Land pollution


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Land pollution

  1. 1.  Soil is the natural layer on the surface of the earth, which is formed by weathering of rocks an as it is source of many materials essential to man forestry, vegetation etc.  It forms about 1/5th of earth’s surface, covering roughly 19,393 million hectares.  Definition: “ The addition of substances to the soil which adversely affect physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil and reduce its productivity”.  The soil pollution cause the loss of 6 hectares of land every year and loosing 24 billion tons of top soil.  Globally we are losing a minute if 15 million acres of prime agricultural lane to overuse and mismanage every year.
  2. 2.  The outer soil crust of the earth is lithosphere.  The living organism, plants and vegetation are supported by the lithosphere. It also contains resources like minerals, organic as well as inorganic matters and to some extent air and water.  It plays important role as it is not only produces food human and animals, but also decomposition of organic matter is carried out by microorganisms.
  3. 3.  For all activities space is required for their location and development. Various uses of land are: 1. Food production(agriculture) 2. To construct houses, to get water resources, an new resources 3. Industrial purpose 4. Commercial purpose 5. Waste disposal 6. Energy purpose 7. Forestation  Now a day’s fertile lands are used for industries or for residential purpose which may be called abused from environmental perspective.
  4. 4. 1. Soil pollution 2. Soil erosion 3. Salination 4. Water logging 5. Shifting cultivation 6. Dumping 7. Desertification 8. Urbanization 9. Soil mismanagement by improper use
  5. 5. SOIL POLLUTION  It is the reduction in the productivity of soil due to presence of soil pollutants from all sorts of industrial effluents discharged in land.  The soil pollutants include pesticides, fertilizers, plastics etc.  These soil pollutants have adverse effect on the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil and reduce its productivity. SOIL EROSION  Loss or removal of the superficial layer of the soil by the action of water, wind or by the activities of man is termed as soil erosion.  The top layer of the soil is very fertile. Therefore its removal degrades the quality of the land making it less productive.
  6. 6. SALINATION  Increase in the concentration of soluble salts in the soil is called salination.  It is caused by poor drainage, salts from irrigation, flood water, in coastal regions, winds bring lot of salt from row to water to land, excessive use of alkaline fertilizers etc.  India has about 6 million hectares of saline land. About 6000-8000 hectares of farm land turns saline every year in Punjab only. This is due to farming with poor drainage of soil. WATER LOGGING  An agricultural land is said to water logged when its productivity and fertility is affected due to high water table.  Water logging in particular is normally the result of several contributory factors i.e. inadequate surface drainage, seepage from canal system, over irrigation of fields, obstruction to natural drains, construction of reservoirs etc.
  7. 7. SHIFTING CULTIVATION  In this process selected portion of the forest are cut and burnt.  Crops are cultivated on that land for some years till it becomes sterile.  Then fresh fields are formed for crop cultivation.  This practice had led to complete destruction of forests in mainly hilly areas if India are caused soil erosion and problems that accompany soil erosion. Dumping  Dumping of solid wastes is one of the most important factors which are responsible for land pollution. In developing countries like India, the garbage and refused are dumped to land pollution.
  8. 8.  Increasing human population has put great pressure on land. Vast areas of land have been cleared for cultivation of agricultural crops.  The destruction of vegetation results in accelerating soil erosion which leads to loss of productivity and formation of deserts.  Wind causes the shifting of sand from one place to another leads to convert fertile land into deserts.
  9. 9. URBANIZATION Productive area is fast reducing due to developmental activities such as human settlements, roads, railway, industries, canals, dams, airports etc due to increased population and urbanization. Such activities cause increment in urbanization and degrade land. Soil mismanagement by improper use Faulty methods of surface drainage, over grazing, wrong methods of cultivation, forests fires etc. comes under soil management. This mismanagement of soil degrades the quality of land.
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