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presentation on substation layout and BUS bar arrangement.

presentation on substation layout and BUS bar arrangement.



this shows information regarding substation layout, busbar arrangement, scada, plcc.

this shows information regarding substation layout, busbar arrangement, scada, plcc.



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    presentation on substation layout and BUS bar arrangement. presentation on substation layout and BUS bar arrangement. Presentation Transcript

    • CONTENTS  Part A : “SUBSTATION LAYOUT” • Single line diagram  • • • • • • • • • • • Substation Switchyard Accessories Lightning Arrestor CVT Earthing switch Wave trap Isolator Current transformer Circuit Breaker Power Transformer Current transformer Reactors and capacitors Other Switchyard Equipments
    • • PLCC • SCADA  PART B: “BUSBAR ARRANGEMENT”         Single bus system Single bus system with bus sectionalizer Double bus system Double breaker bus system One and a half breaker bus system Main and transfer bus system Double bus system with bypass isolator Ring main bus system
    • CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTATIONS • Based on working I. II. III. IV. Generating substation (step up s/s) Grid substation Switching substation Secondary substation -- a) sub transmission voltage b) primary distribution c) distribution substation • Based on structure I. II. III. IV. Outdoor conventional air insulated substation (AIS) Indoor substation Compressed air insulated GIS
    • LIGHTNING ARRESTOR  A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems to protect the insulation on the system from the damaging effect of lightning.  Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) have been used for power system protection since the mid 1970s.  The typical lightning arrester also known as surge arrester has a high voltage terminal and a ground terminal.  Current from the surge is diverted around the protected insulation in most cases to earth.
    • CVT Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CVT), Capacitance Coupled Voltage Transformer(CCVT) o To step down extra high voltage signals and provide a low voltage . o For measurement or to operate a protective relay.
    • EARTHING SWITCH •Earth Switch is used to discharge the voltage on the circuit to the earth for safety. •Earth switch is mounted on the frame of the isolators. •It is located for each incomer transmission line and each side of the busbar section.
    • LINE TRAP (WAVE TRAP) Connected in series with the power (transmission) line.  It blocks the high frequency carrier waves (24 KHz to 500 KHz) and let power waves (50 Hz - 60 Hz) to pass through.  It is basically an inductor of rating in Milli henry (approx 1 milli Henry for 220 KV 1250 Amp.). It has three main components:1. Main coil. 2. Tuning Device. 3. Lightning Arrestor.
    • ISOLATOR • Disconnector or Isolator switch is used to make sure that an electrical circuit can be completely de-energised for service or maintenance. • Isolator is an off-load device. • Types of Isolators are 1. Central rotating, horizontal swing 2. Centre-Break 3. Vertical swing 4. Pantograph type
    • CURRENT TRANSFORMER Current transformers are used for Stepping down current for measurement, protection and control. Current transformers are of two types 1. Protective CT 2. Measuring CT
    • CIRCUIT BREAKERS  A Circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow.  All circuit breakers have common features in their operation, although details vary substantially depending on the voltage class, current rating and type of the circuit breaker. Once a fault is detected, contacts within the circuit breaker must open to interrupt the circuit.  Small circuit breakers may be manually operated; larger units have solenoids to trip the mechanism, and electric motors to restore energy to the springs.
    •  Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc : Lengthening / deflection of the arc : Intensive cooling (in jet chambers) : Division into partial arcs : Zero point quenching : Connecting capacitors in parallel with contacts in DC circuits  High-voltage breakers are broadly classified by the medium used to extinguish the arc •Bulk oil •Minimum oil •Air blast •Vacuum •SF6
    • BUSBAR  Busbars receive power from incoming circuits and deliver power to outgoing circuits.
    • POWER TRANSFORMERS Power Transformers are used to step up or step down a.c. voltages and to transfer electrical power from one voltage level to another.
    • SHUNT REACTORS • Shunt Reactors are used for long EHV transmission lines to control voltage during low – load period. • Shunt reactors is also used to compensate shunt capacitance of transmission line during low load periods. • Usually Shunt reactors are unswitched.
    • SEREIS REACTORS Series reactors are used to limit short – circuit current and to limit current surges associated with fluctuating loads. • Series reactors are located at the strategic locations such that the fault levels are reduced.
    • SHUNT CAPACITORS • Shunt capacitors are used for compensating reactive power of LPF. • They are used for improving the power factor. It is also used for voltage control during heavy lagging power factor loads. • They are located at the receiving stations and distribution substations. • They are switched on during heavy loads and switched off during low loads.
    • SERIES CAPACITOR • Series Capacitors are used for some long EHV a.c. lines to improve power transferability. • They located at the sending end / receiving end of the lines. • They are provided with by pass circuit breaker and protective spark –gaps.
    • NEUTRAL GROUNDING EQUIPMENT •Neutral Grounding Equipment are Resistors and reactors. • They are used to limit the short circuit current during ground fault. •They are connected between neutral point and ground.
    • POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION  PLCC is mainly used for telecommunication, tele-protection and tele-monitoring between electrical substations through power lines at high voltages, such as 110 kv, 220 kv, 400 kv.  The voice signal is converted/compressed into the 300 Hz to 4000 Hz range.  It is known as :- Power line Digital Subscriber Line (PDSL) mains communication power line telecom (PLT) power line networking (PLN) Broadband over Power Lines (BPL)
    • WHAT IS SCADA ? • SCADA stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. • It is not a full control system, but rather focuses on the supervisory level. • It is a purely software package that is positioned on top of hardware to which it is interfaced. ( via Programmable Logic Controllers(PLCs)) .
    • The SCADA systems are arranged to perform the following tasks. • • • • • • • • Data Collection (Data Acquisition) Data transmission (telemetry) Scanning, Indication, Monitoring, Logging. Control and indication. Ensure sequential events. Data presentation, display, reporting Execution of operating, commands: on/off,raise/lower. Network supervision, alarms and report any uncommon change of state.
    • CONDUCTOR USED FOR BUSES • All Aluminum conductor (AAC) • All Aluminum alloy conductor (AAAC) • Aluminum conductor with aluminum alloy reinforced (ACAR) • Aluminum conductor with steel reinforced (ACSR)
    • SINGLE BUS SYATEM Advantages: 1.Simple in Design 2.Less Expenditure Disadvantages: 1.In case of bus fault or bus bar isolator fault or maintenance total Substation is out of service. 2.In case of maintenance of transformer circuit breaker the associated transformer has also to be shut-down. Similarly for Line also.
    • SINGLE BUS WITH BUS SECTIONALISER Advantages: 1. One complete section can be taken out for Maintenance without disturbing the continuity of other section. 2. If a fault occurs on one section of the Bus, that faulty section alone will be isolated. Disadvantages: It will be a little more costly with the addition of one isolator and some cases with Circuit breaker, C.Ts and C&R panel.
    • DOUBLE BUS SYSTEM Advantages: : Double Bus Bar Arrangement increases the flexibility of system. Disadvantages: :The arrangement does not permit breaker maintenance with out interruption.
    • DOUBLE BREAKER BUS SYSTEM Advantages: There is no need of bus coupler as because the operation is done by breakers instead of isolator Disadvantages: Most expensive as it involves additional breaker, CT Isolators etc for each circuit.
    • ONE AND A HALF BREAKER BUS SYSTEM Advantages: During any fault on any one of the buses, that faulty bus will be cleared instantly without interrupting any feeders in the system since all feeders will continue to feed from other healthy bus. Disadvantages: This scheme is much expensive due to investment for third breaker.
    • MAIN AND TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM Switching operation: 1.First close the isolators at both side of the bus coupler breaker. 2. Then close the bypass isolator of the feeder which is to be transferred to transfer bus. 3. Now energized the transfer bus by closing the bus coupler circuit breaker from remote. 4.After bus coupler breaker is closed, now the power from main bus flows to the feeder line through its main breaker as well as bus coupler breaker viatransfer bus. 5. Now if main breaker of the feeder is switched off, total power flow will instantaneously shift to the bus coupler breaker and hence this breaker will serve the purpose of protection for the feeder. 6. At last the operating personnel open the isolators at both sides of the main circuit breaker to make it isolated from rest of the live system.
    • DOUBLE BUS SYSTEM WITH BYPASS ISOLATOR Advantages: It permits breaker maintenance without interruption of power which is not possible in double bus system but it provides all the advantages of double bus system. Disadvantages: It however requires one additional isolator (bypass isolator) for each feeder circuit and introduces slight complication in system layout.
    • RING BUS SYSTEM Advantages: It provides a double feed to each feeder circuit, opening one breaker under maintenance or otherwise does not affect supply to any feeder. But this system has two major disadvantages. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Flexibility for breaker maintenance Each breaker removable without disconnecting load Only one breaker needed per branch, Each branch connected to network by two breakers All change-over switching done with circuit-breakers & hence flexible.