li></ul>Two New Nations <ul><li>Gandhi strongly opposed division of India, little he could do </li></ul><ul><li>Violence between Muslims, Hindus increased during early 1940s </li></ul><ul><li>British leaders believed partition best way to ensure safe, stable region </li></ul><ul><li>Divided India into separate Hindu, Muslim nations </li></ul>Violence Increased
  6. 9. <ul><li>Gandhi Victim of Violence </li></ul><ul><li>As millions crossed subcontinent, violence between religious groups flared; over a million people died </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi also victim of bloodshed </li></ul><ul><li>January 1948, shot, killed by fellow Hindu who blamed Gandhi for partition, believed he sacrificed Hindu interests to protect Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Violence After Partition </li></ul><ul><li>Division of India also divided religious groups living there </li></ul><ul><li>Most Pakistan residents Muslim; most in India were Hindu </li></ul><ul><li>Followers of other religions lived in each new country as well </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of people on each side decided to move </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>Not all border issues had been settled at partition </li></ul><ul><li>Major point of conflict, region of Kashmir, near northern border of India, Pakistan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>India, Pakistan began to fight over control of Kashmir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued until 1949 cease-fire divided region into two parts, one controlled by each nation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Later China claimed control of part of Kashmir as well </li></ul>War over Kashmir
  8. 11. Identify Cause and Effect How did India’s independence lead to conflict? Answer(s): When India gained independence, new nations were formed along religious lines, leading to conflicts between the groups.
  9. 12. India became the world’s largest democracy when the nation won its independence in 1947. India after Independence <ul><li>Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru led India through difficult early years of independence </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized need for unity, economic and social reforms, respect for democratic ideals </li></ul><ul><li>Worked to increase legal rights of women, improve lives of poor, prevent discrimination </li></ul>India Under Nehru <ul><li>Under Nehru, India utilized modern science, technology to improve industry, agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Played important role in formation of nonaligned movement during Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on economic development instead of taking sides in the conflict </li></ul>Nonaligned Movement
  10. 13. <ul><li>1964, Nehru died; two years later, daughter Indira Gandhi elected prime minister; served four terms </li></ul><ul><li>Rise to power showed role of women in India society improved after independence </li></ul><ul><li>Faced challenge from a Sikh independence movement in state of Punjab </li></ul>After Nehru <ul><li>1984, militant Sikhs occupied Golden Temple, holiest shrine </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi ordered Indian troops to drive militants out of temple </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of people killed </li></ul><ul><li>Attack damaged temple, Sikh holy scriptures </li></ul>Attack at Golden Temple <ul><li>Violent attack outraged many Sikhs, including those who had not supported militants </li></ul><ul><li>October 1984, Gandhi’s Sikh bodyguards assassinated her </li></ul><ul><li>Touched off wave of anti-Sikh violence, left thousands dead </li></ul>Gandhi Assassinated
  11. 14. Modern India <ul><li>Indian economy has grown at remarkable rate in recent years </li></ul><ul><li>Strong economy has brought prosperity to only minority of country’s 1.1 billion people </li></ul><ul><li>Millions live in poverty in crowded cities </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of charity groups work to provide clothing, food, medical aid to poor </li></ul>Prosperity and Poverty <ul><li>1990s, India undertook reforms that have led to significant economic gains </li></ul><ul><li>Government loosened controls on many industries, reduced trade barriers to help encourage growth of new businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Although most Indians still work in agriculture, service industries have expanded rapidly </li></ul>Industrial Growth
  12. 15. Summarize How did India change after winning its independence? Answer(s): focused on economic development; increased rights for women and the poor; became the world's largest democracy
  13. 16. After India sent troops to support East Pakistan, Pakistan was forced to accept the independence of the East—now called Bangladesh. The history of other nations in South Asia has been as turbulent as that of India. Today, those nations face a range of challenges. Challenges in South Asia <ul><li>1947, Pakistan created in two parts, West and East </li></ul><ul><li>Separate areas, deep differences in language, religion, culture </li></ul><ul><li>Government policies, spending favored West, East remained poor </li></ul>Civil War in Pakistan <ul><li>1971, East Pakistan decided to seek independence </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistani government responded with armed force </li></ul><ul><li>Civil war followed, thousands of people died </li></ul>India Joins the Battle
  14. 17. Bangladesh and Pakistan <ul><li>Pakistan has also faced instability since civil war </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic, religious conflicts common </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreements about role of Islam in government </li></ul><ul><li>Many leaders have taken power; some elected, some through military coups </li></ul>Instability in Pakistan <ul><li>One of poorest, most densely populated countries in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Only a few feet above sea level, devastating floods, storms often sweep across country, killing many, leading to widespread famine </li></ul><ul><li>Series of governments since independence </li></ul><ul><li>Now trying to build stable democracy </li></ul>Troubles in Bangladesh
  15. 18. <ul><li>Nuclear Weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Relations between India, Pakistan usually tense </li></ul><ul><li>War near-constant threat </li></ul><ul><li>1974, India’s testing of nuclear weapon caused alarm around world </li></ul><ul><li>1998, after another Indian test, Pakistan tested own nuclear bomb </li></ul><ul><li>Threat of nuclear war has kept tensions high </li></ul><ul><li>Musharraf </li></ul><ul><li>1999, General Pervez Musharraf overthrew elected government, took power </li></ul><ul><li>Musharraf’s government has worked with U.S. to fight al Qaeda, Taliban in neighboring Afghanistan </li></ul>Continuing Issues
  16. 19. <ul><li>Conflict in Region </li></ul><ul><li>Region continues to experience powerful divisions, conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Based on religious, ethnic differences </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic fighting also plagues India’s neighbor, Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>As Ceylon, island was British colony until late 1940s </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu, Muslim Hostility </li></ul><ul><li>Much stems from longstanding hostility between Hindus, Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Continues to cause conflicts between India, Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting between Buddhist Sinhalese majority, Hindu Tamil minority killed thousands </li></ul><ul><li>Religious tension intensified struggle between ethnic groups </li></ul>Ethnic and Religious Tensions
  17. 20. Identify Supporting Details What challenges do the nations of South Asia face today? Answer(s): poverty, religious and ethnic tensions, nuclear weapons, famine, political upheaval