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A. Formation of the Republic1. Cruel monarchy was removed and replaced byoligarchy.2. Conquered Etruscans to the north and had toomuch land and people for a democracy.3. Used representative government to make laws.4. Republic at first used only the nobles (patricians)for offices.5. Evetually after much struggle, the common people(pleibains) were allowed to hold offices as well.
B. Legislative1. Senate: merely a advisory body, the Senate made decrees which did not have to befollowed, but were.a. Comes from sense (old men).b. 300 patricians (wealthy) who serve for life, eventually plebs were allowed tojoin.c. Power resided there.2. Assemblies –a. Comitia or committees were made of all of the people.b. Concilia or councils represented specific groups of peoplec. Comitia Centuriata – made up of soldiers, elected magistrates, declared war,highest court of appeals.d. Comitia Tributa – represented tribes of Rome, voted on laws, elected lowerofficials.e. Concilium Plebis – Passed laws for plebs, elected middle officials, evetuallycombined with tributa.
C. Executive Brancha. Quaester – financial officers• Aedile - organize the games, supervise public works.• Praetors -senior magistrates, chief law officer.• Consul - 2 for 1 year - preside over the Senate and are commanders - in– chief. They could veto each other, call the assemblies to order, andwere the head of government. Could run again in ten years.• Dictator –In emergency times a man of merit could be appointed withabsolute powers until the crisis abated.• Pontifex Maximus – Chief priest that presided over officialceremonies, chose calendar, members of the priesthood.• Censors - (of which there were two) was in his main duty the registrarof Rome. But he also oversaw the finances, includingtaxation, inspected the quality of public works and - morecontroversially - oversaw public morality
D. Campaigning according to MarcusTullius Cicero…1. have plenty of followers2. call everyone by name3. make promises, never say no.4. campaign in all parts of Rome
E. Candidate1. "gleaming white," type of toga worn - itwas like our business suit.2. Campaigning was personal: No posters -wrote on the walls, Paid for games or food.
F. Development of the Republic1. Patricians in the beginning controlled alloffices and law.2. Plebs were not informed and faced harshpunishment.3. A series of revolts established a public,codified law and rights for plebs.4. After conquering Italy, other town were givenRoman citizenship.5. Rome set its sights on Sicily, which waspartially controlled by Carthage, an empire basedout of Western North Africa.
G. Wars and Social Unrest1. Carthage and Rome engaged in two wars from264 to 146 BCE.2. Hannibal invaded Europe, bringing a hugearmy with elephants, but was unable to persuadeother Italians to revolt.3. General Scipio Africanus was able to outlastand destroy Carthage.4. Patricians received slave labor and land.5. This caused the plebs to face unemploymentand poverty.
H. Outcry and Welfare1. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were electedtribunes in 2nd century BCE and wanted toredistribute patrician land.2. They and 3,000 supporters were murdered.3. Eventually, all Romans were exempt fromtaxes, were provided with food andentertainment to stop them from revolting.
I. Military Influence1. Generals Marius and Sulla used the military tocontrol the Senate.2. Marius rules first and allows landless men tojoin, increasing his popularity.3. Sulla took over when he died, and increasedthe size of the Senate and limited veto powers.
J. Slavery and Power1. Spartacus, a gladiator, revolted and wasfollowed by 70,000 others.2. Generals Crassus and Pompey eventuallydefeated him after heavy losses. Many werecrucified.3. Crassus had success to the east, Pompey ridthe sea of pirates and a new general conqueredGaul (Caesar).4. Together, they shared power in the Triumvirate.
H. Balance Turns to Dictatorship1. Crassus is killed in the East when liquid hot gold is poured down his throat.2. Caesar becomes very wealthy and shares wealth with the plebs.3. Pompey becomes suspicious, especially when his wife Julia (Caesar’s daughter) does inchildbirth.4. Nobility and Senate side with Pompey.5. Cato, Scipio (a descendant of the general), and Cicero fear Caesar will make himself kingand order him to give up his legions.6. Caesar believes they acted illegally and brings his army into Italy which is illegal.7. Pompey and many nobles flee, eventually to Greece where they raise an army.8. Expenses and desertion wear down Pompey and Senators switch sides.9. Cicero and young Brutus switch, Cato and Scipio commit suicide.10. He flees to Egypt, but Ptolemy XIII has him beheaded.11. Caesar is outraged that barbarians have killed a former Consul of Rome and have theleadership of Egypt killed.12. He appoints his lover Cleopatra as Pharaoh and they have a son Cesarean.13. Caesar returns to Rome where his given dictators powers.14. He appoints many plebs to the Senate and expands the welfare roles.15. He is eventually assassinated by a group of Senators led by Brutus and Cassius.
I. Dissolution of Republic1. Mark Anthony, Caesar’s young general-apprentice inherits hispopularity.2. Nephew Octavian inherits his fortune.3. A truce is offered to Brutus and Cassius, but they must leave the city.4. Anthony and Octavian quarrel, but unite with noble general Lepidus inthe Second Triumvirate to attack Brutus and Cassius.5. The murderers are annihilated along with their supporters in Rome,including Cicero.6. Eventually Lepidus is demoted because of corruption, and Anthony andOctavian start fighting again.7. Anthony flees to Egypt, begins an affair with Cleopatra, and holds backgrain from Rome.8. He makes a will promising his children with Cleopatra parts of theRepublic and Cesarean Rome itself.9. The people are outraged.
K. Roman Empire1. Augustus (nephew of Cesar) defeats Mark Anthonyand Cleopatra.2. Augustus rules from 27 BC to 14 AD andsuccessfully organizes “republic”3. Takes on title of “head magistrate.”4. Relatives (by blood and adoption) assume thrownof “Caesar.”5. Some are undeserving, many assassinations.6. Persecution of Christians occurs.7. Ruled till 96 AD.8. Hand picked successors bring prosperity for acentury.
L. Decline of the Empire1. Murder, corruption and military rule happenintermittently.2. Christianity becomes official religion.3. The Empire is split into West and East(Byzantine) 260 AD.4. The West falls to German Barbarians around400 AD5. The East falls to Muslim Turks around 1453AD.
M. Dark Ages and Feudalism.1. Fear and anarchy is replaced by localwarlords.2. Eventually, they gather strength and land.3. The most powerful require allegiance fromthe weak and becomes monarchs.4. The poor work on land and supply crops ortaxes.