ABOUT GARMENT INDUSTRY:
As the business increases day by day to global standards, garment
industry also takes its boom in the world trade. Though there are certain limitations and
drawbacks in the business scenario, it is still trying to achieve a memorable growth in the
From ancient days onwards, garments play an important role in each
and every ones life. Now the fashion technology is growing not only in towns and cities,
but also in small villages. People are now very much interested to wear new fashion
garments. Media also playing an important role in evaluating the garment industry all
over the world.
ABOUT GARMENT INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION (GIDC):
To protect the rights of manufacturers and to create a beneficial
marketing facility for garments, ‘THE GARMENT INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT
CORPORATION’ came in to force. The GIDC is a non-profit organization established in
1984 in the city of New York by the garments workers union and the new York skirt and
sports wear association to strengthen the worlds garment industry.
For the past twenty years, GIDC has evolved in to multi-tiered
service organization providing marketing, buyer referrals, training and technical
assistance to the manufacturers and workers.GIDC acts as a link between designers &
labels and high quality producers and it has the following directors:
BRUCE RAYNOR -CHAIRMAN
STEVEN E-THOMAS-VICE CHAIRMAN
EDGAR ROMNEY -SECRETARY TREASURER ETC
USE OF COMPUTERS IN GARMENT INDUSTRY:
CAD: Computer aided and designing (CAD) is industry specific design system using
computer as a tool. CAD is used to design anything from an aircraft to knitwear.
Originally CAD was used in designing high precision machinery. Slowly it is found its
way in other industries also. In 1970’s, it made an entry in the garment industry. Most
companies in India and abroad have now integrated some form of CAD in to their design
and production process.
In fact, according to national garment association of US, of 228 garment
65% use CAD to create color ways.
60% use CAD to create printed fabric design.
48% use CAD to create merchandising presentation.
41% use CAD to create knitwear design.
KNITTED FABRICS: Some systems specialize in knitwear production and final knitted
design can be viewed on screen with indication of all stitch formation.
PRINTED FABRICS: The process involves use of computers in design, development
and manipulation of motif. The motif can then be resized, recolored, rotated depending
on the designers goal.
SKETCH PAD SYSTEMS: These are graphic programmes that allow the designer to
use pen or stylus on electronic pad or tablet to create free hand images, which are then
stored in the computer.
TEXTURE MAPPING (OR) 3D DRAPING SOFTWARE: This technology allows
visualization of fabric on the body. Texture mapping is a process by which fabric can be
draped over a form in a realistic way.
EMBROIDERY SYSTEMS: The designs used for embroidery can be incorporated on
the fabric for making garment. For this, special computerized embroidery machines are
used. Designers can create their embroidery designs on the computer or can work with
scanned images of existing designs.
INTERNET AND INFORMATION EXPLOSION: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
FASHION TECHNOLOGY (NIFT), Calcutta is linked to Internet with TCP/IP account
and the students have continuous access to the sites of the top designers, trend forecasting
agencies, fashion houses and fabric suppliers. This has helped both the institute and the
students immensely keeping them updated with the latest trends.
From the above information, it is clear that the computers play an important
role in the development of garment industry.
GARMENT INDUSTRY IN INDIA:
The garment industry occupies a unique place in our country. It accounts for
14% of the total industrial production and contributes nearly 20% of the total exports and
is the second largest employment generator after agriculture.
Garment industry is providing one of the basic needs of people and maintained
sustained growth for improving quality of life. Its vast potential for creation of
employment opportunities on the agricultural, industrial organized and rural and urban
areas, particularly for women.
Although the development of garment sector was earlier taking place in terms
of general policies. In recognition of its importance of this sector for the first time, a
separate policy statement was made in 1985 in regard to development of garment sector.
The textile policy of 2000 aims at achieving the target of garment and apparel exports of
US $ 50 billion by 2010 of which the share of garment will be US $ 25 billion. The main
market for Indian garments are USA, UAE, UK, GERMANY, FRANCE, ITALY,
RUSSIA, CANADA, BANGLADESH AND JAPAN.
The main objective of the textile policy 2000 is to provide cloth of acceptable
quality at reasonable prices for the vast majority of population of the country and to
compete with confidence for an increasing share of the global market.
From the above it is clear that garment occupies a unique position in our
economy contributing to nearly a one third of the country’s earnings. The industry
includes manufacturers, suppliers, whole sellers and exporters of cotton textiles etc.
Today handloom and cotton textile exports in India is counted among the most important
The garment industry in India is widely named for its superb quality garments.
Total textile exports during April-march 1998-99 were rs 52720.78 crores. Readymade
garment exports comprises nearly 40% of the total exports.
Developing countries with both textile and clothing capacity may be able to
prosper in the new competitive environment after the textile quota regime of quantitative
import restrictions under the multi-fiber arrangement (MFA) came in to an end on 1st
January 2005 under the world trade organization (WTO) agreement on textiles and
As a result, the garment industry in developed countries will face huge
competition in both their exports and domestic markets. The elimination of quota
restriction will open the way for the most competitive developing countries to develop
stronger clusters of the garment industry which enable them to handle all stages of the
production chain from growing natural fibers to producing finished clothing.
The garment industry is undergoing a major reorientation towards non-
clothing applications of textiles known as technical textiles which are growing roughly at
twice rate textiles for clothing applications and now account for more than half of total
textile production. The processes involved in producing technical textile require
expensive equipments and skilled workers.
As a result of various initiatives taken by the government, there has been
new investment of rs 50000 crore in the garment industry in the last five years. Nine
garment majors invested rs 2600 crores and plan to invest another rs 6400 crore. Further,
India’s cotton production increased by 57% over the last five years and three million
additional spindles. The industry expects investment of rs 1,40,000 crores in this sector in
the post MFA phase. A vision 2010 for garments formulated by the government after
interaction with the industry and exports promotion councils aims to increase India’s
share in the worlds garment from the current 4% to 8% by 2010 vision and plan to
increase Indian garment economy from the current US $ 37 billion to
$ 85 billion by 2010 and creation of 12 million new jobs in the garment sector.
There will be opportunities as well as challenges for the Indian garment
industry in the post MFA era. But India has natural advantages, which can be capitalized
on strong raw-material base cotton, man made fabrics, jute silk. Further, for the benefit of
exporters, there should be a state owned cargo-shipping mechanism. Several initiatives
have already been taken by the government to overcome some of these concerns
Shri Kamal Nath, union minister of commerce and industry has said that
India will take up the issue of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) in the world trade organization
(WTO) Doha round of multi lateral trade negotiations, which are expected to gather
steam from march 2005 onwards.
On the eve of republic day, president DR.ABDUL KALAM said that, “India
is presently exporting six billion US dollars worth of garments, where as with the WTO
regime in place, we can increase the production and export of garments to 18 to 20 billion
US dollars with in the next five years. This will enable generation of employment in
general and in rural areas in particular with the help of export of garments. We can add
more than 5 million direct jobs and 7 million indirect jobs in the garment sector.
Primarily in the cultivation of cotton, efforts are needed in cotton research, technology,
generation, transfer of technology, modernization and upgrading of ginning and pressing
factories and growth in marketing strategy”.
INDIAN GARMENT EXPORT INDUSTRY:
India is a major exporter of garments, fabrics and accessories for the global
fashion industry. Indian ethnic designs and materials are an important factor in the plans
of fashion houses and garment manufacturers all over the world. Those buttons on the
Levis you are wearing could well have been made in India.
The welcome decision of phasing out Multi Fiber Agreement (MFA) will end
the regime of quotas and other rules and regulations made by the Indian governments
helps us to create a competitive export garment industry all over the world.
For India, the clothing industry has performed quite well in exports. It has
been facing most of the quotas every year. As compared to rs 12 crores in 1970-71,
exports have reached rs 18000 crores by 1998. The major competitors in this segment of
the market are developed countries, Asian tigers like Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and
Singapore. Developing countries like Bangladesh and Mayan mar of china, of course.
In order to ensure quality of garment exports, the SSI restriction of the
garment exports, the SSI restriction of the garment industry should be removed. Present
equity participation of 24% by the foreign partners need to be enhanced and joint
ventures with majority shareholdings as well as technical collaborations should be
allowed. Labor laws need to be reorganized and the export procedures should be
LATEST TRENDS (NEWS) IN GARMENT AND TEXTILE SECTOR:
1. India recorded exports of $ 461 million in March 2005, against $ 351 million in
March 2004. The increase has continued from February, when textile exports
stood at $ 410 million. India has shown a 28% growth for the period January to
march 2005 as compared to the same period last year. While china remains the
lead country in terms of textile imports to the US. Countries like Mexico and
Canada continue to loose out to India and china. Imports were threatening
thousands of US jobs. The us has the power to impose caps of 7.5% growth in
textile and clothing categories on china under an agreement that the way for
Chinas membership in WTO in 2001.
2. Ministry of finance has added 165 new textile products under Duty Drawback
Schedule. The new products included wool tops. Cotton yarn, acrylic yarn,
various blended fabrics, fishing nets etc. further, the existing entries in the
drawback schedule relating to garments have been expanded to create separate
entries of garments made up of (a) cotton
3. (b) Man made fiber blend
4. After the phasing out of quota regime under the Multi Fiber Act (MFA), India
5. Increase its textile sector becoming $ 100 billion industry by 2010. This will
include exports of $ 50 billion. The proposed target would be achieved provided
reforms are initiated in textile sector and local manufacturers adopt measures to
improve their competitiveness. A 5-pronged strategy aiming to attract foreign
direct investment by making reforms in local market. Replacements of existing
indirect taxes with a single nation wide VAT. Liberalization of contract norms
for textile and garment units. Elimination of restrictions that cause poor
operational and organizational performance of manufacturers was suggested.
6. The union minister shankar sinh vaghela said that the board for Industrial and
Financial Reconstruction (BIFR) had approved rehabilitation schemes for sick
NTC mills at the cost of rs. 3900 crores. Of the 66 mills, 65 mills have been
closed after implementing voluntary retirement scheme (VRS) to all employees.
The government has already constituted assets, sale committees comprising
representatives of central and state governments, operative agency, BIFR, NTC
and the concerned NTC subsidiary to effect sale of assets through open tender
7. Proposals for modernization of NTC mills have been made to the consultative
committee members including formation of a committee of experts to improve
management of these mills. Even the present status of jute industry was under
the scanner of the consultative committee.
8. The government had announced change from the value-based drawback rate
followed to a weight-based structure for textile exports that will discourage raw
material exports and also there is a scope for misusing the drawback claims by
boosting invoice value of exports.
9. NCDEX launched its silk contract (raw silk and cotton) on Thursday, January
20, 2005. With this launch, the total number of products offered by NCDEX
goes up to 27. The launch of silk contract will offer the entire suite of fibers to
the entire value chain ranging from farmers to textile mills. Government of
India jointly with NCDEX has adopted a policy of encouraging future contracts
of silk. The ministry of textiles and the central silk board (CSB) had decided to
introduce Futures trading in mulberry cocoons and raw silk on NCDEX. Futures
trading on the NCDEX will provide an alternative trading avenue for farmers,
weavers and traders and help them to make a better price for their product and it
will also helps them to reduce risks associated with natural calamities.
From this, we can conclude that garment industry is still in developing
stage in India. The government is taking a lot of efforts to upgrade the garment industry
in India. Rules and regulations on small scale units should be liberalized and export
procedures on exports of garments is to be simplified and some grants to be given to
those farmers who are dependent on cotton and jute corps.
This firm was promoted by Late. Shri. Mohan das Kundanmal Mahataney, the
founder /promoter of associated apparels Pvt.Ltd, who were the makers of “LIBERTY”
shirts for the domestic market and also license makers of Maidem form, Jockey, Jantzen
An illustrious son of an illustrious father, MR.Raju. M.Mahtaney is a commerce
graduate from Mumbai University, started his business career way back in 1968 by
joining his father’s business of ready-made garment exports. Later, he joined as a partner
in K.MOHAN in 1973. He became the managing partner in 1991, and since then his
contribution in terms of expertise has boosted the morale of the organization and thus
gained to be recognized as a reputed manufacturer in exports of woven garments. In the
present context of business scenario, he has been traveling extensively to western
countries and further gained rich industrial experience especially in fabric and machine
etc. he was a member of the executive committee and also chairman of EDP of apparel
export promotion council. He also an active executive member in CIA &
INDO_AMERICAN chamber of commerce.
Ours is a garment manufacturing company fully equipped for exporting the
finished products. K.MOHAN & CO is situated 10 kms from the center of the beautiful
garden city of ban galore. We specialize in the manufacture of high quality of men’s and
women’s wear in the woven fabrics category. We predominantly cater to the American
market. K.Mohan among the oldest garment export houses in the country, established in
the year 1973.
K.Mohan & co is well equipped to meet any requirements of overseas clients.
In other words, we are proud to maintain that we are compliant to all standards set by our
clients. Our professional approach towards business makes us very easy to work with,
and fosters our business tie-ups and relationships, a very pleasing association. It has
locations at seven places in ban galore at Bannerghatta Road, Hulimavu, Begur,
Bommanahalli, Hong Sandra, Sing Sandra and Veer Sandra.
K.Mohan & co has an impressive product range in the woven garments sector.
We are capable of manufacturing quality garments over a wide range of styles, size-
ranges and fabrics. Though we have produced a wider range in the past, we are now
focused on items such as men’s and women’s pants, shorts, shirts and blouses as well.
We are proud to be associated with-
The Gap Inc., Banana Republic, Polo Ralph Lauren, Nike, The Boom
Club, Lane Bryant, The Limited Group, Ralph Lauren, Polo Jeans, Kohl’s, Nill Blass,
Vetir, Decathlon, Shopko, Jones Apparel group and the like.
In every unit, we have a technical person viz., production manager in
charge of the unit associated by factory manager and production co-ordinators. The area
group HRD managers also take care of all the issues relating to the workers, including
HR activities, welfare, safety etc. where the number of employees exceed the limit
prescribed under the factories act. We have a safety officer too. Also we have a lady
medical officer visiting the units.
We have our own two in-house laundry units at Hulimavu and Sing Sandra
with modern machineries, which cater to all our wash requirements. To be candid, we
have all facilities to meet the contingencies. We have obtained the necessary consent for
both water and air in all our units.
Running a business with constraints in infrastructure facilities is a tough task,
meeting simultaneously the requirements of the buyers. In the present power crisis, we
are also running the generators in all our units, affecting the business profits to a large
extent availability of water, yet another concern. With all these constraints around, our
managing partner has been effectively managing the business. Labors, though available
in the areas, are not skilled. Hence we trained them in our training school and absorb
them with an amount of risk of their longevity.
It is a family partnership firm registered under the Indian partnership act, 1932.
Its corporate office is at begur road, bommanahalli hobli, Bangalore-560075.
All raw materials is checked for quality and quantity and stored in a central
warehouse. Inventory handling is fully computerized.
The merchandising section and shipping department is well equipped with
instant communication systems like EDI. We are working on implementing ERP.
The CAD section is again fully equipped with the GGT ACCUMARK
REALEASE 7.62 PATTERN MAKING, GRADING AND MARKING SYSTEM.
We have automatic plotters (AP- 100) and pattern-cutting (MUTOH-1650) machines.
We have a fully integrated CAD/CAS/CAM section at one of our units. It is
equipped with state of the art automatic spreading (SYNCHRON 175) and cutting (GT-
7250) machinery from Gerber technology inc., of USA.
We possess a 20-head embroidery machine capable of 7-9 colors. Machine is of
Baruden make and stitching capacity is 20,00 –25,00 stitches per hour.
The production floor is equipped with the latest machinery. Trained and
specialized personnel who have lot of experience in the garment production field man it.
We have technical experts who help implement the quality standards in our merchandise
(like AQL levels).
We use accredited testing labs for fabric package testing and garment testing. Our
employers are dedicated and work for the company untiringly, sinciourly honesty,
diligently, maintaining all the more a high standard of discipline which also contribute as
one of the reasons for the growth of the company to this stage.
Job satisfaction is one of the important factors which have drawn attention of
managers in the organization as well as academicians. Various studies have been
conducted to find out the factors which determine job satisfaction and the way it
influences productivity in the organization. Though there is no conclusive evidence that
job satisfaction affects productivity directly because productivity depends on so many
variables, it is still a prime concern for managers.
Job satisfaction is the mental feeling of favorableness which an individual has
about his job. DuBrins has defined job satisfaction in terms of pleasure and contentment
when he says that:
“Job satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment associated with a job. If
you like your job intensely, you will experience high job satisfaction. If dislike your job
intensely, you will experience job dissatisfaction.”
DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION :
While analyzing the various determinants of job satisfaction, we have to keep in
mind that: all individuals do not derive the same degree of satisfaction though they
perform the same job in the same job environment and at the same time. Therefore, it
appears that besides the nature of job and job environment, there are individual variables
which affect job satisfaction thus all those factors which provide a fit among individual
variables, nature of job, and the situational variables determine the degree of job
satisfaction. Let us see what these factors are.
Individuals have certain expectations from their jobs. If there expectations are
met from the jobs, they feel satisfied. These expectations are based on an individual’s
level of education, age, and other factors.
1. Level of Education: Level of education of an individual is a factor which determines
the degree of job satisfaction. For example several studies have found negative
correlation between the level of education, particularly higher level of education, and job
satisfaction. The possible reason for this phenomenon may be that highly educated
persons have very high expectations from their jobs which remain unsatisfied. In their
case, Peter’s principle which suggests that every individual tries to reach his level of
incompetence, applies more quickly.
2. Age: individuals experience different degree of job satisfaction at different stages of
their life. Job satisfaction is high at the initial stage, gets gradually reduced, starts rising
up to certain stage, and finally dips to a low degree. The possible reasons for this
phenomenon are like this. When an individual joins an organization. He may have some
unrealistic assumptions about what they are going to derive from their work. These
assumptions make them more satisfied. However, when these assumptions fall short of
reality, job satisfaction goes down. It starts rising again as the people start to asses the
jobs in right perspective and correct their assumptions. At the last, particularly at the fag
end of the career, job satisfaction goes down because of fear of retirement and future
3. Other Factors: besides the above two factors, there are other individual factors
which affect job satisfaction. If an individual does not have favorable social and family
life, he may not feel happy at the work place. Similarly other personal problems
associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction.
NATURE OF JOB:
Nature of job determines job satisfaction which is in the form of occupation
level and job content.
1. Occupational level: Higher level jobs provide more satisfaction as compared to
lower levels. This happens because high level jobs carry prestige and status in the society
which itself becomes source of satisfaction for the job holders. For example,
professionals derive more satisfaction as compared to salaried people; factory workers
are least satisfied.
2. Job content: job content refers to the intrinsic value of the job which depends on the
requirement of skills for performing it, and the degree of responsibility and growth it
offers. A higher content of these factors provides higher satisfaction. For example, a
routine and repetitive job provides lesser satisfaction ; the degree of satisfaction
progressively increases in job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment.
Situational variables related to a job satisfaction lie in organizational context-
formal and informal. As we shall see in the next part of text, formal organization is
created by the management and informal organization emerges out of the interaction of
individuals in the organization. Some of the important factors which affect job
satisfaction are given below.
1. Working conditions: working conditions, particularly physical work environment,
like conditions of workplace and associated facilities for performing the job determine
job satisfaction. These work in two ways. First, these provide means for job
performance. Second, provision of these conditions affect the individuals perception
about the organization. If these factors are favorable, individuals experience higher level
of job satisfaction.
2. Supervision: The type of supervision affects job satisfaction as in each type of
supervision; the degree of importance attached to individuals varies. In employee-
oriented supervision, there is more concern for people which is perceived favorably by
them and provides them more satisfaction. In job-oriented supervision, there is more
emphasis on the performance of the job and people become secondary. This situation
decreases job satisfaction.
3. Equitable Rewards: The type of linkage that is provided between job performance
and rewards determines the degree of job satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be
based on the job performance and equitable, it offers higher satisfaction. If the reward is
perceived to be based on considerations other than the job performance, it affects job
4. Opportunity for Promotion: It is true that individuals seek satisfaction in their jobs
in the context of job nature and work environment but they also attach importance to the
opportunities for promotion that these jobs offer. If the present job offers opportunity of
promotion in future, it provides more satisfaction. If the opportunity for such promotion
is lacking, it reduces satisfaction.
5. Work Group: Individuals work in group either created formally or they develop on
their own to seek emotional satisfaction at the workplace. To the extent, such groups are
cohesive; the degree of satisfaction is high. If the group satisfaction out of their
interpersonal interaction and workplace becomes satisfying leading to job satisfaction.
Effect of Job Satisfaction:
Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. These effects may be seen in the context
of an individuals physical and mental health, productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.
Physical and Mental Health:
The degree of job satisfaction affects an individuals physical and mental health.
Since job satisfaction is a type of mental feeling, its favorableness or unfavourableness
affects the individual psychologically which ultimately affects his physical health. For
example Lawler has pointed out that drug abuse, alcoholism, and mental and physical
health result from psychologically harmful jobs. Further, since a job is and important
part of life, job satisfaction influences general life satisfaction. The result is that there is
spillover effect which occurs in both directions between job and life satisfaction.
There are two views about the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity:
1. A happy worker is a productive worker.
2. A happy worker is not necessarily a productive worker.
The first view establishes a direct cause-effect relationship between job satisfaction
and productivity; when job satisfaction increases, productivity increases; when job
satisfaction decreases, productivity decreases. The basic logic behind this is that a happy
worker will put more efforts for job performance. However, this may not be true in all
cases. For example, a worker having low expectations from his job may feel satisfied but
he may not put his efforts more vigorously because of his low expectations from the job.
Therefore, this view does not explain fully the complex relationship between job
satisfaction and productivity.
The another view: that is a satisfied worker is not necessarily a productive worker
explains the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. Various research
studies also support this view. This relationship may be explained in terms of the
operation and organizational expectations from individuals for job performance.
1. Job performance leads to job satisfaction and not the other way round. The basic
factor for this phenomenon is the rewards (a source of satisfaction) attached with
performance. There are two types of rewards-intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic
reward stems from the job itself which may be in the form of growth potential,
challenging job, etc. the satisfaction on such a type of reward may help to increase
productivity. The extrinsic reward is subject to control by management such as salary,
bonus, etc. any increase in these factors does not help to increase productivity though
these factors increase job satisfaction.
2. A happy worker does not necessarily contribute to higher productivity because he
has to operate under certain technological constraints and, therefore, he cannot go beyond
certain output. Further, this constraint affects the managements expectations from the
individual in the form of lower output. Thus, the work situation is pegged to minimally
acceptable level of performance.
However, it does not mean that the job satisfaction has no impact on productivity.
A satisfied worker may not necessarily lead to increased productivity but a dissatisfied
worker leads to lower productivity.
Absenteeism: Absenteeism refers to the frequency of absence of a job holder from the
workplace either unexcused absence due to some avoidable reasons or long absence due
to some unavoidable reasons. It is the former type of absence which is a matter of
concern. This absence is due to lack satisfaction from the job which produces a ‘lack of
will to work’ and alienate a worker from work as far as possible. Thus, Job satisfaction is
related to absenteeism.
Employee Turnover: Turnover of employees is the rate at which employees leave the
organization within a given period of time. As discussed earlier in this chapter under
defense mechanism, when an individual feels dissatisfaction in the organization, he tries
to overcome this through the various ways of defense mechanism. If he is not able to do
so, he opts to leave the organization. Thus, in general case, employee turnover is related
to job satisfaction. However, job satisfaction is not the only cause of employee turnover,
the other cause being better opportunity elsewhere. For example, in the present context,
the rate of turnover of computer software professionals is very high in India. However,
these professionals leave their organizations not simply because they are not satisfied but
because of the opportunities offered from other sources particularly from foreign
companies located abroad.
Improving Job Satisfaction:
Job satisfaction plays significant role in the organization. Therefore, managers
should take concrete steps to improve the level of job satisfaction. These steps may be in
the form of job redesigning to make the job more interesting and challenging, improving
quality of work life, linking rewards with performance, and improving overall
As part of a larger project whose goal was to create an employee-driven, survey-
improvement process six factors that influenced job satisfaction. When these six
factors were high, job satisfaction was high. When the six factors were low, job
satisfaction was low. These factors are similar to what we have found in other
Employees are more satisfied when they have challenging opportunities at work.
This includes chances to participate in interesting projects, jobs with a satisfying degree
of challenge and opportunities for increased responsibility. Important: this is not simply
"promotional opportunity." As organizations have become flatter, Promotions can be
rare. People have found challenge through projects; team Leadership, special
assignments-as well as promotions.
• Promote from within when possible.
• Reward promising employees with roles on interesting projects.
• Divide jobs into levels of increasing leadership and responsibility.
It may be possible to create job titles that demonstrate increasing levels of
expertise, which are not limited by availability of positions. They simply demonstrate
When negative stress is continuously high, job satisfaction is low. Jobs are more
stressful if they interfere with employees' personal lives or are a continuing source of
worry or concern.
• Promote a balance of work and personal lives. Make sure that senior managers
model this behavior.
• Distribute work evenly (fairly) within work teams.
• Review work procedures to remove unnecessary "red tape" or bureaucracy.
• Manage the number of interruptions employees have to endure while trying to do
• Some organizations utilize exercise or "fun" breaks at work.
Employees are more satisfied when their managers are good leaders. This
includes motivating employees to do a good job, striving for excellence or just taking
• Make sure your managers are well trained. Leadership combines attitudes and
behavior. It can be learned.
• People respond to managers that they can trust and who inspire them to achieve
Work Standards.Employees are more satisfied when their entire workgroup takes
pride in the quality of its work.
• Encourage communication between employees and customers. Quality gains
importance when employees see its impact on customers.
• Develop meaningful measures of quality. Celebrate achievements in quality.
Trap: be cautious of slick, "packaged" campaigns that are perceived as superficial and
Employees are more satisfied when they feel they are rewarded fairly for
the work they do. Consider employee responsibilities, the effort they have put forth, the
work they have done well and the demands of their jobs.
• Make sure rewards are for genuine contributions to the organization.
• Be consistent in your reward policies.
• If your wages are competitive, make sure employees know this.
• Rewards can include a variety of benefits and perks other than money.
As an added benefit, employees who are rewarded fairly, experience less stress.
Employees are more satisfied when they have adequate freedom and
authority to do their jobs.
Actions: When reasonable:
• Let employees make decisions.
• Allow employees to have input on decisions that will affect them.
• Establish work goals but let employees determine how they will achieve those
goals. Later reviews may identify innovative "best practices."
• Ask, "If there were just one or two decisions that you could make, which ones
would make the biggest difference in your job?"
Employees with higher job satisfaction:
• Believe that the organization will be satisfying in the long run
• Care about the quality of their work
• Are more committed to the organization
• Have higher retention rates, and
• Are more productive.
Recognition. Individuals at all levels of the organization want to be recognized for their
achievements on the job. Their successes don't have to be monumental before they
deserve recognition, but your praise should be sincere. If you notice employees doing
something well, take the time to acknowledge their good work immediately. Publicly
thank them for handling a situation particularly well. Write them a kind note of praise. Or
give them a bonus, if appropriate. You may even want to establish a formal recognition
program, such as "employee of the month."
Advancement. Reward loyalty and performance with advancement. If you do not have
an open position to which to promote a valuable employee, consider giving him or her a
new title that reflects the level of work, he or she has achieved. When feasible, support
employees by allowing them to pursue further education, which will make them more
valuable to your practice and more fulfilled professionally.
• Job satisfaction is good not only for employees but employers, too; it increases
productivity and decreases staff turnover.
• An organization's policies, if unclear or unfair, can stand in the way of employee
• Employees need a reasonable amount of social interaction on the job.
• Employees also need some degree of personal space, which diffuses tension and
improves working conditions.
• To begin motivating employees, help them believe that their work is meaningful.
• To help employees achieve on the job, provide them with ongoing feedback and
• When your employees do good work, recognize them for it immediately.
• To increase an employee's sense of responsibility, do not simply give them more
work; give them freedom and authority as well.
• You can help employees advance in their professional lives by promoting them,
when appropriate, or encouraging continuing education.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A STYDY ON EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION:
Employee satisfaction and retention have always been important issues for
physicians. After all, high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover can affect your bottom
line, as temps, recruitment and retraining take their toll. But few practices (in fact, few
organizations) have made job satisfaction a top priority, perhaps because they have failed
to understand the significant opportunity that lies in front of them. Satisfied employees
tend to be more productive, creative and committed to their employers, and recent studies
have shown a direct correlation between staff satisfaction and patient Satisfaction.1
Family physicians who can create work environments that attract, motivate
and retain hard-working individuals will be better positioned to succeed in a competitive
health care environment that demands quality and cost-efficiency. What's more,
physicians may even discover that by creating a positive workplace for their employees,
They’ve increased their own job satisfaction as well.
1. To know the satisfaction level towards the behaviors of peers and superiors.
2. To study the level of satisfaction towards his salary and also other benefits which
are provided by the company?
3. To study the ESI facilities and safety measures which are provided by the
4. To suggest the company about the measures to be taken for more employee
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
The research design used for the study is the descriptive research design. In this design
structural information is used to gather information.
The two major methods are probability and non-probability
sampling technique. The study requires probability method since the sample was chosen
or random. Hence the study was dealt with sample random tool, which is one of the most
popular method sampling.
SOURCES OF DATA:
PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION:
Primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for the first
time and thus happen to be original in character, questions and interviews methods were
accede to collect primary data by visiting the factory premises and various departments in
it. It was collected from the employees working in the factory. By using both the
questionnaire method and interview method. I would gather information from the
employees who was not willing or who did not have time for or who was shy about it.
SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION:
It is collected from the internal records of the company such as
library records, trade journals, various manuals of the company, various training
programs previously conducted and it’s responds etc; It is also conducted from the
officials of the pursued department in the factory. Secondary data provides a better view
of the problem study many magazines, tools and other references were also mean
important in this study.
TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION:
SURVEY METHOD: The most widely used technique of gathering primary data is the
survey method. The sources interviewed personally at the place of work and also with
questionnaires. It is a direct and more flexible form of investigation involving face- to-
face communication and through recorded questionnaires filled in personally. The
information is qualitative, quantitative and accurate. The rate of refusal is low; it offers a
sense of participation to the respondents. It usually leads to broader range of data than
observation on experimentation methods. The data collected is tabulated and interpreted
to draw conclusion.
FIELD WORK: It is an important method of data collection. The questionnaire is used
for interviewing the respondents. Additional questions (Personal interviews) can be used
to secure more information. The respondents are interviewed in the factory.
SAMPLE DESIGN FOR THE STUDY:
SAMPLING METHOD: Stratified sampling method.
SAMPLE SIZE : 100(Consists of Production,
Finance, Human Resource,
Systems, Marketing, Quality)
SAMPLE UNIT : Employees of K.MOHAN & CO (Exports) Pvt. Ltd
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
1. TABLE SHOWING PERSONALITY OF THE RESPONDENTS
S.NO. RESPONSE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
1 Male 56 47
2 Female 64 53
Total 120 100
INFERENCE: From the above table, the analysis shows that, 46.7 % of the
respondents are male and the remaining 53.3 % are female. The total respondents are 120
From the above table the chart is as follows.
2. EDUCATION OF THE EMPLOYEE
S.NO. QUALIFICATION NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Post graduate 12 10
2 Diploma/degree 26 22
3 SSLC/PUC/ITI 36 30
4 Less than SSLC 46 38
TOTAL 120 100
INFERENCE: The interpretation of the above table is,10% of the respondents are post
graduates,21.7 % are diploma/degree holders,30 % are belonged to SSLC/PUC/ITI,38.3
% are having their qualification as less than SSLC.
The graph showing the different percentages of education of the employees.
3. BELONGING CATEGORY
EDUCATION OF THE
S.NO. CATEGORY NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Staff 28 23
2 Employee 92 77
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that the category of human
resources i.e. staff and employees .This can be concluded as 23.3 % recorded as staff
members and remaining 76.6 % are recorded as employees in K MOHAN & CO
The graph showing the category of employees.
S.NO. BASIC SALARY NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Below 5,000 82 68
2 5,000 to 15,000 16 13
3 15,000 to 30,000 18 15
4 Above 30,000 4 4
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that the respondent’s basic
salary.63.3 % respondents getting below 5,000 as their basic salary, 13.3 are falling in
between 5,000 to 15,000, 15 % comes under 15,000 to 30,000 and the remaining 3.4 are
getting above 30,000 as their basic salaries. This can be concluded that most of the
respondents are getting below 5,000 as basic salary.
The graph showing the basic salaries of the employees.
5. WORK EXPERIENCE OF THE EMPLOYEE IN THE ORGANISATION
S.NO. WORK EXPERIENCE NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Below one year 24 20
2 More than one year 32 27
3 More than three years 48 40
4 More than five years 16 13
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that the work experience of
the employees is recorded as 20 % belonging to below one year, 26.7 % belonging to
more than one year, only 13.3 % belonging to more than 5 years and finally 40 % of
employees belonging to more than three years.
The chart showing the work experience of the Employees in the organization.
WORK EXPERIENCE IN THIS
0 20 40 60
Below one year
More than one year
More than three
More than five
6.SATISFACTION TOWARDS PICK AND DROP FACILITY
S.NO. PICK & DROP NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
1 Satisfied 52 43
2 Not satisfied 68 57
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that the opinion of Pick &
Drop facility provided in K MOHAN & CO(EXPORTS) GARMENTS. This can be
recorded as 43.3% of employees are satisfied and remaining 56.7% are not satisfied.
The chart showing the satisfaction level on Pick and Drop facility.
SATISFACTION TOWARDS PICK
7.SATISFACTION LEVEL TOWARDS FREE CANTEEN
S.NO. FREE CANTEEN NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Satisfied 102 85
2 Not Satisfied 18 15
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that the opinion on Free
Canteen facility provided in K MOHAN & CO(EXPORTS) GARMENTS. This can be
recorded as 85% of employees are satisfied and remaining 15% are not satisfied.
The chart showing the opinion on Free Canteen facility provided by the organization.
8.SATISFACTION WITH PEERS AND SUPERIORS BEHAVIOURS:
S.NO. PEERS & SUPERIORS
NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Satisfied 96 80
2 Not Satisfied 24 20
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that the coordination between
the Peers and Superiors in K MOHAN & CO(EXPORTS) GARMENTS. This can be
recorded as 80% of employees are satisfied and remaining 20% are not satisfied.
The Graph showing the satisfaction level on Peers and Superiors in the organization.
TOWARDS PEERS AND SUPERIORS
SATISFACTION TOWARDS PEERS
& SUPERIORS BEHAVIOURS
9.THE TABLE SHOWING THE BONUS ALLOWANCES FROM THE
S.NO. BONUS NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 In six months 4 3
2 In a year 110 92
3 More than one year 2 2
4 No bonus 4 3
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that the procedure of issuing
the bonus allowance in K MOHAN & CO(EXPORTS) GARMENTS. This can be
recorded as 3.3% of the employees getting their bonus once in six months, 91.7%
employees in a year, 1.7% getting in more than one year and 3.3% are not getting bonus
over the study period.
The graph showing the issuing procedure of bonus allowances.
10.THE TABLE SHOWING THE REASON FOR GETTING OF BONUS.
S.NO. BONUS BEEN ANNOUNCED NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 On employee working
2 On companies profitability 104 87
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that the reason for getting of
bonus in K MOHAN & CO(EXPORTS) GARMENTS. This can be recorded as 13.3%
of employees are getting bonus because of working performance and remaining 86.7%
depends on companies profitability.
The graph showing the reason for issuing of bonus in the company.
ON BONUS SCHEMES PROVIDED BY
11.SATISFACTION TOWARD LOANS AND ADVANCES ISSUED BY THE
S.NO. LOANS & ADVANCES NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Yes 48 40
2 No 35 29
3 Not know 37 31
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that the opinion on issuing of
loans and advances in K MOHAN & CO(EXPORTS) GARMENTS. This can be
recorded as 40% respondents were eligible for loans, 29.2% were not eligible for loans
and remaining 30.8% respondents don’t know about, that they were eligible or not.
The graph showing the eligibility for loans and advances.
12.RESPONSE TOWARDS INCREMENTATION OF EMPLOYEE’S SALARIES
0 10 20 30 40
SATISFACTION TOWARDS LOANS
S.NO. SALARY IS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Incrementing 106 88
2 Not Incrementing 14 12
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that, there is any incrementing
in their salaries or not in K MOHAN & CO(EXPORTS) GARMENTS. This can be
recorded as 88.3% of employees had incrementing in their salaries and remaining 11.7%
had no any incrementing in their salaries.
The graph showing the respondents opinion on Incrementation of their salaries
13.RESPONSE TOWARDS COMPANIES PROFITABILITY DURING LAST 5
S.NO. COMPANIES PROFITS NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Incrementing 98 82
2 Decrementing 22 18
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that, 81.7 % of the
respondents said that companies profitability is increasing from the last five years, and
the remaining 18.3 respondents says that it is decreasing..
The graph showing the respondents opinion on company’s profitability from the last 5
COMPANIES PROFITS FROM THE
14.REGARDING THE FOOD PROVIDED BY THE CANTEEN
S.NO. FOOD NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Bad 15 13
2 Not Bad 45 37
3 Good 50 42
4 Very Good 10 8
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that, the food provided in the
canteen .12.2 % respondents feel that the food is bad.37.5% said that the food is not
bad,41.7% response is that the food is good, and the remaining 8.3 % says that the food
is very good.
The graph showing the opinion on the food provided by the canteen.
15.A TABLE SHOWING SATISFACTION LEVEL OF HIS JOB TIMINGS
REGARDING CANTEEN FOOD
S.NO. JOB TIMINGS NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Satisfied 92 77
2 Not Satisfied 28 23
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that, 76.6 % respondents feel
their job timings are satisfied and 23.3 % respondents are not satisfied with their job
The graph showing the satisfaction towards job timings.
16.REGARDING ESI FACILITIES WHICH ARE PROVIDED BY THE
SATISFACTION TOWARDS JOB
S.NO. RESPONSE ON ESI NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Yes 34 42
2 No 46 58
TOTAL 80 100
The data provided in the above table shows that, the ESI facility provided
by the company.42% says that they are utilizing ESI facility and the remaining 58 %
were not utilizing.
The graph showing the utilization of ESI facilities by the employees.
17.RESPONSE TOWARD SAFETY MEASURES, WHICH ARE PROVIDED BY
S.NO. SAFETY MEASURES NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Yes 110 92
2 No 10 8
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that, 91.7 % employees said
that the company is provided safety measures, and the remaining 8.3 % said that there is
no safety measures.
The graph showing the respondents opinion on safety measures.
18.RESPONSE OF EMPLOYEE TOWARDS HIS JOB APPROACH
RESPONSE TOWARDS SAFETY
S.NO. GOT JOB NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Recommendation 28 23
2 Skill 92 77
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that, 23.3 % respondents are
getting their jobs by recommendation, and the remaining 76.7 % depends on their skill.
Response towards his job approach.
TOWARDS HIS JOB APPROACH
19.RESPONDENTS SATISFACTION LEVEL OF COMPANIES
S.NO. COMPANIES INFRACTURE NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Satisfied 68 57
2 Not Satisfied 52 43
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that, 56.7% respondents were
satisfied with the company’s infrastructure, and the remaining 43.3 % respondents were
The graph showing the satisfaction towards company’s infrastructure
20.SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEE TOWARDS HIS SALARY
S.NO. SALARY NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Satisfied 78 65
2 Not Satisfied 42 35
TOTAL 120 100
The data provided in the above table shows that, 65 % respondents are
satisfied with their salary and the remaining 35 % were not satisfied with their salaries.
The graph showing the satisfaction level of salaries
S.NO JOB SATISFACTION NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGES
1 Up to 25 % 16 13
2 25%to50% 31 26
3 50%to75% 64 53
4 Up to 100% 9 8
TOTAL 120 100
The analysis of the above table shows that, 13.3 % respondents are having job
satisfaction up to 25 %., 25.8 % respondents are being in between 25-50% job
satisfaction., under 50-75% there is a 53.4 % of respondents and finally 7.5 percentage
of respondents are having job satisfaction up to 100 %.
The graph showing the satisfaction on their jobs in the organization.
RESPONDENTS JOB SATISFACTION
1. Majority of the respondents are having the experience in between 1-3 years and
poor percentage of employees are having above 5 years experience in this
2. In my study, poor percentage of employees are of PG holders and the remaining
majority people are having less than SSLC as their educational qualifications.
3. Majority of the employees are female and most of the respondents belonging to
employee category than staff.
4. Most of the employees are getting basic salaries below 5,000 and a minor part of
the employees getting their basic as above 30,000.
5. Employee attitude is positive towards canteen facilities, large number of
employees is agreed that it is good and a few numbers response is towards poor.
6. Employee response is negative towards pick & drop facility, which is provided by
the company. Only one shift of employees are benefited with pick & drop and the
remaining two shifts were not having bus facility.
7. 92% of the respondents are satisfied with the safety measures which are provided
by the company and the remaining 8 % said that they were not satisfied.
8. More than 58% of the workers are not aware of ESI benefits and minor part of the
workers felt that ESI benefits are good.
9. Most of the respondent’s attitude is bonus will be announced on the company’s
profitability and it had been announced once in a year.
10. Majority (80%) of the employees satisfied with the peers and superiors behaviors
and 20 % of the respondents were not satisfied.
11. 40% of the employees were well known about the loans and advances issued by
the company and they were utilizing them, 29% are not utilizing them and the
remaining 31% were not know about the loans and advances in the organization.
12. 65% of the respondents in the organization are satisfied with their salaries and the
remaining 35% were not satisfied with the salaries.
13. In my study, 57% of respondent’s attitude is positive in the case of company’s
infrastructure and the remaining 43 % respondents attitude is negative.
14. Majority of the respondents job satisfaction falling in between 50%-75% and a
minor part of the respondent’s job satisfaction is up to 100%.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
1. Some of the information given by the respondents may not be accurate.
2. Time period to be the major limitation.
3. Due to lack of time, the study is confined only to the few employees.
4. The area of study is limited to K.MOHAN & CO (Exports) Pvt Ltd only.
5. The questions that we asked being personal, some of workmen hesitated to
answer some questions like their salary details and the relation with their
A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION TOWARDS K MOHAN &CO
(EXPORTS) GARMENTS, B’LORE.
1. Name of the Respondent:
3. Sex: (Male / Female)
4. Educational Qualification:
1. Post Graduate:
2. Diploma / Degree Holder:
3. SSLC / PUC / ITI:
4. Less than SSLC:
5. Belonging Category:
1. Staff ( )
2. Employee ( )
7. Basic Salary:[ ]
A)Below 5,000 B)5,000-15,000 C)15,000-30,000 D) Above 30,000
8. Since how long you are working in this Organization?
1. Below one year
2. More than one year
3. More than three years
4. More than five years
9. Is the company provided the following facilities to you like?
1. Pick and Drop (Y/N)
2. Free Canteen (Y/N)
3. Quarters (Y/N)
10. Are you satisfied with your pears & superiors behavior?
11. Is company allowing bonus
1. In six months
2. In a year
3. More than one year
4. No bonus
12. Are bonus been announced
1. Based on employees working performance
2. Based on companies profitability
13. Are you satisfied with the loans and advances issued by the company?
14. Is the company incrementing salary for its workers?
15.What is company’s profitability during last five years?
16. Are the food provided by the company is
b. Not bad
d. Very Good
17. Are you satisfied with job timings (Y/ N)?
18. Is any ESI facility provided by the company (Y / N)?
19. Are you satisfied with the pick & drop facility provided by the company?
20. Is there any safety measures for the labour who are working with huge machineries (Y / N)?
21. You got job by
a. By Recommendation
b. By skill
22. Reason for joining in this company?
23. Any Reason for quitting the company?
24. Are you satisfied with the company infrastructure?
25. Are you satisfied with your salary?
26. Your job satisfaction is up to
a. Up to 25%
b. 25% to 50%
3. 50% to 75%
4. Up to 100%