GRE HIGH FREQUENCY WORDS1. AbateVerbThe wind abated after the storm: decrease, diminish, reduce, lessen, subside, decline,...
verb1 The captain admonished the guards to be on the alert: warn, caution, put on guard, tip off; advise, counsel, enjoin....
This medication will alleviate the soreness: relieve, ease, allay, assuage; lessen, reduce, abate, diminish, check, temper...
1 ruin, botch, queer, screw up, wreck, destroy.2 deteriorate, go downhill, decline, weaken, worsen.15. Anachronisma•nach•r...
2 normal, typical.19.AntipathyNounI try to be broadminded but do feel antipathy toward people who are dirty and unkempt: d...
—AntonymsKeep secret, keep quiet about.23.ApprobationNounThe architect received approbation for his new office building de...
2 Nothing can compare to the artless beauty of a waterfall: natural, pure, unadorned, plain, simple, primitive, crude.3 Th...
1 The silversmith attenuated the ingot into one long thread: draw out, make thin, make fine, make slender, spin out.2 Aspi...
—AntonymsGoverned, dependent, subject.34.AverVerbThe witness averred that he had seen the suspect at the scene of the crim...
Useless, detrimental, detractive, disadvantageous; unfavorable, harmful, pernicious, unwholesome.38.BolsterVerb1 More timb...
—AntonymsAbrade, scratch, mar.43.ButtressNoun1 The north wall of the cathedral had a beautiful stone buttress: support, br...
Adjective1 Acid is caustic: burning, corrosive, corroding, erosive; astringent, stinging, biting, gnawing, sharp.2 His cau...
—AntonymsInconsistent, unsuitable, inappropriate, unfitting, incompatible, disproportionate, dissimilar, incomparable, une...
Condemn, denounce, censure, disapprove; punish, castigate.59. ConfoundVerbThe patients unusual symptoms confounded the doc...
NounNo one in the room could find the answer to the conundrum: puzzle, riddle, enigma, mystery, poser, puzzler, paradox,ar...
Impropriety, inappropriate behavior, bad manners.70. defaultnoun1 If the team doesnt show up, they will lose by default: f...
1 The derivative essay received low marks: derived, unoriginal, borrowed, copied, evolved, imitative, inferred, not origin...
Punishment is not necessarily a deterrent to crime: restraint, curb, hindrance, check, discouragement.79. DiatribeNounIn h...
His long digression made him forget his main point: divergence, departure, deviation, detour, straying, wandering; diversi...
2 The insurance investigator discredited his false claim: prove false, deny, disallow, disprove, reject; destroy confidenc...
2 The movie was too disjointed to make sense: rambling, mixed-up, confused, spasmodic, disconnected, disorganized,jumbled,...
He tried to dissemble his disappointment with a joke: hide, mask, disguise, camouflage, feign, conceal, dissimulate.—Anton...
2 Her politics and mine diverge greatly: differ, conflict, disagree, be at odds.—Antonyms1 converges, agree, concur.103. d...
1 He was the dupe of the racketeers and may go to prison: pawn, patsy, fall guy, cats paw, Slang sucker.verb2 The agency d...
Paean, jubilee, hallelujah, anthem.113. elicitverbThe mayors remark elicited a flood of letters: bring forth, draw forth, ...
---Synonymsautochthonal, autochthonic, autochthonous, indigenous.118. enervateverbThe long march in the sun enervated the ...
panic, hysteria, disquiet, perturbation, agitation, discomposure.123. equivocateverbPlease stop equivocating and give me a...
VerbOffering your opinion will only exacerbate the situation: aggravate, exaggerate, intensify, inflame, heighten, worsen,...
—Antonymssolemn, serious, sober, lugubrious, grave, sedate, staid, sad, dull.133. facilitateverbAn addressing machine faci...
1 infelicitous, solemn, inappropriate.2 infelicitous, awkward, clumsy, unfortunate.138.fervorNounThe pilgrims arrived at t...
He did his best to foment a quarrel between the brothers: stir up, incite, foster, promote, instigate, provoke, urge, exci...
reticent, taciturn, quiet, reserved, closemouthed; terse, concise.148. goadnoun1 The drovers used goads to keep the herd m...
goug"er, n.150. GrandiloquentAdjectiveThe grandiloquent speech went on for over an hour: high-flown, high-sounding, flower...
n.1. a scolding or a verbal attack; diatribe.2. a long, passionate, and vehement speech, esp. one delivered before a publi...
—Antonymsconformist, assenter.158. idolatrynoun1 Idolatry was commonplace in many early pagan religions: worship of an obj...
A lumber shortage impeded construction on the house: delay, slow down, block, interfere with, interrupt, check, retard,obs...
166. implacableadjectiveIt was impossible to negotiate with such an implacable enemy: irreconcilable, unappeasable, inexor...
—Antonymsformed, shaped; finished, completed.171.incongruousadjective1 Bathing suits look incongruous on a ski slope: inap...
Many indigent people receive government aid: needy, destitute, in want, lacking the necessities of life, poor, in need,pin...
adjective1 The women exchanged innocuous gossip over lunch: harmless, not damaging, painless, not injurious, innocent, mil...
verbThick walls insulated the house: shield, protect, cocoon, cushion, line, wrap; isolate, keep apart, seclude, sequester...
praise, honor, commendation.190. irascibleadjectiveThe irascible old man is constantly picking fights: easily angered, tou...
languor, languidness, supineness, prostration, dullness, droopiness; apathy, indifference, ennui, doldrums, boredom;malais...
noun1 The cabin was built of logs: length of tree trunk, timber, part of tree limb; block, stump.2 The time of departure w...
unforgiving, vindictive, resentful, small, petty, selfish; parsimonious, miserly.205. malingerverbIn the army he would mal...
Our meticulous housekeeper never forgets a thing: fastidious, scrupulous, exact, exacting, minutely careful, solicitous ab...
cheerful, blithe, happy, good-natured, pleasant, genial, amiable, friendly.215. mundaneadjectiveArtists often have trouble...
2 compassionate, sympathetic, caring, feeling, merciful, pitying, relenting, softhearted, kind, gentle, tender.219. obsequ...
easy, light, simple, effortless, trivial, trifling.224. opprobriousadjective1 The editorial made an opprobrious attack on ...
adjective3 The senator vowed not to engage in partisan politics: favoring one political party, predisposed toward one grou...
hatred, dislike, loathing, aversion, abhorrence, disinclination, repulsion.233. penurynounShe lived in penury during her l...
238. pervasiveadjectiveIll feeling was pervasive at the plant: pervading, prevalent, permeating, widespread, common, exten...
244. plethoranounThe potluck supper had a plethora of desserts but no meat dishes: excess, surplus, superfluity, surplusag...
adjective1 The situation was precarious politically: vulnerable, uncertain, problematical, ticklish, uncontrolled, critica...
adjectiveIt was a pristine part of the woods that few hikers had ever seen: undefiled, unsullied, untouched, unspoiled, un...
1 That was a very profound statement: deep, thoughtful, wise, sagacious, sage, penetrating, piercing, learned, erudite,int...
263. proprietynounAlways conduct yourself with propriety: correctness; courtesy, decorum, good behavior, decorousness, dig...
Gre high frequency words
Gre high frequency words
Gre high frequency words
Gre high frequency words
Gre high frequency words
Gre high frequency words
Gre high frequency words
Gre high frequency words
Gre high frequency words
Gre high frequency words
Gre high frequency words
Gre high frequency words
Gre high frequency words
Gre high frequency words
Gre high frequency words
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Gre high frequency words

  1. 1. GRE HIGH FREQUENCY WORDS1. AbateVerbThe wind abated after the storm: decrease, diminish, reduce, lessen, subside, decline, fade, fade away, recede, dwindle,moderate, mitigate, weaken, wane, ebb, curtail, slack, slacken, go down, lower, fall off, fall away, taper off, lighten, soften,quiet, quell, slow, slow down, slake off, temper, cool, blunt; ease, relieve, alleviate, assuage, pacify, soothe, allay, mollify,palliate, dull; dampen, restrain, restrict.—Antonymsincrease, intensify, magnify, enhance, heighten, aggravate, amplify, grow; multiply, rise, come up, strengthen, sharpen, heatup; quicken, accelerate, hurry, speed, speed up; prolong, extend.2.AberrantAdjective1 The planets orbit was plainly aberrant: straying, stray, deviating, deviate, wandering, errant, erring, devious, erratic,rambling, diverging, divergent.2 Aberrant behavior led to his confinement: abnormal, irregular, unusual, odd, eccentric, peculiar, exceptional, weird, queer,curious, singular, strange; unconforming, nonconforming, anomalous.—Antonyms1 direct.2 normal.3. AbeyanceNounThe building project will be held in abeyance until spring: postponement, suspension, intermission, remission, deferral,adjournment, discontinuance, inaction, dormancy, latency; pause, delay, cessation, quiescence, recess, hiatus, waitingperiod, in a holding pattern; in cold storage, on ice, on a back burner.—AntonymsContinuance, continuation, continuity, ceaselessness.4. abstemiousadjectiveHis abstemious habits allowed him few pleasures: abstinent, ascetic, austere, temperate, continent, nonindulgent, teetotal,self-denying, sparing, self-disciplined, abstentious.—Antonymsself-indulgent, abandoned, undisciplined, uncontrolled, hedonistic, profligate, licentious, unrestrained, immoderate.5. admonish
  2. 2. verb1 The captain admonished the guards to be on the alert: warn, caution, put on guard, tip off; advise, counsel, enjoin.2 The preacher admonished his congregation for failure to attend weekly services: reprove, censure, reprimand, rebuke,reproach, remonstrate, chide, chasten, scold, upbraid, criticize, take to task, call to account, rap on the knuckles.—Antonyms2 praise, compliment, commend.6. adulterateverbThe ancient Greeks often adulterated their wine with water: contaminate, thin, water, water down; depreciate, Informal cut.7. esthetic or aestheticadjectiveThe course in art history is designed to develop the students esthetic judgment: appreciative of beauty, appealing to artistictaste, having artistic tastes, artistic; sensitive, discriminating, cultivated, refined, fastidious.—Antonymsunesthetic, unappreciative; insensitive, undiscriminating.8. aggregatenounThe final plan was an aggregate of all our ideas: composite, compound, union, combination, gathering, accumulation,collection, amassing, bringing together, summation, mixture, mix, blend, mass, conglomeration, conglomerate.9. Alacritynoun1 She answered his call for assist-ance with alacrity: willingness, enthusiasm, eagerness, fervor, zeal, avidity; alertness,promptness, dispatch, readiness.2 Despite his 80 years, he moved with alacrity: liveliness, briskness, sprightliness; agility, nimbleness.—Antonyms1 unwillingness, indifference, unconcern, apathy, impassiveness, reluctance, disinclination; languor, lethargy, dullness.2 slowness, sluggishness.10.alleviateverb
  3. 3. This medication will alleviate the soreness: relieve, ease, allay, assuage; lessen, reduce, abate, diminish, check, temper,lighten, soften, mitigate, mollify; blunt, dull, moderate, slake, slacken, subdue, quit, quench.—Antonymsmake worse, aggravate, increase, intensify, heighten, enhance, magnify, multiply.11. amalgamateverbSilver must be amalgamated with a harder material to make durable jewelry. The two shipping companies amalgamated intoone: combine, blend, merge, fuse, mix, commingle; unite, unify, join together, consolidate, coalesce, incorporate, federate,integrate, synthesize.—Antonymsseparate, part, divide, disunite.12. ambiguousadjective"Indian" is an ambiguous word because it can refer to an American Indian or a native of India: equivocal, vague, unclear,cryptic, enigmatic, puzzling, indefinite, uncertain, doubtful; misleading, having a double meaning.—Antonymsexplicit, definite, specific, direct, conclusive; clear, plain, frank, unmistakable, obvious, simple, lucid; unquestionable, honest.13.ambivalentadjectiveI have ambivalent thoughts on where to spend my vacation: contradictory, conflicting, opposing, clashing, warring;confused, undecided, unfocused, mixed, wavering, fluctuating, vacillating, Informal wishy-washy.—Antonymsdefinite, positive; unwavering.14. ameliorateverb1 The council met to consider ways of ameliorating the foreign situation: improve, better, help, heal, fix up, patch up, correct,rectify; amend, reform, revise, improve upon, make an improvement upon; advance, promote.2 Doctors say the patients condition has ameliorated: improve, get better, grow better, perk up, pick up, progress, comealong, mend, show improvement.—Antonyms
  4. 4. 1 ruin, botch, queer, screw up, wreck, destroy.2 deteriorate, go downhill, decline, weaken, worsen.15. Anachronisma•nach•ro•nism (* nak"r* niz*m), n.1. an error in chronology in which a person, object, event, etc., is assigned a date or period other than the correct one.2. a thing or person that belongs to another, esp. an earlier, time.[1640–50; < L anachronismus < Gk anachronismós a wrong time reference = anachron(ízein) to make a wrong timereference (see ANA-, CHRONO-, -IZE) + -ismos -ISM]a•nachro•nis"tic, a•nach"ro•nous, adj.a•nachro•nis"ti•cal•ly, a•nach"ro•nous•ly, an•a•chron•i•cal•ly (an* kron"ik le), adv.16. analogousadjectiveThe heart is analogous to a pump: similar, like, comparable, akin, equivalent, parallel, correlative, corresponding.—Antonymsdissimilar, unlike; different, divergent17.AnarchyNoun1 Any form of government is better than anarchy: absence of government, disorder, lawlessness, chaos.2 Anarchists dream of an ideal state of anarchy in which people will be completely free: utopia, the millennium.—Antonyms1 order, discipline, authority; government, organization, control; regimentation, subjection.18.AnomalousAdjective1 An Eskimo in native dress would cut an anomalous figure in Rio: odd, strange, peculiar, incongruous, out of keeping,bizarre.2 Cats with six toes are anomalous but not uncommon: irregular, abnormal, atypical; monstrous.—Antonyms1 common, usual, standard, typical, familiar, unexceptional, ordinary, natural, normal, regular, conventional, customary.
  5. 5. 2 normal, typical.19.AntipathyNounI try to be broadminded but do feel antipathy toward people who are dirty and unkempt: dislike, aversion, distaste; disgust,repulsion, loathing, repugnance, abhorrence; antagonism, animosity, ill will, enmity, rancor, hostility, unfriendliness.—Antonymsaffinity, fellow feeling, regard, sympathy, attraction, partiality; love, affection, attachment.20.ApathyNounPublic apathy can lead to bad government: indifference, unconcern, lack of interest, inattention, unresponsiveness,passiveness, lethargy, lassitude; lack of feeling, numbness, emotionlessness, coolness, impassibility, impassivity.—AntonymsConcern, interest, attention, responsiveness, action; emotion, feeling, excitement, passion, zeal, vehemence, enthusiasm,fervor.21.AppeaseVerb1 Nothing would appease the crying baby: calm, make peaceful, pacify, quiet, soothe, solace, mollify, lull, compose, placate.2 That sandwich appeased my appetite: satisfy, ease, allay, abate, assuage, alleviate, temper, mitigate, relieve; slake,quench, quell, blunt, still, quiet, dull.3 Chamberlain should never have tried to appease Hitler: conciliate, accommodate, propitiate.—Antonyms1,2,3 aggravate, provoke, inflame, arouse.1 disturb, upset, bother, annoy, dissatisfy, perturb.3 anger, enrage, infuriate; antagonize, Informal cross22.AppriseVerbPolice should apprise an arrested person of his or her rights to remain silent and to be represented by a lawyer: inform,notify, advise, tell, make acquainted, make aware, make cognizant of, disclose, enlighten.
  6. 6. —AntonymsKeep secret, keep quiet about.23.ApprobationNounThe architect received approbation for his new office building design: praise, congratulation, compliment, good word,applause, acclaim; approval, acceptance, support, endorsement, ratification, commendation, laudation, official sanction.—AntonymsCensure, condemnation, criticism; disapproval, dissatisfaction, protest, rejection, veto.24.AppropriateAdjective1 A long dress is appropriate for a formal wedding: suitable, proper, well-suited, congruous, fitting, befitting, correct, seemly,apt, apropos, well-chosen; characteristic, belonging, pertinent, relevant, germane, to the purpose, to the point, opportune.Verb2 The city will appropriate money for two new schools: allocate, set apart, allot, apportion, assign, earmark.3 The county should appropriate land for a new highway: take possession of, take, confiscate, expropriate.—Antonyms1 inappropriate, improper, ill-suited, unsuitable, unsuited, unfitting, incongruous, unbefitting, unseemly, incorrect, wrong,inconsonant, incompatible, outré; uncharacteristic, out of place, inopportune, irrelevant.2 withhold.3 give, bestow, donate; relinquish, cede, dispose of.25.ArduousAdjectiveCrossing the continent in a covered wagon was an arduous undertaking: difficult, hard, laborious, toilsome, wearisome,exhausting, fatiguing, tiring, burdensome, heavy, tough, troublesome, onerous, trying, full of hardships, formidable, severe,Herculean; vigorous, strenuous, energetic.—AntonymsLight, facile, easy, simple, effortless, smooth.26.ArtlessAdjective1 Her love was as artless as a childs: frank, candid, open, honest, true, guileless, innocent, naïve, simple, humble,straightforward; sincere, unpretentious, trusting, undesigning, open-hearted, ingenuous, unsophisticated, unaffected, unself-conscious.
  7. 7. 2 Nothing can compare to the artless beauty of a waterfall: natural, pure, unadorned, plain, simple, primitive, crude.3 The painting was completely artless: inartistic, lacking art; without artistic talent, untalented.—Antonyms1 cunning, crafty, sly, wily, dishonest, deceitful, designing, artful, insincere, pretended, faked, phony, false, counterfeit;sophisticated, affected, self-conscious; suspicious, distrustful.2 artificial, unnatural, synthetic.3 artistic, aesthetic.27.AsceticNoun1 Most of the early saints were extreme ascetics: self-denier, abstainer, self-mortifier; hermit, recluse, solitary, eremite,anchorite, celibate, cenobite; religious, monk, nun, flagellant; yogi, fakir, dervish.Adjective2 Trappist monks lead an ascetic existence: austere, self-denying, abstemious, strict, stern, Spartan, rigorous, self-mortifying.—Antonyms1 hedonist, sensualist, voluptuary, sybarite, bon vivant.2 self-indulgent, indulgent, pampered, luxurious, comfortable; abandoned, dissolute, voluptuous, sensuous, sensual,sybaritic.28.AssiduousAdjectiveIt takes assiduous work to learn Russian. I admire an assiduous student: diligent, industrious, hardworking, laborious,unremitting, determined, persistent, persevering, earnest, steadfast, constant, tenacious, dogged, untiring, tireless,unflagging, indefatigable, sed-ulous.—Antonymsindolent, lazy, idle; haphazard, casual, cavalier, lax, hit-or-miss, undetermined, inconstant, happy-go-lucky.29.AssuageVerbLiniment will assuage the pain, but soaking in hot water does the injury more good: allay, ease, relieve, mitigate; lighten,lessen, soften; mollify, alleviate, soothe, calm, quiet, still, pacify, appease, temper, take the edge off, tone down.—AntonymsIntensify, aggravate, irritate, exacerbate, heighten, sharpen, increase, augment; provoke, excite, arouse, kindle, inflame.30.attenuateVerb
  8. 8. 1 The silversmith attenuated the ingot into one long thread: draw out, make thin, make fine, make slender, spin out.2 Aspirin only attenuated the pain: weaken, reduce, diminish, lessen, decrease; dilute, water down, adulterate, impair,enervate, enfeeble.—Antonyms1 broadens, make thick, make coarse, make fat, enlarge, expand.2 increase, amplify, intensify, augment, strengthen, develop.31.AudaciousAdjective1 Napoleon was an audacious leader: bold, daring, adventurous, venturesome, enterprising; brave, courageous, fearless,unafraid, valiant, intrepid, dauntless, stouthearted, lionhearted, stalwart, valorous, plucky, Slang gutsy.2 We admired the audacious feats of the trapeze artists: bold, daring, reckless, rash, risky, daredevil, devil-may-care, death-defying, breakneck; heedless, foolhardy, injudicious, imprudent, desperate, hotheaded, self-willed, wild.3 Her audacious behavior shocked us all: impudent, impertinent, insolent, brazen, fresh, shameless, outrageous, defiant,unabashed, presumptuous, assuming, forward, saucy, cheeky, bossy, pert; disrespectful, rude, discourteous.—Antonyms1 unadventurous, unenterprising; cowardly, fainthearted, craven, frightened, timid, pusillanimous, Slang yellow,chickenhearted, lily-livered.2 careful, guarded, discreet; prudent, circumspect, cautious, judicious.3 tactful, gracious, unassuming, cordial, amiable, ingratiating, deferential, reverential, obsequious, Informal kowtowing;polite, courteous, mannerly, well-mannered, gentlemanly, ladylike, refined, polished, formal.32.austereAdjective1 In the old days, schoolmasters were thought of as austere men: stern, strict, severe, forbidding, ascetic.2 The Puritans led austere lives: rigorous, rigid, Spartan, ascetic, self-denying, abstemious, strict, simple, spare, stark,strait-laced, chaste.—Antonyms1 permissive, lenient, indulgent, easy, flexible, lax; frivolous, gay, cheerful, joyful, merry, lighthearted, jovial, jolly, jaunty,nonchalant, lively, exuberant, vivacious, effervescent, high-spirited, playful, convivial; kindly, kind, sweet, genial.2 luxurious, lush, comfortable, easy; sophisticated, cosmopolitan; loose, corrupt, dissolute, dissipated, debauched,degenerate, depraved, wanton, abandoned, self-gratifying, free-and-easy, immoral, wicked, evil, sinful, impure, lewd,licentious, lascivious.33. AutonomousAdjectiveThe school of adult education was an autonomous extension of the university: self-governing, self-determined; self-sufficient, self-reliant, independent, sovereign, free.
  9. 9. —AntonymsGoverned, dependent, subject.34.AverVerbThe witness averred that he had seen the suspect at the scene of the crime: assert, declare, affirm, state, avow, avouch,maintain, swear, insist, emphasize, contend, profess, represent, proclaim, pronounce, protest, asseverate; certify, verify,guarantee.—AntonymsDeny, disavow, disclaim, repudiate; doubt, be uncertain, gainsay.35.BanalAdjectiveThere were no new ideas in his banal lecture: stale, trite, unoriginal, hackneyed, ordinary, commonplace, prosaic,pedestrian, unexciting, unimaginative, everyday, stock, humdrum, dull, uninteresting, conventional, stereotyped, insipid,threadbare, shopworn, tired, corny, cliché-ridden, vapid, platitudinous, bromidic, jejune.—AntonymsOriginal, new, novel, unique, exciting, fresh, unusual, extraordinary, innovative, distinctive, stimulating, stimulative, gripping,provocative, challenging, imaginative, interesting.36.BelieVerb1 The facts belie your story: disprove, refute, contradict, controvert, repudiate, show to be false, give the lie to, invalidate,gainsay, negate, betray, deny, defy.2 The authors smile belied his anger with the critic: misrepresent, falsify; disguise, camouflage, mask, conceal, cloak.—Antonyms1 proves, verify, attest to, validate, support, confirm, corroborate.2 represent, reveal, disclose, indicate.37.BeneficentAdj. doing good or causing good to be done; charitable.1.BeneficialAdjectiveExercise is beneficial to good health: helpful, advantageous, propitious, useful, valuable, contributive, favorable, profitable,productive; healthful, healing, good for.—Antonyms
  10. 10. Useless, detrimental, detractive, disadvantageous; unfavorable, harmful, pernicious, unwholesome.38.BolsterVerb1 More timbers are needed to bolster the roof of the mine: support, brace, prop up, hold up, buttress, reinforce, maintain,sustain, shore up, shoulder, cradle.2 More facts are needed to bolster your argument: support, uphold, sustain, strengthen, reinforce, add to, help, aid, assist.Noun3 Put the bolster on the couch: cushion, pillow.—Antonyms1 weighs down.2 diminish, lessen, weaken, tear down.39.BombasticAdjectiveNo one believed his bombastic claims: grandiloquent, pompous, windy, padded, inflated, magniloquent, tumid, turgid,verbose, wordy.—AntonymsTemperate, unpretentious, modest, natural, simple, unaffected, deflated, quiet.40.BoorishAdjectiveShe considers the peasants boorish: crude, rude, coarse, vulgar, unrefined, unpolished, uncouth, gauche, loutish, oafish,rustic, peasantlike.—AntonymsGenteel, polite, polished, cultured, refined, cultivated, gentlemanly, courtly, gallant, lady-like; sophisticated, urbane,cosmopolitan.41.BurgeonVerbHousing developments are burgeoning on all sides. Spring has begun to burgeon in every valley and glade: thrive, flourish,expand, enlarge, grow, develop, mushroom, escalate, wax, increase, spring up, shoot up, proliferate, augment, spread;bloom, blossom, flower, blow, effloresce, open, fructify, bear fruit.42.BurnishVerbThe silver bracelet was burnished to a bright finish: polish, wax, buff, shine, smooth, and rub up.
  11. 11. —AntonymsAbrade, scratch, mar.43.ButtressNoun1 The north wall of the cathedral had a beautiful stone buttress: support, brace, prop, stanchion, abutment, arch, stay, andshoulder.Verb2 Buttress that fence with some two-by-fours. Youd better buttress your argument with more facts: prop, prop up, brace,shore, shore up, reinforce, strengthen, bolster, support, boost, steel.44.CacophonousAdjectiveThe cacophonous sounds of the street came through the open window: dissonant, inharmonious, harsh, raucous, dis-cordant, unmusical, unmelodious, strident, screechy, jarring, grating, disharmonious, nonmelodious; out of tune, off-key, off-pitch.45.CapriciousAdjectiveThe capricious man bought and exchanged three shirts in a week: changeable, fickle, variable, impulsive, erratic, flighty,skittish, mercurial, fanciful, faddish; indecisive, undecided, irresolute, uncertain, wavering, vacillating, shilly-shallying;irresponsible, inconsistent, unsteady, unstable, fitful, uneven, eccentric, quirky.—AntonymsConsistent, unchangeable, inflexible, unmovable, firm, fixed, unwavering, invariable, unswerving; resolute, determined,steadfast, certain, decided, decisive; serious, responsible, steady, stable, even.46.CastigateVerbThe principal castigated the students for their unruly behavior: chastise, upbraid, rebuke, censure, reprimand, reproach,chasten, reprove, berate, scold, admonish, criticize, chide, call on the carpet, bawl out, chew out, dress down, haul over thecoals, take to task; punish, discipline, correct, penalize.—AntonymsPraise, laud, compliment, honor; reward, encourage.47. Catalystcat•a•lyst (kat"l ist), n.1. a substance that causes or speeds a chemical reaction without itself being affected.2. a person or thing that precipitates an event or change.[1900–05; CATALY(SIS) + (-I)ST]48.Caustic
  12. 12. Adjective1 Acid is caustic: burning, corrosive, corroding, erosive; astringent, stinging, biting, gnawing, sharp.2 His caustic remarks hurt our feelings: sarcastic, biting, stinging, cutting, scathing, sharp, harsh, acrid, acrimonious, tart,bitter.—Antonyms1 soothing, healing; bland, mild.2 flattering, complimentary; sweet, kind, loving, pleasant, pleasing, gentle, gracious, agreeable, mild, bland.49. ChicaneryNounThere was some chicanery with our reservations, and we complained to the travel agent: deception, trickery, fraud, deceit,cozenage, gulling, guile, hocus-pocus, double-dealing, duplicity, duping, subterfuge, hoodwinking, pettifoggery,humbuggery; knavery, roguery, rascality, villainy.50.CoagulateVerbCertain drugs cause blood to coagulate: clot, congeal; solidify, set, gel, jell, jellify, harden, curdle; thicken.—AntonymsLiquefy, melt, dissolve, and soften.51.Coda1. A concluding passage of a musical composition.2. A concluding section, esp. one serving as a summation of preceding themes, as in a drama.3. Anything that serves as a conclusion or summation.52.CogentAdjectiveHe gave us several cogent reasons why the plan would inevitably fail: compelling, valid, persuasive, forceful, powerful,potent, trenchant, convincing, well-founded, incontrovertible, sound, meritorious, weighty, effective, undeniable, well-grounded.—AntonymsUnconvincing, unsound, dubious, implausible, improbable.53. Commensurate also commensurableAdjectiveHer salary is commensurate with her ability and experience: in accord, consistent, in agreement, suitable, fitting,appropriate, compatible, corresponding, proportionate, comparable, on a proper scale, relative, equal, equivalent, even,balanced, meet, parallel, relative, square.
  13. 13. —AntonymsInconsistent, unsuitable, inappropriate, unfitting, incompatible, disproportionate, dissimilar, incomparable, unequal,discordant.54. CompendiumNounIt was fascinating to browse through the compendium of quotations: digest, abridgment, condensation, abstract, brief,epitome, overview, précis, summary.55.ComplaisantAdjectiveThe hosts complaisant manner made everyone feel welcome: obliging, solicitous, pleasing, agreeable, compliant, cordial,congenial, affable, warm, gracious, friendly, pleasant, amiable, good-natured, good-humored, easygoing.—AntonymsUnobliging, contrary, unsolicitous, uncooperative, indifferent; disagreeable, unpleasant, cold, unfriendly, ungracious.56.ComplianceNounCompliance with the traffic laws is necessary for safe driving. Yes-men are known for their compliance: conformity,conforming, obedience, yielding, giving in, submission, deference; assent, acquiescence, complaisance, pliancy,nonresistance, passivity, docility, meekness.—Antonymsnoncompliance, nonconformity, disobedience, resistance, rebelliousness, assertiveness, individuality, stubbornness;obstinacy.57.ConciliatoryAdjectiveOne conciliatory remark would make them friends again: peacemaking, reconciling, friendly, reassuring, placatory,pacifying, mollifying, accommodative, appeasing.—AntonymsAntagonistic, hostile, unfriendly, unforgiving.58. CondoneVerbParents must not condone their childrens bad behavior: overlook, let pass, ignore, disregard, put up with, wink at; forgive,excuse, pardon, justify, absolve, forget.—Antonyms
  14. 14. Condemn, denounce, censure, disapprove; punish, castigate.59. ConfoundVerbThe patients unusual symptoms confounded the doctor: perplex, confuse, baffle, bewilder, puzzle, mystify, mix up,disconcert, unsettle, nonplus, rattle, fluster, throw off the scent; amaze, astound, astonish, surprise, startle, dumfound,flabbergast, strike with wonder.—AntonymsEnlighten, explain, solve, clear up, clarify.60. ConnoisseurNounThe old gentleman was a connoisseur of fine wines: expert, judge, authority, mavin, person of good taste, cognoscente;epicure, gourmet.61. ContentionNoun1 Border raiding led to even more contention: struggle, strife, conflict, combat, altercation, feud, wrangle, rivalry, contest;argument, debate, dispute, disagreement, controversy, dispute, dissension, falling out, opposition, discord.2 It was his contention that she was lazy: allegation, charge, assertion, claim, position, point.—Antonyms1 peace; accord, agreement.62.ContentiousContentious (k*n ten"sh*s), adj. 1. tending to argument or strife; quarrelsome: a contentious crew. 2. causing, involving, or characterized by argument or controversy: contentious issues. 3. pertaining to causes between contending parties involved in litigation.con•ten"tious•ly, adv.con•ten"tious•ness, n.63. ContriteAdjectiveHis contrite manner made us forgives him: conscience-stricken, sorrowful, regretful, repentant, rueful, penitent, remorseful,apologetic, chastened, humbled.—Antonymsproud, pleased, uncontrite, unrepentant, unapologetic.64. Conundrum
  15. 15. NounNo one in the room could find the answer to the conundrum: puzzle, riddle, enigma, mystery, poser, puzzler, paradox,arcanum, brain-teaser, stumper, stopper, Chinese puzzle, rebus, problem.65. ConvergeVerbThe Mississippi and Missouri rivers converge at St. Louis. A lens converges light rays: come together, meet, approach;focus, concentrate, bring together.—AntonymsDiverge, separate, part, scatter, disperse.66. ConvolutionNounThe children were fascinated by the convolutions of the snake: coiling, coil, twisting, twist, winding, undulation, contortion;sinuosity, sinuousness, tortuousness; maze, labyrinth.—AntonymsUncoiling, unwinding.67. CravenAdjectiveRefusing to stand and fight was a craven thing to do: cowardly, dastardly, pusillanimous; timid, timorous, fearful, frightened,scared; Slang yellow, lily-livered, chicken-hearted; mean-spirited, base, low, lowdown.—AntonymsBrave, courageous, heroic, fearless, valorous, valiant, dauntless; bold, daring, audacious.68. DauntVerbCrossing the country in wagons did not daunt the early pioneers: intimidate, dismay, faze, discourage, dishearten, deject,depress, dash, unnerve, subdue, browbeat, cow, abash, menace, threaten; frighten, scare, alarm, affright.—AntonymsEmbolden, encourage, cheer, animate, enliven.69. DecorumNounJennifer always acts with decorum: propriety, politeness; tact, gentility, respectability, dignity, taste; good form.—Antonyms
  16. 16. Impropriety, inappropriate behavior, bad manners.70. defaultnoun1 If the team doesnt show up, they will lose by default: failure to appear or act.2 His car was repossessed because of default of the monthly installment: nonpayment; failure to pay.71. DeferenceNounOut of deference to her age and position, the committee followed her suggestions: consideration, respect, reverence, honor,esteem, regard; obedience, capitulation.—AntonymsDisrespect, contempt; defiance, disobedience.72.delineatede•lin•e•ate (di lin"e at), v.t., -at•ed, -at•ing.1. to trace the outline of; represent pictorially.2. to portray in words; describe with precision.de•lin"e•a•ble (-* b*l), adj.de•lin"e•ator, n.73. DenigrateVerbHe has a mentality that denigrates everything it doesnt understand: defame, malign, slander, tear down, abuse, stigmatize,tra-duce, disparage, run down, besmirch, downgrade, blacken, call names, calumniate, backbite, smear, vilify, revile,asperse, soil, sully; Slang give a black eye, drag through the mud, stab in the back, badmouth, dump on.—AntonymsPraise, commend, acclaim, exalt, boost.75. DerideVerbThey derided the new music: ridicule, mock, scoff, scorn, sneer at.76. DerivativeAdjective
  17. 17. 1 The derivative essay received low marks: derived, unoriginal, borrowed, copied, evolved, imitative, inferred, not original,obtained, plagiarized, rehashed, secondhand.Noun2 offshoot, outgrowth, byproduct, derivation, descendant, product, spinoff.—Antonyms1 original, archetypal, authentic, genuine, seminal.77. Desiccatedes•ic•cate (des"i kat), v., -cat•ed, -cat•ing.v.t.1. to dry thoroughly; dry up.2. to preserve (food) by removing moisture; dehydrate.v.i.3. to become thoroughly dried.[1565–75; < L desiccatus dried up, ptp. of desiccare = de- + siccare, der. of siccus dry]desic•ca"tion, n.des"ic•cative, adj.des"ic•cator, n.78. Desultorydes•ul•to•ry (des"*l tôre, -tore), adj.1. lacking in consistency, method, purpose, or visible order; disconnected: desultory conversation.2. digressing from or unconnected with the main subject: a desultory remark.[1575–85; < L desultorius pertaining to a desultor (a circus rider who jumps from one horse to another), der. of desul-, var.s. of desilire to jump down]des"ul•tori•ly, adv.des"ul•tori•ness, n.78.deterrentNoun
  18. 18. Punishment is not necessarily a deterrent to crime: restraint, curb, hindrance, check, discouragement.79. DiatribeNounIn her diatribe she gave full vent to all her resentments against him: verbal or written castigation, bitter harangue, tirade,violent denunciation, stream of abuse, accusatory language, invective, vituperation, contumely.80. Dichotomydi•chot•o•my (di kot"* me), n., pl. -mies.1. division into two parts or kinds; subdivision into halves or pairs.2. division into two exclusive, opposed, or contradictory groups: a dichotomy between thought and action.3. a mode of branching by constant forking, as in some stems.4. the phase of the moon or of an inferior planet when half of its disk is visible.[1600–10; < Gk]81.diffidenceNounHis diffidence keeps him from making friends: timidity, timidness, timorousness, shyness, meekness, insecurity, retiringdisposition, reserve, constraint, introversion; bashfulness, extreme modesty, humbleness, want of self-confidence,unassertiveness, sheepishness, lack of self-assurance; hesitancy, reluctance.—AntonymsBoldness, audaciousness, forwardness, assertiveness, aggressiveness; self-confidence, confidence.82.DiffuseAdjective1 The room was bathed in soft, diffuse light: scattered, spread out, unconcentrated, dispersed, extended widely; vaguelydefined.2 His talk was so diffuse I missed his point: wordy, verbose, discursive, rambling, long-winded, lacking conciseness,disjointed, digressive, not concentrated, desultory, roundabout, wandering, meandering, maundering, circumlocutory.—Antonyms1 concentrated.2 succinct, concise, terse, pithy, compact; methodical, organized.83.DigressionNoun
  19. 19. His long digression made him forget his main point: divergence, departure, deviation, detour, straying, wandering; diversion,obiter dictum, side remark, divagation.84.dirgeNounHe composed a dirge to honor the war dead: funeral song, requiem, death song, death march, lament, burial hymn,threnody, mournful composition; mournful sound.85. DisabuseVerbSomeone ought to disabuse him of those star-struck notions: enlighten about, free from error, clear the mind of, disillusion,disenchant, rid of deception, relieve of, set straight, set right, open the eyes of, free of a mistaken belief.86. DiscerningAdjectiveThe mediator was discerning in his analysis of the problem: perceptive, acute, perspicacious, sharp, astute, penetrating,keen-sighted, sensitive, piercing, discriminating, shrewd, intelligent, wise, judicious, sage, sagacious, clear-sighted, sharp-sighted; showing discernment, quick to discern, having keen insight.—AntonymsUndiscerning, unperceptive, indiscriminate.87.discordantdis•cord•ant (dis kôr"dnt), adj.1. being at variance; disagreeing; incongruous.2. disagreeable to the ear; dissonant; harsh.[1250–1300; ME discordaunt < AF < L]dis•cord"ant•ly, adv.88. discreditverb1 She discredited his good name with ugly gossip: defame, abuse, dishonor, impair the reputation of, disgrace, vilify,disparage, smirch, smear, debase, degrade, demean, vitiate, tarnish, taint, undermine, slur, sully, stigmatize, drag throughthe mud.
  20. 20. 2 The insurance investigator discredited his false claim: prove false, deny, disallow, disprove, reject; destroy confidence in,shake ones faith in, undermine belief in; dispute, challenge, question.Antonyms1 credit, praise, laud.2 credit, prove, support, accept, verify.89. discrepancynounThere is a great discrepancy between his version of the accident and yours: difference, inconsistency, variance,disagreement, discordance, lack of correspondence, disparity, dissimilarity, divergence, incongruity, gap.—Antonyms correspondence, accord.90.DiscreteAdjectiveThe Liberal Arts College has been reorganized into six discrete departments: separate, distinct, different, detached,disconnected, discontinuous, disjunctive, unattached, independent, unassociated; several, various.—AntonymsMerged, combined, interdependent, united, linked, connected.91.disingenuousAdjectiveTheir disingenuous protests irritated us: dishonest, insincere, artful, cunning, designing, duplicitous, false, feigned, guileful,shifty, sly, wily, two-faced, tricky.—AntonymsIngenuous.92. DisinterestedAdjectiveWe need a disinterested party to settle the argument: impartial, unbiased, neutral, free from bias, unprejudiced, impersonal,outside, uninvolved, dispassionate, free from self-interest.—AntonymsPartial, biased, prejudiced, selfish, having an axe to grind.93.DisjointedAdjective1 The structure of the house seemed somehow disjointed: disconnected, detached, having the joints separated,unconnected, unattached, split, divided, apart, disarticulated, helter-skelter.
  21. 21. 2 The movie was too disjointed to make sense: rambling, mixed-up, confused, spasmodic, disconnected, disorganized,jumbled, tangled, chaotic, disharmonious, discontinuous, heterogeneous, incoherent, irrational, illogical.—Antonyms1 jointed, connected, attached.2 sensible, coherent, logical.94. dismissverb1 The workers were dismissed for lunch. Dismiss the meeting: allow to leave, permit to go, release, excuse, send forth, letgo, disperse; dissolve, adjourn, disband; free, liberate.2 She was dismissed for loafing on the job: fire, oust, discharge from office, put out of a job, sack, can, let go, terminate,remove from service, bounce, send packing, give one his walking papers, cashier, Slang pink-slip, give the heave-ho.3 I trust her and dismiss any suggestion of dishonesty: put out of mind, reject, set aside, disregard, disclaim, discard, layaside, repudiate, eliminate.—Antonyms1 hold, detain, recall.2 hire, employ, accept, admit.3 welcome, accept.95. DisparageVerbDont disparage his attempts to better himself: belittle, ridicule, discredit, run down, put down, mock, denigrate, demean,undervalue, underrate, depreciate, slight, detract from, derogate.—AntonymsApplaud, praise, laud, extol, acclaim, commend, compliment, appreciate.96. disparateadjectiveTheir views are unusually disparate for brothers: dissimilar, different, unlike, contrasting, at odds, at variance, discrepant,discordant.—Antonymssimilar, like, homogeneous, parallel, accord-ant.97. dissembleverb
  22. 22. He tried to dissemble his disappointment with a joke: hide, mask, disguise, camouflage, feign, conceal, dissimulate.—Antonymsshow, manifest, evidence, reveal.98. disseminateverbPlatos philosophy has been disseminated throughout the world: scatter, spread, diffuse, disperse, circulate, broadcast.99.DissoluteAdjectiveHe was a dissolute young man who thought only of his own pleasure: dissipated, corrupt, loose, debauched, immoral;unrestrained, abandoned.—Antonymsmoral, upright, temperate, sober, prudent, circumspect.100.DissonanceNoun1 The experimental music seemed nothing but dissonance to us: discord, cacophony, discordance, harshness, jangle,jarring, noise.2 Dissonance in the merged companies broke out almost at once: disharmony, antagonism, breach, break, conflict,disagreement, discord, disparity, dissension, dissidence, disunion, division, divorce, hostility, incongruity, inconsistency, rift,rupture, schism, variance.101. distendverbThe childrens stomachs were distended by malnutrition: swell, bloat, swell out, expand, bulge, inflate, billow, puff out.102. distillverb1 The liquid distills when heated: evaporate, condense, vaporize.2 Whiskey is distilled from a fermented mash of grain. Impurities are removed by distilling water: separate by evaporation,produce by vaporization and condensation, purify by distillation; extract, draw out, draw forth.103. divergeverb1 The path diverges right after the pond: separate, deviate, split off, swerve, deflect.
  23. 23. 2 Her politics and mine diverge greatly: differ, conflict, disagree, be at odds.—Antonyms1 converges, agree, concur.103. divestverb1 He divested himself of his clothing: strip or remove (clothing), disrobe; take off, get out of, peel off.2 During the Depression, the family was divested of its home: deprive, dispossess; rid, strip, free.—Antonyms1 clothe, dress, cover.104. documentnoun1 There are many documents containing the kings signature: official paper, record, instrument, legal form.verb2 The lawyer gathered evidence to document the charges: support, back up, give weight to, verify, certify, substantiate.105. dogmaticadjective1 Shes so dogmatic you cant tell her anything: opinionated, arbitrary, biased, prejudiced; imperious, dictatorial,domineering; stubborn, obstinate.2 The Nicene Creed is one of the most important dogmatic statements of the Christian faith: doctrinal, expressing dogma.—Antonyms1 diffident, vacillating, uncertain; docile, complaisant.106. dormantadjectiveThe geyser has been dormant for five years: inactive, quiescent, idle; sleeping, somnolent; hibernating.—Antonymsactive, operative, moving, awake.107. dupenoun
  24. 24. 1 He was the dupe of the racketeers and may go to prison: pawn, patsy, fall guy, cats paw, Slang sucker.verb2 The agency duped her into signing up for $200 worth of lessons: trick, fool, mislead, deceive; humbug, bamboozle,hoodwink.108. ebulliencenounHer ebullience could not be denied: enthusiasm, exuberance, animation, buoyancy, effervescence, effusiveness, elation,excitement, exhilaration, vitality, vivaciousness, vivacity, liveliness, high spirits.—Antonymsapathy, lifelessness.109. eclecticadjectiveThe disc jockey played an eclectic selection of music: mixed, assorted, catholic, diverse, heterogeneous, multifarious, wide-ranging, varied, general.110. efficaciousadjectiveNone of the prescriptions were efficacious: effective, capable, successful, serviceable, effectual, efficient.—Antonymsineffective.111. effronterynounWhat effrontery to barge in uninvited!: shamelessness, brazenness, brashness, impertinence, insolence, impudence,presumption, arrogance, audacity, temerity, cheek, nerve, gall, brass, Yiddish chutzpah.—Antonymsmodesty, reserve, shyness, timidity, bashfulness; respect, diffidence.112. ElegyNounThe poet laureate composed an elegy upon the death of the king: poem of lamentation, lament for the dead, melancholypoem, sad poem; requiem, funeral song, song of lamentation, melancholy piece of music.—Antonyms
  25. 25. Paean, jubilee, hallelujah, anthem.113. elicitverbThe mayors remark elicited a flood of letters: bring forth, draw forth, draw out, call forth, evoke, extract, exact, extort, derive,wrest, fetch, cause, educe, bring to light.—Antonymsrepress, discourage.114. EmbellishVerbHe embellished his signature with a series of curlicues: enhance, elaborate, exaggerate, ornament, decorate, adorn,beautify, garnish, gild, color, embroider, dress up, fancy up, set off, Slang gussy up.—AntonymsSimplify, strip bare.115. empiricaladjectiveThe old sailor had never studied navigation, but he had a good empirical knowledge of it: practical, experiential, pragmatic;experimental, firsthand.—Antonymstheoretical, secondhand.116. emulateverbPoliticians would do well to emulate Abraham Lincoln: take as a model, follow the example of, pattern oneself after, follow,copy, imitate; try to equal, rival; mimic, ape.117.endemicNoun 1. A disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular locationAdjective 1. (of disease or anything resembling a disease) constantly present to greater or lesser extent in a particular locality. 2. (ecology) native to or confined to a certain region 3. Originating where it is found
  26. 26. ---Synonymsautochthonal, autochthonic, autochthonous, indigenous.118. enervateverbThe long march in the sun enervated the soldiers: exhaust, weary, weaken, de-bilitate, devitalize, enfeeble, disable, sapones energy, deplete, wash out, fatigue, tire, prostrate, Slang bush, fag, tucker.—Antonymsenergize, invigorate, strengthen, vitalize, stimulate, quicken.119. engenderverbRespect can engender love: give rise to, cause, bring about, beget, breed, generate, produce, occasion, precipitate.—Antonymskill, end, crush.120. enhanceverbThe splendid dress enhanced her beauty: intensify, heighten, magnify, make more attractive, make more appealing;elevate, lift, raise, boost; redouble, embellish, augment, add to, complement.—Antonymsdiminish, reduce, lessen, decrease, minimize, depreciate, detract from.121. ephemeraladjectiveThere is no point in lamenting the ephemeral joys of youth: brief, temporary, transient, short-lived, temporal, transitory,fleeting, impermanent, evanescent, momentary, passing, fugitive, unenduring, nondurable, inconstant, fly-by-night, flitting,fugacious.—Antonymspermanent, lasting, enduring, everlasting, perpetual, abiding.122. equanimitynounWe must keep our equanimity during times of crisis: calmness, composure, self-possession, steadiness, poise, aplomb,coolness, imperturbability, presence of mind, self-control, tranquillity, sangfroid, Informal cool.—Antonyms
  27. 27. panic, hysteria, disquiet, perturbation, agitation, discomposure.123. equivocateverbPlease stop equivocating and give me a straight answer: evade, avoid the issue, hedge, stall, dodge, beat around the bush,fudge, pussyfoot, be ambiguous, mince words, prevaricate, straddle the fence.124. eruditeadjectiveThe professor was an erudite man. The TV newscaster was known for his erudite comments: learned, well-informed, well-educated, well-versed, literate, well-read, cultured, cultivated, scholarly, thoughtful, intelligent, well-reasoned, wise, sapient.—Antonymsuninformed, uneducated, illiterate, unscholarly; shallow, unthinking; rash, ill-advised.125. esotericadjective1 Some fields of science seem hopelessly esoteric to the layman: incomprehensible, abstruse, recondite, arcane, cryptic,enigmatic, inscrutable, mysterious, obscure.2 The tribe has an esoteric ritual that no outsider may witness: secret, undisclosed, private, confidential, inviolable, hidden,concealed, covert, veiled, cloaked; mystical, occult.—Antonyms1 obvious, clear, plain, simple.2 public, open, exoteric.126. eulogyNounLincolns Gettysburg Address is a great eulogy: oration of praise, praise of the dead, encomium, panegyric; high praise,tribute, homage, hosanna, acclamation, laudation, citation, paean, plaudit.—Antonymscondemnation, criticism; vilification, defamation, aspersion, calumny, slander, libel.127. euphemismnoun"Maiden lady" is a euphemism for "old maid": mild expression, restrained expression, inoffensive expression, delicate term,refined term; prudish phrase, overdelicacy, overrefinement, prudishness.128. Exacerbate
  28. 28. VerbOffering your opinion will only exacerbate the situation: aggravate, exaggerate, intensify, inflame, heighten, worsen,magnify, sharpen, deepen, fan the flames, pour oil on the fire, add fuel to the flames, rub salt into the wound, add insult toinjury.—Antonymsrelieve, soothe, comfort, alleviate, assuage, mollify.129.exculpateVerbPronounce not guilty of criminal charges: acquit, assoil, clear, discharge, exonerate.130.ExigencyNoun1 A ships captain must be able to cope with any exigency: emergency, contingency, crisis, circumstance, predicament,quandary, plight, strait, extremity, difficulty, hardship; Slang pickle, pinch, scrape, fix, jam.2 We have to cope with the exigencies of daily living: requirements, necessities, demands, needs, constraints, urgencies.131. extrapolateex•trap•o•late (ik strap"* lat), v., -lat•ed, -lat•ing.v.t.1. to infer (an unknown) from something that is known; conjecture.2. to estimate (the value of a statistical variable) outside the tabulated or observed range.3. Math. to estimate (a function that is known over a range of values of its independent variable) to values outside theknown range.v.i.4. to perform extrapolation.[1825–35; EXTRA- + (INTER)POLATE]ex•trapo•la"tion, n.ex•trap"o•lative, adj.ex•trap"o•lator, n.132. facetiousadjectiveHe kept us laughing with his facetious remarks: humorous, funny, amusing, jocular, joking, jovial, jesting, witty, clever,jocose, droll, comic, comical, playful, wisecracking.
  29. 29. —Antonymssolemn, serious, sober, lugubrious, grave, sedate, staid, sad, dull.133. facilitateverbAn addressing machine facilitates the handling of bulk mail: expedite, speed up, accelerate, ease, simplify, help in, makeless difficult, make easier, assist the progress of, lessen the labor of, lighten, smooth; forward, help to advance, promote,further, advance, aid, foster.—Antonymshinder, hamper, complicate, encumber, slow down.134. FallaciousAdjectiveThe rumors were patently fallacious: incorrect, false, deceptive, erroneous, deluding, fictitious, illusory, fraudulent, invalid,mistaken, misleading, off, sophistic, spurious, unfounded, ungrounded, wrong, unsound, untrue.135. FatuousAdjectiveShes so fatuous she thinks all the fellows are flirting with her: foolish, inane, silly, vacant in mind, simple, stupid, brainless,witless, vapid, vacuous, asinine, imbecile, idiotic, puerile, obtuse, besotted, senseless, moronic, ridiculous.—Antonymssensible, prudent, judicious, wise, sage, sapient, clever, bright, intelligent, smart, witty136. FawningAdjectiveIn the movie he played a fawning courtier: sycophantic, obsequious, compliant, bootlicking, cowering, servile, cringing,deferential, crawling, flattering, ingratiating, scraping, kowtowing, subservient, submissive.137. FelicitousAdjective1 Champagne is for weddings and other felicitous occasions: happy, joyful, joyous, fortunate, propitious.2 The young man searched hard for a felicitous last line to his poem: apt, appropriate, suitable, relevant, pertinent,germane, fitting, well-chosen, well-put, well-said, pleasing, happy, inspired; effective.—Antonyms
  30. 30. 1 infelicitous, solemn, inappropriate.2 infelicitous, awkward, clumsy, unfortunate.138.fervorNounThe pilgrims arrived at the shrine and offered their prayers with fervor: ardor, passion, intensity, earnestness, vehemence,verve, zeal, animation, gusto, fire, enthusiasm, heartiness, eagerness, zest, warmth; piety, devoutness, seriousness,purposefulness.—Antonymsboredom, ennui, apathy, detachment, dispassion.139. flagnoun1 The countrys flag was displayed in every window: banner, emblem, standard, ensign, streamer, pennant, colors; (in theU.S.) stars and stripes, Old Glory, stars and bars; (in Great Britain) Union Jack.verb2 The highway patrol flagged us away from the accident: signal, warn, wave.3 My energy flagged after climbing all those steps: decline, grow weak, wilt, give way, languish; grow spiritless, fall off invigor, abate, slump, succumb, subside, sag, pall; fade, grow weary, tire, totter, dodder; faint, sink, ebb, wane, fail.—Antonyms3 freshen, recover, brace up.140. FledglingNounAs a pilot, hes still a fledgling: inexperienced person, novice, beginner, tyro, freshman, apprentice; Informal greenhorn,tenderfoot.141. FloutVerbShe flouted convention by wearing black at her wedding: scorn, show contempt for, scoff at, spurn, laugh at, jeer at, gibe at,sneer at, defy, treat with disdain, mock, poke fun at; twit, taunt, chaff, rag, insult.—AntonymsRevere; regard, respect, esteem.142.fomentverb
  31. 31. He did his best to foment a quarrel between the brothers: stir up, incite, foster, promote, instigate, provoke, urge, excite,stimulate, galvanize, foster; rouse, arouse, kindle, inflame, spur, goad, agitate; irritate, aggravate, exacerbate, quicken, fanthe fire, fan into flame, blow the coals.—AntonymsQuell, suppress, repress, quench; check, curb, restrain; allay, discourage, destroy, extinguish, extirpate.143. forestallverbLabor and management have agreed on a temporary settlement, thereby fore-stalling a strike: prevent, thwart, ward off,avert, deter, avoid, head off, circumvent; counteract, block, preclude, obviate; anticipate, guard against; Informal steal amarch on, beat to the punch.144. frugalitynounIn middle age he was known for extreme frugality: carefulness, economizing, conservation, moderation, economy,prudence, scrimping, saving, thrift, stinginess, miserliness, avariciousness, parsimony145. futileadjectiveHis efforts to save the business were futile: useless, fruitless, vain, profitless, idle, worthless, valueless, bootless,unprofitable; ineffective, ineffectual, unsuccessful, unavailing, abortive, nugatory; trifling, trivial, insignificant, empty, petty,frivolous, unimportant.—Antonymseffective, fruitful, successful; profitable, useful, worthy; important, significant.146. gainsaygain•say (gan"sa, gan sa"), v.t., -said, -say•ing.1. to deny; dispute; contradict.2. to speak or act against; oppose.[1250–1300; ME gainsaien; see AGAIN, SAY]gain"sayer, n.147. garrulousadjectiveShes so garrulous you cant get a word in edgewise: talkative, effusive, loquacious; wordy, windy, verbose, long-winded;gabby, voluble, chattery, chatty, prattling, prating, babbling; gossipy.—Antonyms
  32. 32. reticent, taciturn, quiet, reserved, closemouthed; terse, concise.148. goadnoun1 The drovers used goads to keep the herd moving: prod, cattle prod, prick, pointed stick.2 Fear of failure can be a goad to hard work: incentive, stimulus, stimulant, motive, motivation, driving motive, pressure,spur; inducement, encouragement, instigation, whet, fillip.verb3 His wife goaded him to ask for a raise: prod, urge, exhort, constrain, incite, spur, push, pressure, drive, stir up, arouse,Slang egg on; stimulate, impel, propel, move, press, set on.—Antonyms2 detriment, curb.3 deter, keep back, hold back.149. gougegouge (gouj), n., v., gouged, goug•ing.n.1. a chisel having a partly cylindrical blade with the bevel on either the concave or the convex side.2. an act of gouging.3. a hole made by gouging.4. an act of extortion; swindle.5. a. a layer of decomposed rocks or minerals found along the walls of a vein.b. fragments of rock that have accumulated between or along the walls of a fault.v.t.6. to scoop out or turn with or as if with a gouge.7. to dig or force out with or as if with a gouge (often fol. by out ).8. to make a gouge in: to gouge ones leg.9. to extort from or overcharge.v.i.10. to engage in extortion or swindling.[1300–50; < MF < LL gu(l)bia, perh. < Celtic; cf. OIr gulba sting, Welsh gylf beak, Cornish gilb borer]
  33. 33. goug"er, n.150. GrandiloquentAdjectiveThe grandiloquent speech went on for over an hour: high-flown, high-sounding, flowery, florid, grandiose, pompous,pretentious, bombastic, inflated, turgid, swollen, stilted; magniloquent, lofty, rhetorical; Slang highfalutin.—AntonymsSimple, direct, unaffected, plain-spoken, matter-of-fact, low-keyed; base, lowly.151. gregariousadjectiveA gregarious person loves parties: sociable, social, genial, outgoing, convivial, extroverted, companionable, affable, friendly;vivacious, lively, talkative.—Antonymsunsociable, solitary, reclusive, introverted, retiring, shy.152. guilelessadjectiveThe child gave a guileless answer to the question: straightforward, candid, frank, open, natural, honest, sincere, truthful,aboveboard; artless, undesigning; ingenuous, naive, unsophisticated, innocent, simple, unaffected, unselfconscious;harmless, innocuous, unoffending.—Antonymssly, cunning, deceitful, crafty, tricky, deceptive, artful; treacherous, fraudulent153. GullibleAdjectiveThe youth was so gullible he bought the Brooklyn Bridge from a con man!: easily fooled, easily deceived, easily cheated,easily duped; overtrusting, unsuspicious, credulous, trusting, trustful; naive, innocent, unsophisticated, inexperienced,green, simple.—AntonymsCynical, suspicious, untrusting, hard to convince; sophisticated, worldly.154. harangueha•rangue (h* rang"), n., v., -rangued, -rangu•ing.
  34. 34. n.1. a scolding or a verbal attack; diatribe.2. a long, passionate, and vehement speech, esp. one delivered before a public gathering.3. any long, pompous speech or writing of a tediously hortatory or didactic nature; sermonizing discourse.v.t.4. to address in a harangue.v.i.5. to deliver a harangue.[1530–40; < MF < It ar(r)inga speech, oration, n. der. of ar(r)ingare to speak in public, v. der. of aringo public square < Go*hriggs RING1]synSee SPEECH.155. homogeneousadjectiveIt was a homogeneous crowd of teenage girls, all wearing jeans and sweaters: of the same kind, all alike, of a piece;uniform, unmixed, unvarying, unadulterated; consistent, constant, pure; akin, kindred, similar, identical.—Antonymsheterogeneous, mixed, varied, varying, variegated, different, diverse, divers, various, divergent.156. hyperbolenoun"Shes as big as a house" is an example of hyperbole: overstatement, exaggeration, enlargement, magnification,extravagant statement, figurative statement, stretch of the imagination; figure of speech, metaphor.—AntonymsUnderstatement.157. iconoclastnounHes an iconoclast who will have nothing to do with organized religion: dissenter, rebel, nonconformist, upstart, radical,revolutionary.
  35. 35. —Antonymsconformist, assenter.158. idolatrynoun1 Idolatry was commonplace in many early pagan religions: worship of an object, image-worship, reverence of idols,idolization.2 Only a millionaire could satisfy that womans idolatry of jewels: inordinate love, worship, adoration, obsession,preoccupation, excessive fondness, passion, devotion, veneration, single-minded attention, infatuation, senselessattachment, madness, mania.159.immutableAdjectivePlatinum is one of the most immutable of metals: unchanging, unchangeable, changeless, unvarying, unaltered, unalterable,incontrovertible, unmodifiable, intransmutable; permanent, lasting, enduring, stable; firm, fixed, solid, constant, inflexible.—AntonymsChangeable, unstable, alterable, flexible, variable..160. impairverbThe water shortage impaired the citys fire-fighting capacity: hinder, damage, mar, hurt, vitiate, harm, cripple, subvert, injure,lessen, weaken, enfeeble, decrease, undercut, detract from, reduce; enervate, debilitate, worsen.—Antonymsimprove, amend; repair; better, ameliorate, enhance, facilitate, increase.161. impassiveadjectiveThe moderator maintained an impassive manner throughout the furious debate: emotionless, unemotional, unmoved,imperturbable, dispassionate, aloof, stoical, untouched, stony, calm, cool, sedate, reserved, unperturbed, unimpressible,inscrutable, impervious, stolid, apathetic, phlegmatic, unimpressionable, insensible, indifferent.—Antonymsresponsive, emotional, passionate, excited, perturbed.162. impedeverb
  36. 36. A lumber shortage impeded construction on the house: delay, slow down, block, interfere with, interrupt, check, retard,obstruct, hinder, thwart, frustrate, inhibit, arrest, sidetrack, stall, stymie, deter, hamper, hold back, halter, disrupt.—Antonymsassist, promote, advance, further, forward; help, aid.163. impermeableim•per•me•a•ble (im pûr"me * b*l), adj.1. not permeable; impassable.2. (of porous substances, rocks, etc.) not permitting the passage of a fluid.[1690–1700; < LL]im•perme•a•bil"i•ty, im•per"me•a•ble•ness, n.im•per"me•a•bly, adv.164. imperturbableadjectiveThe usually imperturbable man showed signs of fear: unexcitable, calm, collected, cool, serene, undisturbed, unruffled,dispassionate, unflustered, levelheaded, sedate, composed; unsusceptible, impervious, impassive, unanxious, unfazable;Slang unflappable.—Antonymsperturbable, choleric, touchy.165. imperviousadjective1 The firemen wore masks that were impervious to the acrid smoke: impenetrable, impermeable, inaccessible, allowing nopassage to, unapproachable; sealed or closed against; invulnerable.2 The beautiful actress seemed impervious to the usual ravages of age: immune to, protected against; untouched by,unmarked by.3 The stubborn man seemed impervious to reason: unmoved by, unaffected by, untouched by, invulnerable, closed.—Antonyms1 susceptible, vulnerable.2 open, exposed, susceptible, sensitive, liable, prone.
  37. 37. 166. implacableadjectiveIt was impossible to negotiate with such an implacable enemy: irreconcilable, unappeasable, inexorable, unamenable,inflexible, intractable, unpacifiable, uncompromising, relentless, unrelenting.—Antonymsreconcilable, appeasable, yielding, lenient, relenting, forbearing, indulgent, tolerant, flexible.167. implicitadjective1 Victory was implicit in the early election returns: implied, hinted, suggested, tacitly expressed; inferred, deducible,understood.2 The crew had implicit faith in the captains judgment: innate, inherent, unquestioning, absolute, complete,profound, certain, resolute, unshakable, unreserved, total, unshakable, steadfast, staunch.168. implodeim•plode (im plod"), v., -plod•ed, -plod•ing.v.i.1. to burst inward (opposed to explode).v.t.2. to pronounce (a consonant) with implosion.[1880–85; IM-1 + (EX)PLODE]169. inadvertentadjectiveThe newspaper apologized for the inadvertent omission: unintentional, unintended, not on purpose, accidental, fortuitous,unmeant, unthinking, involuntary, unpremeditated.—Antonymsdeliberate, premeditated, intentional, studied, considered, conscious, aware170. inchoateadjectiveThe architect began with a vague, inchoate design and then worked out the details: beginning, budding, incipient,commencing, embryonic, nascent; shapeless, formless, unformed, unshaped, amorphous; unorganized, uncohesive,disjointed, disconnected.
  38. 38. —Antonymsformed, shaped; finished, completed.171.incongruousadjective1 Bathing suits look incongruous on a ski slope: inappropriate, odd, outlandish, out of keeping, out of place, unsuitable, notharmonious, Slang far-out.2 The witnesss incongruous testimony damaged his credibility: conflicting, contrary, at variance, incompatible,contradictory, inconsistent, irreconcilable, discrepant, disagreeing.—Antonyms1 congruous, fitting, suitable, appropriate, consonant, consistent, accordant, agreeing, harmonious, becoming.172. inconsequentialadjectiveThe matter is too inconsequential to worry about: trivial, trifling, of no moment, valueless, slight, unimportant, of noconsequence, insignificant, negligible, nugatory, meaningless, piddling, petty, picayune.—Antonymsconsequential, important, momentous, significant, meaningful, crucial.173. incorporateverbThe committee incorporated the investigators findings in its report: include, embody, work in, consolidate, fuse,amalgamate, introduce into, assimilate.174. indeterminateadjectiveThe acting superintendent will serve for an indeterminate time: unspecified, undetermined, unstipulated, uncertain, unfixedin extent or amount, unclear, obscure, not clear, unresolved, vague, undefined; ambiguous, problematic, perplexing,indefinite.—Antonymsspecified, precise, definite, clear, certain, determined, fixed, defined.175. indigentadjective
  39. 39. Many indigent people receive government aid: needy, destitute, in want, lacking the necessities of life, poor, in need,pinched, poverty-stricken, impoverished, penniless, without resources, badly off, moneyless, without food and clothing;Informal unable to keep the wolf from the door, hard-up.—Antonymswealthy, moneyed, rich, affluent, comfortable, solvent, flush.176. indolentadjectiveThe indolent boy was fired: lazy, slothful, habitually idle, inactive, easygoing, shiftless, slack, sluggish, inert, lethargic, do-nothing, listless, lumpish, lackadaisical, dawdling, dilatory.—Antonymsindustrious; busy, diligent, conscientious, assiduous, sedulous; energetic, strenuous, vigorous, active.177. inertadjectiveThe man was so inert he seemed dead: motionless, static, immobile, stationary, inactive, quiescent, still, passive, inanimate,impassive; listless, phlegmatic, sluggish, dull, numb, leaden, supine, slack, torpid, languid.—Antonymsdynamic; animated; active, alert, kinetic, brisk, lively, energetic, vigorous.178. ingenuousadjectiveShe was so charming and ingenuous most people adored her at once: natural, artless, guileless, unaffected, genuine,simplehearted, openhearted, honest, open, unsophisticated, frank, direct, trusting, straightforward; Slang up front, straight-shooting.—Antonymsworldly-wise, jaded, disingenuous; wily, devious, tricky.179. inherentadjectiveFreedom of religion is an inherent part of the Bill of Rights: essential, innate, inseparable, hereditary, native, intrinsic, inborn,deep-rooted, inveterate, natural, inbred, ingrained, constitutional, inalienable.—Antonymsforeign, alien, extrinsic, adventitious; subsidiary, superficial, supplemental.180. innocuous
  40. 40. adjective1 The women exchanged innocuous gossip over lunch: harmless, not damaging, painless, not injurious, innocent, mild,inoffensive.2 The play was innocuous and quickly forgotten: meaningless, vapid, insipid, dull, pointless, empty, barren; trite, banal,commonplace.—Antonyms1 hurtful, deleterious, harmful, insidious, obnoxious, damaging, injurious, offensive, malicious.2 powerful, trenchant, compelling, impressive.181. insensibilitynoun1 The patient lapsed into insensibility: unconsciousness.2 His insensibility to criticism was legendary: indifference, apathy, insusceptibility.—Antonyms consciousness; concern, sensibility.182. insinuateverb1 The article insinuated that the fighter was bribed: imply, suggest, hint slyly, allude remotely to, intimate, asperse, whisper,let fall.2 The social climber insinuated herself into the group: ingratiate, push artfully, worm ones way, gently incorporate, introducesubtly, wheedle, inject, insert.—Antonyms1 deny.2 withdraw, remove, retreat; alienate.183. insipidadjective1 An insipid play like that wont last two weeks: uninteresting, pointless, stupid, dull, characterless, banal, wearisome, bland,boring, trite, vapid, inane, barren, drab, prosaic, jejune, lifeless, zestless, arid, monotonous, lean, empty, commonplace;Slang blah, wishy-washy, namby-pamby.2 The unsalted vegetables were insipid: flat, tasteless, savorless, stale, vapid, unappetizing.—Antonyms1 interesting, zestful, pungent, spirited, spunky, provocative, engaging, lively, stimulating, exciting, piquant, colorful.2 pungent, piquant, spicy; fiery, peppery, gingery; savory, flavorful, tasty, palatable, appetizing; gusty.184.insularity (state of being insulated) insulate
  41. 41. verbThick walls insulated the house: shield, protect, cocoon, cushion, line, wrap; isolate, keep apart, seclude, sequester,separate.185. intractableadjectiveThe intractable child refused to obey: stubborn, perverse, headstrong, ornery, hard to cope with, obstinate, willful,unmanageable, obdurate, incorrigible, mulish, unruly, fractious, froward, refractory, ungovernable, uncontrollable,contumacious, unmalleable, inflexible.—Antonymstractable, obedient, docile, submissive, subdued; compliant, acquiescent, amiable.186. intransigentadjectiveThe intransigent strikers refused to negotiate: uncompromising, stubborn, intractable, obdurate, iron-willed, steadfast,diehard, unyielding, unmovable, unbudgeable, inflexible.—Antonymscompromising, yielding, flexible, open-minded, acquiescent, compliant187. inundateverb1 Floodwaters inundated the valley: engulf, overflow, fill with water, overspread, drench, submerge, flood, deluge, drown.2 The visiting astronaut was inundated with invitations: swamp, glut, flood, saturate, overcome; load down, overburden,overwhelm.—Antonyms1 drain dry, reclaim, desiccate, parch, empty.188. inureverbGrowing up in Alaska inured him to cold weather: accustom, habituate, familiarize, make used to, naturalize, custom;harden, strengthen, toughen, season, temper, desensitize, discipline, train, adapt, acclimatize, acclimate, get used to.189. invectivenounInvective poured from the speakers mouth: bitter language, harsh words, verbal abuse, venom, vilification, insult,contumely, diatribe, execration, sarcasm; vituperation, denunciation, revilement, censure, rant, railing, billingsgate.—Antonyms
  42. 42. praise, honor, commendation.190. irascibleadjectiveThe irascible old man is constantly picking fights: easily angered, touchy, cantankerous, choleric, waspish, bad-tempered,ill-humored, hot-tempered, irritable, intractable, ornery, splenetic, cross, testy, cranky, grumpy, grouchy, peevish.—Antonymsgood-natured, amiable, gentle, mild, placid, serene, tranquil, easygoing.191. irresoluteadjectiveHis irresolute nature made him a poor executive: indecisive, wavering, hesitating, hesitant, faltering, unsettled, doubtful,undecided, uncertain, unsure, changeable, vacillating, fickle, weak, unsteady, unresolved.—Antonymsresolute, determined, unwavering, decisive; decided, certain.192. itinerarynoun1 Leave an itinerary so we can reach you: travel plan, schedule, detailed plan for a trip, list of places to be visited, timetable,course, route, circuit.2 Father kept a lively itinerary of the trip: log, record of a journey, travel record, journal, account, diary, day book.193. laconicadjectiveAlthough his speeches were laconic, they were informative: short, concise, brief, succinct, terse, compact, condensed, pithy,concentrated, sparing of words, pointed, to the point, summary; curt, blunt.—Antonymsvoluble, wordy, loquacious, garrulous, verbose.194. lassitudenounHis lassitude was caused by overwork: weariness, weakness, debility, sluggishness, fatigue, tiredness, exhaustion, fatigue,lack of energy, enervation, lethargy, listlessness, inertia, feebleness, indolence, faintness, torpor, torpidity, drowsiness,
  43. 43. languor, languidness, supineness, prostration, dullness, droopiness; apathy, indifference, ennui, doldrums, boredom;malaise.—Antonymsvigor, energy, strength, robustness, freshness; verve, spirit, vitality; Informal get-up-and-go, push, vim, pep.195. latentadjectiveMany of our deepest desires remain latent: dormant, sleeping, quiescent, inactive, passive, suspended, in abeyance,abeyant, potential, undeveloped, unrealized, unaroused, not manifest, hidden, concealed, covert, lurking, intangible,unapparent, unexposed, inconspic-uous, unexpressed.—Antonymsactivated, realized, developed; manifest, expressed, apparent, evident, obvious, conspicuous.196. laudverbThey lauded the brave attempt: praise, extol, applaud, celebrate, esteem, honor.—Antonymscensure, condemn, criticize.197. lethargicadjectiveThe hot, humid climate made everyone lethargic: lazy, drowsy, sleepy, soporific, languid, indolent, idle, dull, somnolent,comatose, enervated, debilitated, dispirited, unspirited, torpid, lackluster, sluggish, slothful, indifferent, passive, inert,listless, apathetic.—Antonymsenergetic, vigorous, alert, active, responsive, bright, spirited; energized, animated, stimulated.198.leveenoun-A barrier constructed to contain the flow or water or to keep out the sea-dam,dike,dyke.199. levitynounThe situation is too grave for levity: frivolity, lightness, lightheartedness, whimsy, lack of earnestness or seriousness,triviality, hilarity, foolishness, silliness, joking, mirth, jocularity, trifling, flippancy, flightiness; pleasantry, fun.—Antonymsgravity, seriousness, sobriety, earnestness, solemnity, dignity.200. log
  44. 44. noun1 The cabin was built of logs: length of tree trunk, timber, part of tree limb; block, stump.2 The time of departure was entered in the ships log: logbook; (loosely) daybook, journal, calendar, diary, docket, schedule,account, record.verb3 The college student spent his summers logging in the north woods: cut timber, fell trees, work as a lumberjack, lumber.201. loquaciousadjectiveHes so loquacious I cant get a word in edgewise: talkative, talky, prolix, garrulous, wordy, verbose, voluble, windy, long-winded; prating, chatty, chattery, chattering, babbling, prattling; Informal gabby, blabby.—Antonymssilent, reserved, taciturn, closemouthed, uncommunicative, reticent.202. lucidadjective1 A lucid sky portended a fine day: shining, bright, clear, transparent, crystalline, brilliant, resplendent, radiant, lustrous,luminous, scintillating, sparkling, dazzling; pellucid; illuminated.2 The witness gave a lucid account of what happened: clear, easily understood, crystal clear, intelligible, understandable,articulate, comprehensible; precise, direct, straightforward, accurate, specific, well-organized, to the point, apposite,positive, certain.3 Although usually in a delirium, the patient has some lucid moments: clearheaded, clear thinking, normal, rational;responsive, perceptive.—Antonyms1 dark, darkling, gloomy, dusky, obscure, opaque, turgid, muddy, murky; overcast.2 unintelligible, incomprehensible, vague, indistinct, unclear, ambiguous, equivocal, garbled, mystifying.3 confused, muddled, irrational; unresponsive, unperceptive.203. luminousadjectiveThe watch has a luminous dial: reflecting light, luminescent, radiant, irradiated, glowing, lustrous, illuminated, shining;shining in the dark; bright, brilliant.204. magnanimousadjectiveOnly a truly magnanimous man could forgive such an insult: forgiving, free of vindictiveness, generous, largehearted, liberal;charitable, beneficent, philanthropic, altruistic, unselfish, princely.—Antonyms
  45. 45. unforgiving, vindictive, resentful, small, petty, selfish; parsimonious, miserly.205. malingerverbIn the army he would malinger by pretending to be ill: slack, shirk, procrastinate, loaf, dodge, evade, duck ones duty, liedown on the job; Slang goldbrick, goof off.206. malleableadjective1 Tin is a malleable metal: workable, easily shaped, easily wrought; ductile, tractable, plastic, pliant, flexible.2 Since young children are malleable, one must be careful what one says in front of them: impressionable, easily influenced,moldable, tractable, teachable, manageable, governable, docile; adaptable, flexible, pliable, compliant.—Antonyms1 rigid, stiff, hard, firm; unyielding, inflexible, unbending, inelastic.2 refractory, intractable, recalcitrant, ungovernable.207. mavericknoun1 The cowboys rounded up the mavericks for branding: unbranded calf, yearling; unbranded cow; motherless calf.2 The young senator was regarded as a political maverick: noncomformist, eccentric, independent, individualist, loner,independent thinker, ones own man; dissenter, dissident.208. mendaciousadjectiveThe mendacious retailer misled us: lying, untrue, false, untruthful, deceitful.—Antonymstruthful, honest.209. metamorphosisnoun1 There are four stages in the metamorphosis of a mosquito: transformation, change of form, mutation, transmutation,structural evolution, transfiguration, series of changes, modification, conversion, transmogrification.2 This once-confident man underwent a complete metamorphosis after his business failure: change in appearance orbehavior, personality change, transformation, alteration, radical change, startling change, permutation.210. meticulousadjective
  46. 46. Our meticulous housekeeper never forgets a thing: fastidious, scrupulous, exact, exacting, minutely careful, solicitous aboutdetails, painstaking, precise, nice, finical, finicky, fussy, particular; punctilious, perfectionist.—Antonymscareless, inexact, imprecise, sloppy, negligent.211. misanthropicadjectiveHis unhappy childhood fostered his misanthropic personality: antisocial, unfriendly, unsociable, distrustful, unneighborly,inhospitable, morose, unpersonable, cynical, surly, discourteous, unaccommodating, unapproachable, unresponsive, cold,distant.—Antonymspersonable, amiable, amicable, loving, sociable, cordial; humanitarian; philanthropic, charitable.212. mitigateverbTheres no way to mitigate the effect of that unfavorable report: lessen, relieve, moderate, moderate in severity, alleviate,abate in intensity, palliate, soften, assuage, allay, soothe, placate, weaken, mollify, ameliorate, ease, blunt, reduce, lighten,diminish, temper, extenuate.—Antonymsincrease, augment, heighten, enhance, strengthen.213. mollifyverbFlowers would not mollify her anger: appease, calm, moderate, placate, quell, still, lessen, mitigate, allay, reduce, palliate,conciliate, make less violent, decrease, soften, pacify, soothe, tone down, quiet, lighten, temper, abate, ease, assuage,curb, check, dull, lull, blunt.—Antonymsexasperate, exacerbate, agitate, stir, increase.214. moroseadjectiveI feel very morose after reading that sad story: depressed, low, crestfallen, sad, melancholy, downcast, moody, glum, dour,Informal blue, down in the dumps; saturnine, mopish, gloomy, despondent, mournful, solemn; sullen, sulky, cross, surly,testy, waspish, sour, churlish, grumpy, cranky, ill-tempered, irascible.—Antonyms
  47. 47. cheerful, blithe, happy, good-natured, pleasant, genial, amiable, friendly.215. mundaneadjectiveArtists often have trouble with the mundane affairs of life: ordinary, prosaic, commonplace, worldly, terrestrial, earthly, down-to-earth, day-to-day, routine, humdrum, everyday, practical, pedestrian, petty.—Antonymsheavenly, celestial, ethereal, empyrean, unearthly, unworldly, spiritual.216. negateverbThis years losses negate last years profits: nullify, invalidate, void, reverse; quash, squash, quell, squelch; vanquish,defeat, overthrow, overwhelm, destroy, wipe out, blot out; deny, abrogate, revoke, gainsay, retract, disavow; rebut, refute,contradict; disallow, set aside; veto, repeal; disown, disclaim, repudiate.—Antonymsaffirm, confirm, attest to, ratify, endorse, corroborate, reinforce, support.217. neophytenounThe neophyte learned the ropes very fast: beginner, tyro, apprentice, trainee, novice, probationer, newcomer, recruit,learner; tenderfoot, rookie, greenhorn, student, pupil; convert, proselyte, entrant, disciple, no-vitiate.—Antonymsveteran, old hand, expert.218. obdurateadjective1 The child was obdurate in refusing to eat vegetables: stubborn, obstinate, intractable, unyielding, inflexible, adamant,immovable, willful, headstrong, pigheaded, mulish, bullheaded; unmanageable, uncontrollable, ungovernable.2 The tyrant was obdurate in his treatment of prisoners: unmoved, uncaring, unfeeling, harsh, merciless, unmerciful,unpitying, pitiless, unsympathetic, uncompassionate, unsparing, untouched; hardened, callous, cruel, cold-blooded,hardhearted.—Antonyms1 obedient, agreeable, compliant, flexible, amenable; manageable, docile, tractable.
  48. 48. 2 compassionate, sympathetic, caring, feeling, merciful, pitying, relenting, softhearted, kind, gentle, tender.219. obsequiousadjectiveThe boss prefers obsequious underlings: servile, fawning, toadying, sycophantic, subservient, menial, ingratiating,deferential, slavish, cringing, cowering, mealymouthed, truckling, Slang bootlicking, kowtowing, apple-polishing.—Antonymsdomineering, overbearing, swaggering, lordly, imperious, proud, haughty, arrogant, impudent, brash, bold, assertive,forceful, aggressive.220. obviateverbThe suspects confession obviates the necessity for a trial: avert, avoid, make unnecessary, circumvent, remove, do awaywith, preclude, prevent; forestall, divert, parry, sidetrack, ward off, turn aside, stave off, fend off, Informal nip in the bud.—Antonymsnecessitate, require, make essential, oblige, impel, cause, make unavoidable.221. occludeverbWaste materials seem to be occluding the drain: obstruct, block, clog, shut off, shut up, choke, choke off, plug, close,barricade, congest, stopper, stop up, constrict, strangulate.—Antonymsclear, unclog, open, ream, unplug.222. officiousadjectiveIts hard to be an office manager without being officious: obtrusive, intrusive, interfering, meddlesome, meddling, prying,poking ones nose in, offering gratuitous advice or services, Informal kibitzing; overbearing, domineering, self-important,self-assertive, high-handed, high and mighty; pompous, patronizing.—Antonymsunobtrusive, in the background.223. onerousadjectiveHolding down two jobs can be an onerous task: oppressive, burdensome, hard to endure, arduous, not easy to bear,distressing, painful, wearisome, taxing, exhausting, crushing, heavy, weighty, demanding, grievous.—Antonyms
  49. 49. easy, light, simple, effortless, trivial, trifling.224. opprobriousadjective1 The editorial made an opprobrious attack on modern morals: damning, denunciatory, condemnatory, hypercritical,censorious, faultfinding; abusive, scurrilous, acrimonious, malicious, malevolent, maligning, vilifying, vitriolic, fulminating,reviling.2 The officer was reprimanded for his opprobrious conduct: disgraceful, dishonorable, shameful, disreputable, objectionable,unbecoming, deplorable, reprehensible, base, outrageous, shocking, scandalous, infamous, nefarious, despicable, corrupt,wicked.—Antonyms1 complimentary, flattering, approving, praising, laudatory, uncritical.2 honorable, noble, meritorious, upright, ethical, principled, virtuous, moral; becoming, praiseworthy, worthy, laudable,noteworthy, estimable.225. oscillateverb1 The clocks pendulum caught the sunlight as it oscillated: swing, alternate, librate; pulsate, vibrate, pulse, move back andforth, seesaw, come and go, ebb and flow.2 Hes been oscillating between liberal and conservative all his life: waver, vacillate, hesitate, fluctuate, vary, hem and haw,shilly-shally, change, equivocate.226. ostentatiousadjectiveGrandfather warned us not to be ostentatious with our money. The dress is too ostentatious to wear to a reception: flauntingwealth, fond of display, showing off, pompous, immodest, grandiose, affected, high-flown; conspicuous, pretentious,flamboyant, flashy, showy, gaudy, garish, loud, florid, overdone, exaggerated, obtrusive.—Antonymsmodest, reserved, conservative, somber, sedate; inconspicuous, simple, plain.227. paragonnounAunt Sue has always been a paragon of virtue: model, example, exemplar, prototype, archetype, paradigm, apotheosis,idea, symbol, pattern, standard, norm, criterion, yardstick.228. partisannoun1 The hometown partisans cheered the local team: supporter, follower, adherent, sympathizer, champion, advocate, ally,backer, upholder, enthusiast, fan, zealot, devotee, rooter, booster.2 Even after the country was defeated, partisans fought the invaders in the hills: freedom fighter, guerrilla, irregular,insurgent; (U.S. Civil War) bushwacker, jayhawker.
  50. 50. adjective3 The senator vowed not to engage in partisan politics: favoring one political party, predisposed toward one group, favoringa cause, partial, biased, prejudiced, one-sided, slanted, unbalanced, subjective.—Antonyms1 detractor, defamer, censor, critic, backbiter, knocker; opponent, foe, adversary, rival, contender.3 nonpartisan, bipartisan, unbiased, impartial, unprejudiced, disinterested, objective, broad-minded, open-minded.229. pathologicalpath•o•log•i•cal (path* loj"i k*l) also patho•log"ic, adj.1. of or pertaining to pathology.2. caused or affected by disease.3. characterized by an unhealthy compulsion: a pathological liar.[1680–90] patho•log"i•cal•ly, adv.230. paucitynounThere was a paucity of information on the reported invasion: scarcity, dearth, lack, shortage, scarceness, scantiness,deficiency, poverty, sparsity, meagerness, puniness, thinness, poorness, insufficiency.—Antonymssurfeit, overflow, excess, surplus, superabundance.231. pedanticadjectiveWhen you ask him a question you get a pedantic answer: ostentatiously learned, pompous, academic, scholastic, didactic,doctrinaire, bookish, stilted, dogmatic, punctilious, hairsplitting, nitpicking, overly meticulous, fussy, finicky, overparticular.—Antonymssuccinct, pithy, straightforward; vague; general, comprehensive232. penchantnounThe fat youth had a penchant for rich desserts: fondness, partiality, liking, strong inclination, fancy, preference, predilection,proclivity, propensity, leaning, attraction, taste, relish, tendency, affinity, predisposition, disposition, proneness, prejudice,bias; flair, bent, readiness, turn, knack, gift.—Antonyms
  51. 51. hatred, dislike, loathing, aversion, abhorrence, disinclination, repulsion.233. penurynounShe lived in penury during her last years: poverty, impoverishment, want, indi-gence, need, privation, destitution, straitenedcircumstances, dire necessity; financial ruin, insolvency, bankruptcy.—Antonymswealth, prosperity, opulence, luxury, elegance, abundance, affluence.234. perennialadjectiveHe sat there with that perennial grin on his face: perpetual, everlasting, permanent, constant, incessant, unceasing,ceaseless, continual, continuous, unremitting, persistent; fixed, changeless, unchanging, immutable, durable, imperishable,indestructible, lasting, enduring, long-lasting, undying, timeless, unfailing, long-lived.—Antonymstemporary, occasional, sporadic, intermittent, periodic, evanescent; perishable, transient, fleeting, ephemeral, temporal.235. perfidiousadjectiveBenedict Arnolds perfidious act made him his countrys first traitor: treacherous, traitorous, treasonous, deceitful, false,disloyal, unfaithful, faithless, treasonable, dishonorable, untrustworthy, unscrupulous; dishonest, corrupt, untruthful,undependable, lying, cheating; Informal sneaky, double-dealing, shifty, two-faced.236. perfunctoryadjectiveThat was certainly a perfunctory "hello" he gave us: indifferent, casual, disinterested, offhand, careless, unconcerned,unthinking, cursory, inattentive, lax, hasty, superficial, routine, mechanical, halfhearted, lukewarm, apathetic, spiritless,listless, passionless; negligent.—Antonymscareful, thorough, thoughtful, diligent, assiduous, attentive, warmhearted, effusive, spirited, ardent, keen, zealous.237. permeableper•me•a•ble (pûr"me * b*l), adj. capable of being permeated.[1400–50; late ME < LL permeabilis = permea(re) to PERMEATE + -bilis -BLE]per"me•a•ble•ness, n.per"me•a•bly, adv.
  52. 52. 238. pervasiveadjectiveIll feeling was pervasive at the plant: pervading, prevalent, permeating, widespread, common, extensive, general,omnipresent, ubiquitous, universal, inescapable.239. phlegmaticadjectiveAdmiral Togo was always phlegmatic in the face of danger: indifferent, apathetic, nonchalant, unemotional, unimpassioned,undemonstrative, unresponsive, imperturbable, unconcerned, unexcitable, cool, calm, serene, tranquil, impassive, stoical;spiritless, listless, languid, lethargic, sluggish, dull, passive, unfeeling, insensitive.—Antonymsemotional, passionate, excited; active, demonstrative, alert, lively, animated, energetic, interested.240. pietynounThe old woman expressed her piety by attending church daily: piousness, religiousness, devoutness, devotion, godliness;reverence, respect, loyalty, dutifulness, humility; religiosity.—Antonymsimpiety, sacrilege, ungodliness, blasphemy, irreverence; disrespect, disloyalty, infidelity.241. placateverbNo one can placate him when hes angry: calm, soothe, pacify, quiet, lull, mollify, assuage, alleviate; appease, propitiate,win over, conciliate.242.Plasticity.plas•tic•i•ty (pla stis"i te), n.1. the quality or state of being plastic.2. the capability of being molded: the plasticity of clay.[1775–85]243. platitudenounThe speech was dull and full of platitudes: trite remark, stereotyped expression, cliché, banality, commonplace, truism,hackneyed saying, old saw, saw, threadbare phrase, Slang chestnut, bromide, old familiar tune, same old thing.
  53. 53. 244. plethoranounThe potluck supper had a plethora of desserts but no meat dishes: excess, surplus, superfluity, surplusage, surfeit,overabundance, superabundance, glut, overage, redundancy.—Antonymsshortage, lack, scarcity, deficiency.245. plummetverbThe hawk plummeted toward the earth: plunge, fall, fall headlong, drop straight down, dive, tumble, descend abruptly,nosedive.—Antonymsrise, ascend, shoot upward, soar.246. porousadjectiveSponges are porous: absorbent, permeable, penetrable, pervious; honeycombed. sievelike, cellular, riddled, lacy; spongy.247. pragmaticadjectiveThe problem requires a pragmatic solution, not theories: down-to-earth, matter-of-fact, practical, utilitarian, hardheaded,sober, businesslike, hard-boiled, sensible, realistic, unidealistic, hard-nosed, materialistic, unsentimental.—Antonymsidealistic, theoretical; romantic, dreamy, sentimental.248. preamblepre•am•ble (pre"amb*l, pre am"-), n.1. an introductory statement; preface.2. the introductory part of a statute, deed, constitution, or other document, stating the intent of what follows.3. a preliminary or introductory fact or circumstance.[1350–1400; ME < ML praeambulum, n. use of neut. of LL praeambulus walking before. See PRE-, AMBLE]pre"ambled, adj.249. precarious
  54. 54. adjective1 The situation was precarious politically: vulnerable, uncertain, problematical, ticklish, uncontrolled, critical, insecure, touch-and-go, not to be depended upon, unreliable, undependable, doubtful, dubious, questionable.2 Free-lance work can be a precarious occupation: hazardous, risky, perilous, unsafe, chancy, unsteady, unstable, shaky;alarming, sinister.—Antonyms1 certain, sure, secure, dependable, reliable, unquestionable.2 safe, steady, stable.250. precipitateverb1 The war precipitated his induction into the army: hasten, bring on, quicken, expedite, speed up, accelerate, advance, spur.2 The explosion precipitated tons of snow from the mountain: throw, hurl, thrust, cast, fling, propel, drive, launch, catapult,discharge, let fly.adjective3 She had to make precipitate choices as the test was only 5 minutes: hurried, hasty, abrupt, rushed, proceeding rapidly,speedy; headlong, reckless, rash, incautious, foolhardy, imprudent, thoughtless, impetuous, impulsive.251. precursornounThe polite letters were only precursors to blackmail: vanguard, advance guard, forerunner; harbinger, messenger; usher,herald; predecessor, antecedent; sign, token, mark, omen, portent, warning; symptom.252. presumptuousadjective1 It was presumptuous of the young senator to challenge the leadership so soon: bold, audacious, daring, overconfident,overfamiliar, forward, nervy, shameless, brash, brazen, brassy, fresh, cocky.2 Her presumptuous airs made her disliked by many: haughty, proud, snobbish, assuming, overbearing, lofty, patronizing,pompous, lordly, imperious; disdainful, contemptuous, domineering, dictatorial, arrogant.253. prevaricateverbShe may have prevaricated a bit about her illustrious forebears: lie, fib, stretch the truth, dissemble, perjure, deceive, palter,be untruthful, tell a story, tell a tall story, be evasive; falsify, misstate, fake, hoodwink, counterfeit, misrepresent, mislead,distort.254. pristine
  55. 55. adjectiveIt was a pristine part of the woods that few hikers had ever seen: undefiled, unsullied, untouched, unspoiled, untarnished,virginal; uncontaminated, unpolluted, pure, unmarred.—Antonymssullied, defiled, contaminated, polluted, spoiled, tarnished.255. probitynounAbove all, the Presidency needs a man of probity for the Cabinet post: integrity, uprightness, honesty, virtue, high-mindedness, morality, character, principle, honor, trustworthiness, incorruptibility, straightness, decency, goodness,righteousness.—Antonyms dishonesty, duplicity, unscrupulous, corruption.256. problematicadjectiveThe composition of Saturns rings is problematic: uncertain, doubtful, questionable, dubious, unsettled, undetermined,enigmatic, unknown; perplexing, paradoxical, puzzling; difficult, troublesome, worrisome.—Antonymscertain, settled, known, undisputed, unquestionable.257. prodigaladjective1 He had nothing left of his inheritance because of his prodigal ways: wasteful, spendthrift, unthrifty, thriftless, overliberal,profligate, extravagant, exorbitant, lavish, excessive, gluttonous; improvident, dissipating, inordinate, intemperate,immoderate, reckless, impetuous, precipitate, wanton.2 The prodigal amount of eggs laid by the fish insure the survival of the species: bountiful, profuse, abounding, abundant,plentiful, bounteous, ample; lush, luxuriant, lavish, exuberant, generous; numerous, countless, numberless, innumerable,multitudinous; teeming, swarming, myriad, replete, copious.noun3 The prodigal went through money as if it were water: spendthrift, squanderer, spender, wastrel, profligate.—Antonyms1 thrifty, frugal, economical, cautious, miserly, stingy; provident, temperate, moderate.2 scarce, scanty, deficient, scant, meager, sparse, few, limited.258. profoundadjective
  56. 56. 1 That was a very profound statement: deep, thoughtful, wise, sagacious, sage, penetrating, piercing, learned, erudite,intellectual, scholarly, educated; knowledgeable, comprehensive, recondite, omniscient, all-knowing; philosophical,reflective, thoughtful, well-considered, sober, serious, sober-minded; informed, well-informed, knowing, enlightened.2 His death had a profound effect on her: deep, severe, abject, extreme; thorough, thoroughgoing, far-reaching, radical,utter, out-and-out, complete, consummate; penetrating, piercing, pronounced, decided, positive.3 Please accept my profound apologies: deeply felt, heartfelt, keenly felt, sincere, heart-stirring, strongly felt, deep-seated,soul-stirring, moving; hearty, intense, keen, acute, abject.—Antonyms1 shallow, superficial, unwise, stupid, unlearned, uneducated, unknowledgeable, thoughtless, inconsiderate; uninformed,unenlightened; imprudent.2 slight, superficial, shallow, surface, external.3 insincere, shallow, hollow.259. prohibitive also prohibitoryadjectiveProhibitive laws discouraged the drug trade. The project was abandoned because of prohibitive costs: inhibitive, restrictive,circumscriptive, enjoining, restraining, forbidding; suppressive, repressive; preventive, injunctive; hindering, obstructive,disallowing, disqualifying, inadmissible, unacceptable.260. proliferateverbRabbits proliferated after they were introduced into Australia: multiply, increase, reproduce rapidly, breed quickly,overproduce, procreate, regenerate, propagate, pullulate, teem, swarm; hatch, breed, spawn.261. propensitynounChildren have a propensity for candy: inclination, leaning, proclivity, predilection, liking, partiality, weakness, preference,penchant; attraction, liking, affinity, sympathy, favor, pleasure, taste, fancy; turn, bent, tendency, predisposition, bias,prejudice, disposition.—Antonymsdisinclination, aversion, loathing, dislike, hatred, antipathy, displeasure.262. propitiateverbOfferings were made to propitiate the gods: appease, placate, pacify, calm, assuage, mollify, conciliate, accommodate,soothe, allay.—Antonymsanger, madden, infuriate, roil, pique, provoke.
  57. 57. 263. proprietynounAlways conduct yourself with propriety: correctness; courtesy, decorum, good behavior, decorousness, dignity, goodmanners, etiquette, formality, gentlemanly or ladylike behavior, respectability; savoir faire, appropriateness, becomingness,applicability, fitness, suitableness, seemliness, aptness, rightness.—Antonymsimpropriety, incorrectness, discourtesy, misbehavior, misconduct, bad manners, faux pas, inappropriateness, unsuitability,unseemliness, inaptness, wrongness.264. proscribeverbDuring the Renaissance the church proscribed scientific works like those of Galileo: denounce, condemn, censure,disapprove, repudiate; curse, damn, anathematize; outlaw, prohibit, forbid, interdict, ban, excommunicate; banish, exile;boycott.—Antonymsallow, permit, encourage, aid.265. pungentadjective1 The ribs were served with a hot, pungent sauce: sharp-tasting, highly flavored, savory, spicy, flavorful, piquant,flavorsome, palatable, tasty, highly seasoned, salty, peppery, hot; nippy, tangy, strong, stimulating, sharp; sharp-smelling,acrid, sour, acid, tart, astringent, vinegary, caustic, bitter, acetous, biting, stinging, smarting, penetrating.2 His pungent ridicule made him quite a few enemies: sharp, piercing, pointed, acute, trenchant, keen, poignant; stinging,biting, mordent, caustic, invidious, cutting, incisive, penetrating, sarcastic, smart, wounding, tart, acrimonious, bitter;stimulating, stirring, provocative, tantalizing, racy, spicy, scintillating; sparkling, brilliant, clever, snappy, keen-witted, witty.—Antonyms1 bland, mild; unsavory, unpalatable, flavorless, tasteless; weak, unstimulating.2 dull, mild, moderate, inane, vapid; pointless.266. qualifiedadjective1 Take that dog to a qualified veterinarian: experienced, trained, competent, practiced, versed, knowing; eligible, fit, fitted,equipped, suited, meet, equal; capable, adept, able, talented, skilled, skillful, accomplished, expert; certified, licensed,authorized; efficacious, proficient, efficient.2 He gave a qualified answer when I asked for definite assurances: limited, indefinite, conditional, provisional, reserved,guarded; restricted, limited, hedging, equivocal, ambiguous.

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