A. What influenced Greece?1. Dominated by mountains, valleys & smallplains2. Small communities due to little arable soil3. Difficult to communicate4. Had to sail to colonize, trade.
B. With so many independent stateswithin Greece, what did they have incommon?1. A common language2. A common heritage of myths3. The worship of the gods.
C. Athenian democracy…• Lasted about 140 to 200 years• Did not include all Athenians, just nativeborn men.• Was not seen again until Colonial America.• Democracy comes from Demos meaning"people" and kratos meaning "rule."
D. How did democracy develop?1. Draco the Lawgiver and wealthy nobility used harsh punishments tocontrol people.a. Capital punishment for minor crimesb. Law was codified2. After Dracon’s death, Salon…a. Abolished enslavement of Athenian citizens, redeemed all the Athenianslaves he could.b. Established two ruling bodies made up of representatives of the people:Council composed of four hundred members made the law and oversawmagistrates which enforced it. Appeals court for people to contest rulingsthey thought were unfairc. He divided the citizens into four classes based on wealth, not kinship soyour status was based on your success not on those you were related to.d. Got rid of the severe penalties established by Dracon.e. He changed the currency to facilitate trade with the East.f. Nothing to be exported except olive oil and eventually wine so grain wouldstay in Athens to feed people.
1. Abolished divisions based on wealth.2. He created 10 artificial tribes.3. Expanded membership of the Assembly. 6000needed for quorum.4. Allowed each tribe to choose 50 members to servein the Council of 500.5. Directed Council to create agenda for the assemblyso it was more orderly.6. Designed chief executives – 10 generals chosen bylot.7. Believed that any Athenian man could participate –an ideal of democracy.E. Later, Clisthenes…
F. Why Didn’t Democracy Work?• The people were easily swayed.• People were greedy and wanted more territory which led to war.• The first wars against Persia were defensive and justifiable• Athens led an alliance to defend Greece against King Darius.• Afterwards, the Delian League, led by Athens, continued to exist for security, but Athensused it to expand their sphere of influence in what was known as the Athenian Empire.• Those that refused to belong or contribute money and troops were destroyed. Citieswere burnt, men were killed and women/children were enslaved.• Afraid of Athenian dominance, the Spartans and other city-states started thePeloponnesian League.• Eventually the two leagues fought a series of wars which involved Persian help to Sparta,infighting (especially in the Delian League), and declining support within Athens.• Pericles of Athens maintained leadership and popular support of the people which brieflygarnered a 30 year peace. Once the wars started again, Athens position continued tofalter and Pericles died of the plague.• Eventually, the Spartan army was able to besiege Athens and starve them into submission• Sparta installed an oligarchy of nobles known as the “Thirty Tyrants.” They were cruel andstripped the people of rights until they were toppled. Athens was not stable or free forcenturies.
G. Philosophy• Socrates was executed for challenging the ideals of Athens.• Plato believed the people could not rule, they must be assigned to roles.• Wrote The Republic, reflecting on life of mentor.• Plato was angry over mentor’s death.• “Philosophers must become kings…or those now called kings must…genuinely andadequately philosophize.”• People must be broken up into classes…a. Leadership (preferably philosophers)b. Civiliansc. Military1. Started “The Academy” to train future leaders.2. One student was Aristotle who believed the law and government needed to reflect logic inorder to thwart man’s evil instincts.3. Aristotle educated Alexander the Great who conquered the known world and died by 32.4. Despite his Macedonian origins, Alexander absorbed Greek ideas and spread them throughthe Mediterranean where they influenced Rome.