America and the EU
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  • 1. America and the EU Cold War & Changing Europe
  • 2. • Three objectives: – Why did the Cold War begin and how did Europe take sides? – How did the Cold War turn hot and end? – How was Europe changed since WWII?
  • 3. I. Why did the Cold War Begin? • What agreements setup the Cold War and how? • What role did NATO and the Warsaw Pact play? • How did Khrushchev continue the image of a “Cold” War?
  • 4. A. What agreements setup the Cold War and how?
  • 5. 1. Atlantic Charter and Tehran
  • 6. a. Charter i. ii. iii. iv. v. Roosevelt and Churchill met on ship off coast of Newfoundland (8/41) Self-Determination. Freedom from want & fear. Decline of imperialism. Less trade barriers. b. Tehran i. The Big Three – Stalin, FDR, Churchill ii. Second front in West promised. iii. Stalin will control East, poor foresight by West.
  • 7. 2. Yalta
  • 8. a. FDR suspected Churchill wanted to continue colonialism. b. Feared Britain and USSR would grab territory. c. Allowed USSR to control islands to east for cooperation against Japan. d. United Nations.
  • 9. 3. Potsdam
  • 10. a. Clement Atlee, Truman, & Stalin. b. Poland territory shifted West to punish Germany. c. Germany divided into occupied zones. d. Growing sense USSR would not leave EE.
  • 11. B. What role did NATO and the Warsaw Pact play?
  • 12. 1. American Containment
  • 13. a. Truman Doctrine wanted to stop spread of communism. b. George C. Marshall Plan economic aid to all of Europe, rebuffed by USSR. c. Western side of Germany unified by industry & currency. d. USSR feared this, sealed off Berlin. e. USA airlifted supplies till USSR gave up.
  • 14. 2. NATO
  • 15. a. North Atlantic Treaty Organization b. Military alliance to “protect the West.” c. First nations to join: Belgium, Luxembourg, France, United Kingdom, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, USA. d. Attack on one is an attack on all. e. Despite a continued alliance, France created a separate defense & asked all NATO forces to withdraw from France from 1959-67.
  • 16. 3. Warsaw Pact
  • 17. a. Formed in 1950, year after NATO. b. Same premise, but from communist perspective. c. USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, East Germany. d. USSR domination, no dominate partners like in NATO (Anglo-American).
  • 18. II. End of Colonization and Tension • How did France and Britain treat decolonization differently? • How did the rest of Europe react to decolonization? • How did the tensions between NATO and the Warsaw Pact decrease?
  • 19. A. How did France and Britain treat decolonization differently?
  • 20. 1. British Colonialism
  • 21. a. British & Cecil Rhodes had cut piece of African cake from the south to north central for diamonds & other resources. b. Cocoa & sugar plantations in the west. c. Farms also dotted central to north Africa, along with small amounts of settlers. d. India provides tropical crops & manual labor. e. “Western” parts of the empire = Canada, Australia. f. Britain hoped to provide civilization to indigenous people they had brutally conquered.
  • 22. 2. French Colonialism
  • 23. a. France looks for resources as well, such as oil. b. Larger settlement colonies. c. Algeria has over 1 million Frenchmen by 1950. d. Indochina provides tropical crops, plantations. e. France is more determined to hold onto colonies, greatness, f. Redeeming itself from WWI, WWII.
  • 24. 3. Great Powers Give Way
  • 25. a. France loses Indochina, but drags USA in for aid then a follow-up war to fight communism. b. French learned from guerilla warfare, fatal flaws = outgunned/determined at Diem Bien Phu. c. Algeria is part of metropolitan France, they elect members to National Assembly. d. Brutal War of Algiers is fought to bitter end. e. France gives up other colonies while in pursuit. f. French Army is sent in after Arabs & colonials use civilian terrorism. g. 4th Republic collapses, De Gaulle comes to rescue as President of 5th Republic. h. Lets Algerians vote for freedom, French move out, despite last minute mutiny of Army.
  • 26. B. How did the rest of Europe react to decolonization?
  • 27. 1. Portugal a. Angola and Mozambique. b. Brutal war of suppression. c. Determined to keep colonies, more than any other power. d. Eventually was worn down by war of attrition.
  • 28. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 2. Belgium Congo, Rwanda, Burundi Had been personal property of King Leopold II. Amputations used as work motivation. Turned over to Belgium. Natural resources still pillaged. In Rwanda & Burundi, indigenous people were turned against each other. 7. Tutsi were treated as land owning elite, Hutu as working class. 8. Eventually, independence is given despite no preparedness.
  • 29. C. How did the tensions between NATO and the Warsaw Pact decrease?
  • 30. 1. Eisenhower a. Dwight Eisenhower wants to contain USSR peacefully. b. U2 spy plane is caught over USSR, cools relations. c. Nixon engages Khrushchev in Kitchens debate. d. Relies on nuclear weapon buildup.
  • 31. 2. JFK a. Antagonizes USSR with Bay of Pigs. b. USSR agrees to supply nuclear missiles and Castro will keep them in Cuba. c. Standoff over USA embargo of island. Khrushchev prevails over war mongers in Kremlin. d. Makes deal with JFK to withdraw missiles if Cuba is left alone. e. Khrushchev looks weak, is forced out.
  • 32. 3. Détente a. Richard Nixon is a conservative anticommunist. b. He & Secretary of State Henry Kissinger create triangular diplomacy. c. Pit USSR and China against each other. d. Creates peaceful relations with each, makes old enemies suspicious of each other. e. SALT I and II treaties agree to decrease the amount of nuclear weapons.
  • 33. D. Hot War Toll 1. Korea – UN cooperation against communists. USSR abstained from vote to support South Korea (50’s). Caused suspicion, “limited war.” 2. Vietnam – began breaking down French imperialism, decreased cooperation among allies, caused social unrest. (50’s-70’s) 3. Afghanistan – USSR occupation as border stabilizations or grab at Middle East. Failed after years of guerilla tactics.
  • 34. III. Europe Changing and Uniting • How did the European population and culture change? • How did technology impact Europe? • How and why did Europe unify?
  • 35. A. How did the European population and culture change?
  • 36. 1. Culture & Lifestyle. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Consumerism increased due to mass production. American Century exports culture. Feminism on the rise. Marriage declines. Decline of church attendance. Increase in university attendance. Uses of contraception increases, abortion. Social unrest i. Prague Spring – ’68 uprising a) Socialist want debate b) New leader, Leonid Brezhnev, sends tanks to crush supposed opposition. ii. French youth challenge De Gaulle.
  • 37. 2. Immigration a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Return of settlers. Former colonists join people in Europe. Pakistanis to Britain Algerians to France Africans to Italy Eastern Europeans shift to Western Europe Population growth of “indigenous” Europeans declines.
  • 38. 3. Economics a. b. c. d. Eastern Europe faces stagnation. American domination subsides as European factories are rebuilt. Increasing liberal trends toward free trade. USSR i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Mikhail Gorbachev introduces perestroika – open elections Glasnost – introduces more open market Citizens get a taste of commodities, want more. USSR is outspent by Reagan and military growth. Communists attempts coup to force Gorbachev out. Boris Yeltsin leads revolt against coup, army backs him (1991) USSR breaks up and gives way to capitalist republics.
  • 39. B. How did technology impact Europe?
  • 40. 1. Devices, Concepts a. Widespread flow of information b. New commercial, cultural importance of information itself c. Intensification of devices to create, store, share information d. The personal computer e. The Internet f. Entertainment spreads through cable, satellite g. Corporate headquarters remain in the West
  • 41. 2. Medicine a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. Population 1960–2000: population doubled - 6 billion Improvements standards of health Improving urban-industrial environment in postcolonial regions Longer life spans, welfare programs, rising healthcare costs, easily obtainable divorces Population decline: Italy, Scandinavia, Russia Exposure to epidemic diseases - globalization Exposure of new ecosystems to human development, speed of intercontinental transportation (AIDS) first appeared at end of 1970s Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) appeared 2003 Discovery DNA (1953), Mapping human genome Genetic engineering , Dolly (1997) Legal & moral issues of cloning
  • 42. C. How and why did Europe unify?
  • 43. 1. End of Cold War a. USSR break up, leaves former bloc in capitalist free fall. b. Velvet Revolution in Romania leads to independence of other states. c. Economic transition is successful in many, states, especially Poland. d. Eastern states provide cheap labor for West.
  • 44. 2. Political Change a. After WWII, welfare states are created to provide cradle to grave services. b. Christian-Democrats and Conservatives opposes too much government. c. Socialists, Social-Democrats, & Labour support modern liberal ideals. d. Burdensome debt protectionism are not favored.
  • 45. 3. European Union a. 1957 – Treaty of Rome makes European Economic Community b. 11/1993 EEC renamed European Union eliminating barriers of trade., established Euro. c. 2004 expansion to include Eastern states. d. European Constitution was recently approved (2009) & established a European Presidency.