• Three objectives:
– Why did the Cold
War begin and
how did Europe
– How did the Cold
War turn hot and
– How was Europe
I. Why did the Cold War Begin?
• What agreements setup the Cold War and
• What role did NATO and the Warsaw Pact
• How did Khrushchev continue the image
of a “Cold” War?
A. What agreements setup the
Cold War and how?
1. Atlantic Charter and Tehran
Roosevelt and Churchill met on ship off
coast of Newfoundland (8/41)
Freedom from want & fear.
Decline of imperialism.
Less trade barriers.
i. The Big Three – Stalin, FDR, Churchill
ii. Second front in West promised.
iii. Stalin will control East, poor foresight by
a. FDR suspected Churchill wanted to
b. Feared Britain and USSR would grab
c. Allowed USSR to control islands to east
for cooperation against Japan.
d. United Nations.
a. Clement Atlee, Truman, & Stalin.
b. Poland territory shifted West to punish
c. Germany divided into occupied zones.
d. Growing sense USSR would not leave
B. What role did NATO and the
Warsaw Pact play?
1. American Containment
a. Truman Doctrine wanted to stop spread
b. George C. Marshall Plan economic aid to
all of Europe, rebuffed by USSR.
c. Western side of Germany unified by
industry & currency.
d. USSR feared this, sealed off Berlin.
e. USA airlifted supplies till USSR gave up.
a. North Atlantic Treaty Organization
b. Military alliance to “protect the West.”
c. First nations to join: Belgium,
Luxembourg, France, United Kingdom,
Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway,
Denmark, Iceland, USA.
d. Attack on one is an attack on all.
e. Despite a continued alliance, France
created a separate defense & asked all
NATO forces to withdraw from France
3. Warsaw Pact
a. Formed in 1950, year after NATO.
b. Same premise, but from communist
c. USSR, Albania, Bulgaria,
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, East
d. USSR domination, no dominate partners
like in NATO (Anglo-American).
II. End of Colonization and
• How did France and Britain treat
• How did the rest of Europe react to
• How did the tensions between NATO and
the Warsaw Pact decrease?
A. How did France and Britain treat
1. British Colonialism
a. British & Cecil Rhodes had cut piece of
African cake from the south to north central
for diamonds & other resources.
b. Cocoa & sugar plantations in the west.
c. Farms also dotted central to north Africa,
along with small amounts of settlers.
d. India provides tropical crops & manual labor.
e. “Western” parts of the empire = Canada,
f. Britain hoped to provide civilization to
indigenous people they had brutally
2. French Colonialism
a. France looks for resources as well, such
b. Larger settlement colonies.
c. Algeria has over 1 million Frenchmen by
d. Indochina provides tropical crops,
e. France is more determined to hold onto
f. Redeeming itself from WWI, WWII.
3. Great Powers Give Way
a. France loses Indochina, but drags USA in for aid
then a follow-up war to fight communism.
b. French learned from guerilla warfare, fatal flaws =
outgunned/determined at Diem Bien Phu.
c. Algeria is part of metropolitan France, they elect
members to National Assembly.
d. Brutal War of Algiers is fought to bitter end.
e. France gives up other colonies while in pursuit.
f. French Army is sent in after Arabs & colonials use
g. 4th Republic collapses, De Gaulle comes to rescue
as President of 5th Republic.
h. Lets Algerians vote for freedom, French move out,
despite last minute mutiny of Army.
B. How did the rest of Europe react to
a. Angola and Mozambique.
b. Brutal war of suppression.
c. Determined to keep colonies, more than
any other power.
d. Eventually was worn down by war of
Congo, Rwanda, Burundi
Had been personal property of King Leopold II.
Amputations used as work motivation.
Turned over to Belgium.
Natural resources still pillaged.
In Rwanda & Burundi, indigenous people were
turned against each other.
7. Tutsi were treated as land owning elite, Hutu
as working class.
8. Eventually, independence is given despite no
C. How did the tensions between
NATO and the Warsaw Pact decrease?
a. Dwight Eisenhower wants to contain
b. U2 spy plane is caught over USSR,
c. Nixon engages Khrushchev in Kitchens
d. Relies on nuclear weapon buildup.
a. Antagonizes USSR with Bay of Pigs.
b. USSR agrees to supply nuclear missiles
and Castro will keep them in Cuba.
c. Standoff over USA embargo of island.
Khrushchev prevails over war mongers
d. Makes deal with JFK to withdraw
missiles if Cuba is left alone.
e. Khrushchev looks weak, is forced out.
a. Richard Nixon is a conservative anticommunist.
b. He & Secretary of State Henry Kissinger
create triangular diplomacy.
c. Pit USSR and China against each other.
d. Creates peaceful relations with each,
makes old enemies suspicious of each
e. SALT I and II treaties agree to decrease
the amount of nuclear weapons.
D. Hot War Toll
1. Korea – UN cooperation against communists.
USSR abstained from vote to support South
Korea (50’s). Caused suspicion, “limited war.”
2. Vietnam – began breaking down French
imperialism, decreased cooperation among
allies, caused social unrest. (50’s-70’s)
3. Afghanistan – USSR occupation as border
stabilizations or grab at Middle East. Failed
after years of guerilla tactics.
III. Europe Changing and
• How did the European population and
• How did technology impact Europe?
• How and why did Europe unify?
A. How did the European population
and culture change?
1. Culture & Lifestyle.
Consumerism increased due to mass production.
American Century exports culture.
Feminism on the rise.
Decline of church attendance.
Increase in university attendance.
Uses of contraception increases, abortion.
i. Prague Spring – ’68 uprising
a) Socialist want debate
b) New leader, Leonid Brezhnev, sends tanks to
crush supposed opposition.
ii. French youth challenge De Gaulle.
Return of settlers.
Former colonists join people in Europe.
Pakistanis to Britain
Algerians to France
Africans to Italy
Eastern Europeans shift to Western Europe
Population growth of “indigenous” Europeans
Eastern Europe faces stagnation.
American domination subsides as European factories
Increasing liberal trends toward free trade.
Mikhail Gorbachev introduces perestroika – open elections
Glasnost – introduces more open market
Citizens get a taste of commodities, want more.
USSR is outspent by Reagan and military growth.
Communists attempts coup to force Gorbachev out.
Boris Yeltsin leads revolt against coup, army backs him
USSR breaks up and gives way to capitalist republics.
B. How did technology impact Europe?
1. Devices, Concepts
a. Widespread flow of information
b. New commercial, cultural importance of
c. Intensification of devices to create, store, share
d. The personal computer
e. The Internet
f. Entertainment spreads through cable, satellite
g. Corporate headquarters remain in the West
Population 1960–2000: population doubled - 6 billion
Improvements standards of health
Improving urban-industrial environment in postcolonial
Longer life spans, welfare programs, rising healthcare
costs, easily obtainable divorces
Population decline: Italy, Scandinavia, Russia
Exposure to epidemic diseases - globalization
Exposure of new ecosystems to human development,
speed of intercontinental transportation
(AIDS) first appeared at end of 1970s
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) appeared
Discovery DNA (1953), Mapping human genome
Genetic engineering , Dolly (1997)
Legal & moral issues of cloning
C. How and why did Europe unify?
1. End of Cold War
a. USSR break up, leaves former bloc in
capitalist free fall.
b. Velvet Revolution in Romania leads to
independence of other states.
c. Economic transition is successful in
many, states, especially Poland.
d. Eastern states provide cheap labor for
2. Political Change
a. After WWII, welfare states are created to
provide cradle to grave services.
b. Christian-Democrats and Conservatives
opposes too much government.
c. Socialists, Social-Democrats, & Labour
support modern liberal ideals.
d. Burdensome debt protectionism are not
3. European Union
a. 1957 – Treaty of Rome makes European
b. 11/1993 EEC renamed European Union
eliminating barriers of trade., established Euro.
c. 2004 expansion to include Eastern states.
d. European Constitution was recently approved
(2009) & established a European Presidency.