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Study on Procedures for handling disciplinary matters in ktms

Study on Procedures for handling disciplinary matters in ktms

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  • 1. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters TITLE OF THE PROJECT: A study on “Procedures for handling Disciplinary Matters” with special reference to Kalyani Global Engineering Private Limited., Mysore. INTRODUCTION: In the production process Human Resources plays a crucial role. This is because of its capacity to control and coordinate the other two resources namely material, money. The another unique feature of the man power is that it is the only live component. Hence the presence or the absence of work force makes a significant difference in the production process. Any act which is subversive, of discipline may be called as indiscipline. Discipline is the backbone of any industry. Discipline is to be followed by everyone in the organization whether workers, supervisor, manager, CEO. No organization can survive without discipline. Hence, the researcher carried out a STUDY on procedures for handling disciplinary matters to know indiscipline followed in the industry and they selected for the STUDY is Kalyani Global Engineering Private Limited, Mysore. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 1
  • 2. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:  To have exposure to the functioning of major department’s.  To know more about Auto Component Industry.  To understand the working of the plant.  To study the behavior of workmen indiscipline.  To suggest appropriate suggestions which would help HR department at KGE.  To improve discipline amongst workers. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 2
  • 3. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters SCOPE OF THE STUDY: The organization is situated in Mysore city. The company gets technical know how for assembling brakes from Meritor HVS USA, one of the leading industries in auto component industry in the global market. This company belongs to Kalyani Group and head office is situated at Pune. The company has turnover of Rs.120 crores and is targeting to reach Rs.180 crores. The development of any organization depends on the discipline and involvement of employees. The study is conducted to know the various levels and reasons for indiscipline of employees in an organization. By looking it, one can adopt corrective measures to decrease indiscipline in the organization, leads to organizational growth. Naturally organization has to look in to these aspects and need to find suitable remedial measures so that qualitative and quantitative progress can be achieved. In this present study employees indiscipline is analyzed in depth. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 3
  • 4. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters PROBLEM STATEMENT: Industrial Relations plays a very important role for the development of any industry. In this industry, there is no proper co-ordination and cooperation between the employees and employers and also the employees are not satisfied with the terms of employment ie:, Wages, bonus, allowances, benefits, and working conditions etc. leads to industrial conflicts. In the same way discipline is the backbone of any industry. Discipline is to be followed by every one whether workers, supervisor, manager, CEO. No organization can survive without discipline. In this industry, we can see some of the acts of misconduct which can be done by the employees. They are Go-Slow Tactics, Drunkenness, Sleeping while on duty, and Smoking where it is prohibited with in the premises, etc. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 4
  • 5. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: EMPLOYEES PERCEPTION TOWARDS DISCIPLINARY MATTERS DESIGN: Personal interaction. Questionnaire. OBSERVATION: Personal observation. Indirect observation. SAMPLING DESIGN: Sampling is the process of obtaining information about an entire population by examining only a part of it. Sampling plan calls for three decisions. a) Sampling unit b) Sampling size c) Sampling procedure H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 5
  • 6. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters The design to be adopted for the study will be based on convenient sampling. The population for the study will consist of employees in the KGE Sector from different cities. Sampling unit: “KGE” is taken as the sampling unit. Sampling size: Out of 200 employees, 50 numbers are taken as sample size. Sampling procedure: For the study, respondents were selected on the basis of random sampling. TYPE OF THE STUDY: The study is a descriptive study. It is based on data collected through structured questionnaire from the respondents. SOURCES OF DATA: The study requires both primary and secondary data. Primary data:  Questionnaires H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 6
  • 7. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  Personal interviews  Indirect observation Secondary data:  Library and research works  Internet, web portals and blogs  Books. Secondary data will be used to analyze the primary data in the light of real world situation. Analysis of data: The collected primary data will be analyzed with the help of statistical tools and techniques. DATA PRESENTATION TOOLS USED: Primary data was collected through the questionnaire by distributing questionnaires; questionnaire with both close ended and open ended questions have been used as sample respondents. On the basis of the tables, the facts are presented in the form of various charts. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 7
  • 8. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  The first limitation of the study is it is undertaken for academic purpose only.  It could not go deep into the topic because of time constraints.  The study is confined to Kalyani Global Engineering Pvt Ltd., Mysore only.  The study is mainly concern with the opinion and perception of respondents.  It is not a scientific study, therefore, no empherical evidence can be deducted.  As some information was confidential. It was not possible to add them in the report. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 8
  • 9. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters INDUSTRY PROFILE 2.1 INTRODUCTION: Brakes are devices whose function it is to slow down and to stop the automobile. They are mandatory for the safe operation of vehicles. When a vehicle is in motion, it has kinetic energy or energy derived from this motion. In order for the vehicles to slow down, this energy must be decreased. This is accomplished by transforming it into another form. In the case of brakes, this form is heat. In short, brakes transform the kinetic energy of the vehicles into heat energy, thus slowing its speed and if enough is transferred, bringing it to a stop. Brakes have been refined and improved ever since their invention. The increases in traveling speeds as well as the growing weights of cars have made this improvement essential. The faster a vehicle goes and the heavier it is, the harder it is to stop. An effective braking system is needed to accomplish this task. 2.1.1.How Brakes Work: Brakes operate by converting the kinetic energy (motion) of an automobile into heat energy. How effectively this is achieved depends on the type of braking system. There are two main types of brakes that have been used in cars. These are disc brakes and drum brakes. Disc brakes operate in a similar fashion to that of a bicycle. It involves pushing a block against a spinning wheel. This contact causes friction, which changes kinetic energy into heat energy. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 9
  • 10. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Drum brakes have their blocks located in the inside of a drum like the disc in disc brakes, the drum in drum brakes are attached to the wheels. When the brake pedal is pressed the curved brake shoes are pushed outward so that they make contract with the rotating drum. Not only are their different types of brakes, but there are various systems that operate these brakes. These include mechanical, hydraulic, and power brake system. 2.1.2 Strong Demand: The Indian auto component sector is expected to grow at a healthy clip of above 20% in the coming years on the back of a strong demand from both the domestic and international markets. This has already been evident from the industry’s performance over the last two years when it crossed 20% growth rates. Domestically, the number of vehicles manufactured in India has risen dramatically to 8.5 million units in 2004-05 from 2.4 million units in 1993-94. In the past, the industry was severely hamstrung by its over dependence on the domestic automobile sector and its swings and cyclicality. However, this has changed quite dramatically in the recent past and the future growth is pagged largely on exports. While on one hand this takes care of the oscillating fortunes of the Indian auto sector, on the other hand, it diversifies risk, which promotes stability and ensures better growth and margins for companies. The automobile industry was also aided by some positive, proactive policy decisions by government. In 2002, the automobile policy opened the automobile sector to 100 percent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and also removed the minimum capital investment norms for new entrants. Besides, the abolition of licensing and removal of quantitative restrictions helped the industry restructure and absorb new technology. The market for automotive components can be divided into three categories largely based on the identity of the buyer – the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM or the vehicle manufacturer), replacement (vehicle owners buying parts for maintenance and repair) and exports (Foreign Vehicle Manufacturers and International Tier-1 Suppliers). H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 10
  • 11. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters The principal drivers of demand for the automotive components industry from the OEM segment (in number terms) have been from passenger cars and commercial vehicles. Where exports as an attractive option really come to the fore is the huge outsourcing opportunity available for efficient Indian players. In the last two years, the Indian auto component industry has established itself among International Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). 2.2 COMPANY PROFILE 2.2.1 BACKGROUND AND INCEPTION OF THE COMPANY: Kalyani Global Engineering Pvt. Ltd Company was set up at Hootagalli Industrial Area of Hunsur Road Mysore in the year 2003 at the request of Automotive Axles Limited and Meritor HVS (India) Limited to take over the assembly of S cam brakes that use asbestos liners. The joint venture partner of Automotive Axles Ltd, viz., Arvin Meritor Inc., USA, has expressed concern over the use of asbestos liners, in view of legal situation in the USA. Details of the Company: Name of the Company : Kalyani Global Engineering Private Ltd. Establishment Year : 2003 Reg. Office and works : Hootagalli Industrial Area of Hunsur Road, Mysore – 570018 Board of Directors : S.R. Swamy S.B. Kanade S.S. Hattarki Auditor : Prashanth V. Deo Bankers : State Bank of India H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 11
  • 12. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters HDFC Bank 2.2.2 NATURE OF THE BUSINESS Kalyani Global Engineering manufacturers Air Brakes for the following Industrial customers: • Rear and front brakes to Ashok Leyland for Heavy and light commercial vehicles. • Cam brakes front and rear brakes to Telco for heavy commercial vehicles. • Dia rear brakes to VFJ (Vehicle Factory Jabalpur). 2.2.3. VISION, MISSION AND QUALITY POLICY: Vision: To be a world class Tier – I organization through total employee involvement by, • Exceeding business plan objectives. • Providing value to customer through innovative solutions, product quality exceptional services. • Continual improvement of quality management system. Mission: The major objectives are the end points toward which the activities of the enterprise are directed. Customer Satisfaction: Supply state of the art product/service to customers that meet their expectations for quality, technology, delivery and responsiveness. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 12
  • 13. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 2.2.4 Quality Policy: To build quality as a competitive edge as viewed by customer. Human Resource Development: To establish development oriented human resource system and practice through training to achieve total employee involvement. 2.2.5 Competition: To out perform competitors strategy by enhancing customer loyalty with differentiated product, superior services and competitive pricing. Financial Performance: Exceed our financial and growth objectives through aggressive implementation our business plan. Environment, Health and Safety: Establish and implement suitable environment health and safety related practices system to fulfill social obligation. 2.2.6 PRODUCT/SERVICE PROFILE: All vehicles need a brake system, therefore it has been present in the automobile since it invention. However, the technology of the components and the design of the brake system have evolved throughout the years. In the brake technology came in 1918 with the invention of four wheel hydraulic brake systems by Malcolm Laughed. It is interesting to note that Laughed was a member of the Lockheed family, a company known better for producing airplanes. The hydraulic brake system replaced the mechanical brake system that was in use at this time. Another development in braking systems came with anti-lock or anti-skid braking with conventional braking systems. When the brakes are applied with enough pressure, the H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 13
  • 14. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters wheels will lock up. This result in a loss of steering effectiveness which may cause a loss of control with anti-lock braking, the wheels do not lock up, allowing the driver to continue steering. Anti-lock brakes are not a new technology. They had been used in large aircraft since the 1950’s and the British had used them in race car in the 1960’s. The product is produced based on the specifications given by the customers. Superior products are produced due to superior technology. Backed by certificates such as ISO 9001:2000, known for its quality and its durability. 2.2.7 Major products are: • Air brake manufacture for commercial vehicles in the country. Customers: The main customers for Kalyani Global Engineering are as follows:  Ashok Leyland Limited: Currently Company is selling 15.5 dia Rear and front brakes to Ashok Leyland.  Telco-Jamshedpur and Pune: Currently Company is selling 410 S cam brakes front and rear brakes to Telco- Jamshedpur and Pune.  Vehicle Factory – Jabalpur (Army vehicle): Currently Company is selling 15.5 dia Rear brakes to VFJ. 2.2.8 AREA OF OPERATION: KGE operates in national market. Its national customers are:  Ashok Leyland Limited: Hosur 1 and Hosur 2 Plant  Telco: Jamshedpur and Pune  Vehicle Factory (army vehicle): Jabalpur 2.2.9 OWNERSHIP PATTERN: H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 14
  • 15. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters KGE is not only a sole-trading company but also it is a private company. It is not a ownership pattern. KGE has a joint venture with Automotive Axles Ltd. (AAL). 2.2.10 COMPETITORS INFORMATION: The major competitors are M/S Brakes India Limited. The company manufactures brake for all major truck manufacturers in India. In the national market, Brakes India has its customers M/S Ashok Leyland, Telco Jamshedpur. Market Shares: Customers Company Market Share Ashok Leyland KGE 40% Brakes India Ltd. 60% Telco – Jamshedpur KGE 40% Brakes India Ltd. 60% Vehicle Factory, Jabalpur KGE 100% (Source: Company Information) 2.2.11 INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES: Location: The unit is located at plot No. 34 and 35 (p), Hootagalli Industrial Area Mysore – 570018 is well connected by road and rail. Technology: The technology for manufacture and assembly of brakes gas been provided by Meritor Heavy Vehicle systems (India) Limited, and Automotive Axles Limited, Mysore. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 15
  • 16. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Power: The company got sanction for 80KVA and connected load of 76 KW from KPTCL. The peak level requirement of power for the unit is 80KVA. Hence the power available to the firm is sufficient for the current level of activity. In addition to this, the company is having captive generation plants with aggregate capacity of 62.5 KVA. There is a proposal of procuring captive generation set of 180 KVA (1 No.) in order to cope up with the future level of activity. Water: The water requirement of the company is 30,000 Liters per day for domestic and other utilities. The company has obtained sanction of water line from Karnataka Industrial Area Development Board. Concern for Environment Aspects: The company’s manufacturing and assembling process is not hazardous in nature. For discharge of smoke and for dust extraction the necessary stacks has been erected as per requirements. This has already been approved by Karnataka Pollution Board. Transport: The necessary transport arrangement has been made for transport of raw-materials and finished goods with the reputed transport agency. 2.2.12 ACHIEVEMENTS / AWARDS: The products of the company have been certified as per ISO Standards. The company is putting efforts to develop new models, through its Research and Development Wing. They are also aiming to provide better service to customers. 2.2.13 WORK FLOW MODEL: H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 16
  • 17. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters The work flow model gives the brief idea of how the raw-material comes into organization, how it is converted into finished goods and how the final products are packed. The work flow model is shown in the figure.  The first step in work flow model is receiving orders from the customers and marketing department receives the order.  In second step it under goes the production planning control there they decides the production method. Here they will prepare the production plan, schedule and material requirements. They will place an indent to purchasing department to purchase required material.  After deciding the planning method then they will decide the bill of material.  After billing it may under go the placing of indent of sub contract method.  After placing they will place the goods into inward stores.  Then they will send the goods to quality control department for checking of quality and quantity they produced.  After inspection then they will send the goods in to the main stores.  Production planning centre decides the assembling of the material according to the order placed.  Finally they will delivered the ordered goods to the ultimate customers. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 17
  • 18. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 18
  • 19. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 2.2.14 FUTURE GROWTH AND PROSPECTS: The unit is presently manufacturing liners of Asbestos make-up, the usage of which is not only legal, but even the manufacture of such liners is legal. Until such time the legal situation in India is changed mandating non-asbestos liners. This unit would carry on the business in the proposed form. Should the legal situation in India changes, the business will be taken back by Automotive Axles Limited and Meritor HVS (India) Limited. 2.2.15 SWOT ANALYSIS: A scan of the internal and external environment is an important part of the strategic planning process. The SWOT analysis provide information that are helpful in matching the firms resources and capabilities to the competitive. Environment in which it operates. As such, it is instrumental in strategy formulation and selection. STRENGTH: Strength is a resource skill or an added advantage in competence with the competitors and the needs of the market.  Exclusive access to high-grade natural resources.  Favorable access to distribution network.  Can provide a wide range of value added products to the customers.  Single largest integrated brakes manufacture in India.  Good reputation among customers. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 19
  • 20. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters WEAKNESS: A weakness is a limitation in resources, skills and capabilities that seriously impedes effective performance of the business of the organization.  A slow down in the commercial vehicle industry would impact KTMS profitability.  KTMS depends totally on OEM’S customers. OEM’S cost for the product internal cost is relatively less expensive due to their depreciated assets used in manufacture of similar comparable products.  They cannot meet the customer demand due to already overloaded production facility. OPPORTUNITIES: An opportunity is a favorable situation in the firms environment.  KTMS has got opportunities to export its product.  Growing commercial vehicle segment due to improved infrastructural facilities available in Indian market. THREATS: A threat is a major unfavorable situation in the firm’s environment. It is a key impediment to the firm’s current and desired future position.  Stiff competition from the competitors brakes India Ltd.  Increasing price of raw-materials, Ex: Steel  Increased trade barriers. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 20
  • 21. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 3.1 Introduction: Human resources is one of the most valuable and unique assets of an organization. Human resources management means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirements with a view to contribute to the goals of the organization, individual and the society. Definition: According to Leon C. Megginson, the term human resources can be thought of as “the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of an organization’s workforce, as well as the value, attitudes and beliefs of the individuals involved.” 3.2 HISTORY OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: There is a vast difference between modern HRM and the personnel management that was prevalent decades ago. By the end of twentieth century, the managerial philosophy that has defined the personnel function has undergone radical changes. The human resource approach has gained prominence in the recent times.  Scientific Management Approach In the early 1900s, most business owners and managers believed that if employees were to be effectively managed, they had to be constantly supervised and forced to work. All employees were considered to be equal in terms of productivity; when they failed to achieve the set targets they were disciplined or fired. The scientific management approach challenged these beliefs and suggested that managers adopt a scientific and objective approach to determine how work could be designed and carried out most efficiently. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 21
  • 22. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  Human Relations Approach: The Hawthorne studies, conducted during the 1930s and 1940s, forced organizations to shift their attention from the scientific management approach to the human relations approach. The results of these studies suggested that employee productivity was affected not only by the way the job was designed and the economic rewards but also by certain social and psychological factors.  Human Resources Approach: Organizations have now adopted the human resources approach, which treats the organizational goals and employee needs as being mutual and compatible, and which can be pursued in unison. The human resources approach is based on a number of principles, some of which are:  Employees are assets to an organization.  Policies, programs and practices must cater to the needs of employees.  It is necessary to create and maintain a conducive work environment, to encourage the employees to develop and harness their knowledge and skills.  HR policies and practices should be in alignment with the goal of balancing individual and organizational needs. This can be achieved through a mutual process where the organization and the employees help each other to achieve their goals. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 22
  • 23. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 23
  • 24. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 3.3 Importance of Human Resource Management People have always been central to organizations, but their strategic importance is growing in today’s knowledge-based industries. An organization’s success increasingly depends on the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) of employees, particularly as they help establish a set of core competencies that distinguish an organization from its competitors. With appropriate HR policies and practices an organization can hire, develop and utilise best brains in the marketplace, realize its professed goals and deliver results better than others. Important Terms:  Human resource: Knowledge, skills sets, expertise of employees, the adaptability, commitment and loyalty of employees.  Skills: The individual abilities of human beings to perform a piece of work.  Resource: The stock of assets and skills that belong to a firm at a point of time.  Capability: The ability of a bundle of resources to perform an activity; a way of combining assets, people and processes to transform inputs into outputs.  Core Competencies: Activities that the firm performs especially well when compared to its competitors and through which the firm adds value to its goods and services over a long period of time.  Competitive advantage: It comes from a firm’s ability to perform activities more distinctively and more effectively than rivals. To attain competitive advantage, firms need to add value to customers and offer a product or service that cannot be easily imitated or copied by rivals (uniqueness).  Value: Sum total of benefits received and costs paid by the customer in a given situation. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 24
  • 25. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Human Resource Management helps an organization and its people to realize their respective goals thus: a) At the enterprise level:  Good human resource practices can help in attracting and retaining the best people in the organization. Planning alerts the company to the types of people it will need in the short, medium and long run.  It helps in training people for challenging roles, developing right attitudes towards the job and the company, promoting team spirit among employees and developing loyalty and commitment through appropriate reward schemes. b) At the individual level: Effective management of human resources helps employees thus:  It promotes team work and team spirit among employees.  It offers excellent growth opportunities to people who have the potential to rise.  It allows people to work with diligence and commitment. c) At the society level: Society, as a whole, is the major beneficiary of good human resource practices.  Employment opportunities multiply.  Scarce talents are put to best use. Companies that pay and treat people well always race ahead of others and deliver excellent results. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 25
  • 26. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters d) At the national level: Effective use of human resources helps in exploitation of natural, physical and financial resources in a better way. People with right skills, proper attitudes and appropriate values help the nation to get ahead and compete with the best in the world leading to better standard of living and better employment. 3.4 Scope of Human Resource Management The scope of human resource management is very wide. Research in behavioral sciences, new trends in managing knowledge workers and advances in the field of training have expanded the scope of HR function in recent years. The Indian Institute of personnel Management has specified the scope of HRM thus:  Personnel aspect: This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, transfer, promotion, training and development, lay off and retrenchment, remuneration, incentives, productivity, etc.  Welfare aspect: It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteens, crèches, rest and lunch rooms, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, health and safety, recreation facilities, etc.  Industrial relations aspect: This covers union-management relations, joint consultation, collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary procedures, settlements of disputes, etc. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 26
  • 27. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 3.5 Nature of HRM Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met. It tries to secure the best from people by winning their wholehearted cooperation. In short, it may be defined as the art of procuring, developing and maintaining competent workforce to achieve the goals of an organization in an effective and efficient manner. It has the following features.  Pervasive force: HRM is pervasive in nature. It is present in all enterprises. It permeates all levels of management in an organization.  Action oriented: HRM focuses attention on action, rather than on record keeping, written procedures or rules. The problems of employees at work are solved through rational policies.  Individually oriented: It tries to help employees develop their potential fully. It encourages them to give their best to the organization. It motivates employees through a systematic process of recruitment, selection, training and development coupled with fair wage policies.  People oriented: HRM is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups. It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results.  Future-oriented: Effective HRM helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well-motivated employees.  Development oriented: H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 27
  • 28. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters HRM intends to develop the full potential of employees. The reward structure is tuned to the needs of employees. Every attempt is made to use their talents fully in the service of organizational goals.  Integrating mechanism: HRM tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the organization. In short, it tries to integrate human assets in the best possible manner in the service of an organization.  Comprehensive function: HRM is, to some extent, concerned with any organizational decision which has an impact on the workforce or the potential workforce. The term ‘workforce’ signifies people working at various levels, including workers, supervisors, middle and top managers. It is concerned with managing people at work.  Auxiliary service: HR departments exist to assist and advice the line or operating managers to do their personnel work more effectively. It is a staff function.  Inter-disciplinary function: HRM is a multi-disciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, etc.  Continuous function: According to Terry, HRM is not a one shot deal. It cannot be practiced only one hour each day or one day a week. It requires a constant alertness and awareness of human relations and their importance in every day operations. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 28
  • 29. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 3.6 FUTURE OF HRM • Size of workforce • Composition of work force • Employee expectations • Changes in technology • Life style changes • Environmental challenges • Personnel function in future • Changes in 21st century impacting HRM 3.7 FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: Every manager must get things done through people. Individual goals and aspirations have to be in alignment with organizational goals for the successful handling of a business. An effective manager should be able to utilize human and non-human resources to bring about this alignment and eventually achieve these goals. A manager’s handling of the human assets reflects his managerial capabilities. Managing people is one of the biggest challenges for any manager, for the following reasons: Individuals differ from each other in terms of their values, attitudes, beliefs and culture. This leads to a very complex situation in an organizational context. The stimulating and motivational factors might not be the same for all the employees. It is important to understand the individual needs of these employees and cater to these needs. The expectations of employees of today are much greater when compared to the employees of yesteryears. They know they are valuable assets and demand to be treated as such. HRM functions can be broadly classified in to two categories:  Managerial functions  Operative functions H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 29
  • 30. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters o Managerial Functions: Managerial functions of the human resource department are planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. Planning: Planning involves formulating the future course of action. It includes determining in advance the personnel programs and changes required that would contribute to the achievement of organizational goals. Organizing: Organizing involves establishing an intentional structure of roles for people in an organization. Structural considerations such as the chain of command, division of labor, and assignment of responsibility are part of the organizing function. Staffing: This is the process of obtaining and maintaining capable and competent personnel in various positions at all levels. It broadly encompasses manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, induction and orientation, transfer. Directing: It is the process of directing all the available resources towards the common organizational goals. Controlling: The measurement and rectification of activities to ensure that events conform to plans is known as controlling. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 30
  • 31. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Operative Functions The operative functions of HRM are related to specific activities of HRM, viz., employment, development, compensation and employee relations. Employment: Employment is the first operative function of HRM. This involves procuring and employing individuals with suitable knowledge, skills, experience and aptitude necessary to perform various jobs. It includes functions such as job analysis, human resource planning, recruitment, selection, placement, and induction. Development: HRD is the process of training and developing employees to improve and update their knowledge and skills, so as to help them perform their jobs better. HRD includes performance appraisal, training, management development, and career planning and development. Performance Appraisal: This is the process of evaluating the performance of an employee on the job and developing a plan for improvement. Training: It is the systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform a given task or job successfully, in an individual. Management Development: It is the concept of developing the employees of an organization to meet future changes and challenges. It includes forecasting the human resource demands of an organization and gearing up to meet these demands. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 31
  • 32. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Career Planning and Development: It refers to identifying one’s career goals and formulating plans of reaching them through various means like education, work experience etc. Compensation: It includes all the extrinsic rewards that an employee receives during and after the course of his job, for his contributions to the organization. Compensation encompasses base salary, incentives, bonus and benefits and is based on job evaluation. Employee Relations: It deals with the employees in the organizational context, as a social group that contributes to the organization. Increasing employee productivity. Keeping the employees satisfied and motivated. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 32
  • 33. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 33
  • 34. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 3.8 Core roles in Human Resource Management The core roles of human resource management are grouped below into four categories. The titles of the clusters are tentative, and are open for comment. • Planning and organizing for work, people and HRM. • Strategic perspective • Organisation design • Change management • Corporate Wellness management • People acquisition and development • Staffing the organisation • Training & development • Career Management • Performance Management • Industrial relations • Administration of policies, programmes and practices • Compensation management • Information management • Administrative management 3.9 Objectives of Human Resource Management Objectives are pre-determined goals to which individual or group activity in an organization is directed. Objectives of personnel management are influenced by social objectives, organizational objectives, functional objectives and individual objectives. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 34
  • 35. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters The objectives of HRM may be as follows:  To help the organization reach its goals: HR department, like other departments in an organization, exists to achieve the goals of the organization first and if it does not meet this purpose, HR department (or for that matter any other unit) will wither and die.  To employ the skills and abilities of the workforce efficiently: The primary purpose of HRM is to make people’s strengths productive and to benefit customers, stockholders and employees.  To provide the organization with well-trained and well-motivated employees: HRM requires that employees be motivated to exert their maximum efforts, that their performance be evaluated properly for results and that they be remunerated on the basis of their contributions to the organization.  To increase to the fullest the employee’s job satisfaction and self-actualization: It tries to prompt and stimulate every employee to realize his potential. To this end suitable programmes have to be designed aimed at improving the quality of work life (QWL).  To develop and maintain a quality of work life: It makes employment in the organization a desirable, personal and social, situation. Without improvement in the quality of work life, it is difficult to improve organizational performance.  To communicate HR policies to all employees: It is the responsibility of HRM to communicate in the fullest possible sense; tapping ideas, opinions and feelings of customers, non-customers, regulators and other external public as well as understanding the views of internal human resources.  To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs of society: HRM must ensure that organizations manage human resource in an ethical and socially responsible manner through ensuring compliance with legal and ethical standards.  To create and utilise an able and motivated workforce, to accomplish the basic organizational goals. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 35
  • 36. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  To establish and maintain sound organizational structure and desirable working relationships among all the members of the organization.  To attain an effective utilization of human resources in the achievement of organizational goals.  To create facilities and opportunities for individual or group development so as to match it with the growth of the organization. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 36
  • 37. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 3.10 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT The term human resources refers to the knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents, aptitude, values and beliefs of an organization’s workforce. The more important aspects of human resources are aptitude, values, attitudes and beliefs. 3.11 FEATURES OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT  Human Resource Development is a systematic and planned approach for the development of individuals in order to achieve organizational, group and individual goals.  Human Resource Development is a continuous process for the development of technical, managerial, behavioural and conceptual skills and knowledge.  Human Resource Development develops the skills and knowledge not only at the individual level, but also at dyadic level, group level and organizational level.  Human Resource Development is multi-disciplinary. It draws inputs from Engineering, Technology, Psychology, Anthropology, Management Commerce, Economics, Medicine etc.  Human Resource Development is embodied with techniques and processes. HRD techniques include performance appraisal, training, management development, career planning and development, organization development, counselling, social and religious programmes, employee involvement / workers participation, quality circles etc.  Human Resource Development is essential not only for manufacturing and service industry but also for information technology industry. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 37
  • 38. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 3.12 SCOPE OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT Human resources management deals with procurement, development, compensation, maintenance and utilisation of human resources. HRD deals with development of human resources for efficient utilisation of these resources in order to achieve the individual, group and organizational goals.  Recruiting the employees within the dimensions and possibilities for developing human resources.  Selecting those employees having potentialities for development to meet the present and future organizational needs.  Analysing, appraising and developing performance of employees as individuals, members of a group and organizations with a view to develop them by identifying the gaps in skills and knowledge.  Help the employees to learn from their superiors through performance consultations, performance counselling and performance interviews.  Train all the employees in acquiring new technical skills and knowledge.  Develop the employees in managerial and behavioural skills and knowledge.  Planning for succession and develop the employees.  Changing the employee’s behaviour through organization development.  Employee learning through group dynamics, intra and inter team interaction.  Learning through social and religious interactions and programmes.  Learning through job rotation, job enrichment and empowerment.  Learning through quality circles and the schemes of workers’ participation in the management. 3.13 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES  To prepare the employee to meet the present and changing future job requirements.  To prevent employee obsolescence.  To develop creative abilities and talents.  To prepare employees for higher level jobs. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 38
  • 39. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  To impart new entrants with basic HRD skills and knowledge.  To develop the potentialities of people for the next level job.  To aid total quality management.  To promote individual and collective morale, a sense of responsibility, co- operative attitudes and good relationships.  To broaden the minds of senior managers by providing them with opportunities for an interchange of experiences within and outside.  To ensure smooth and efficient working of the organization.  To provide comprehensive framework for HRD.  To enhance organizational capabilities. 3.14 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT FUNCTIONS  Performance Appraisal  Employee Training  Executive Development  Career Planning and Development  Succession Planning and Development  Organization Change and Organization Development  Involvement in Social and Religious Organizations  Involvement in Quality Circles  Involvement in Workers’ Participation in Management 3.15 TECHNIQUES OF HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT  Performance Appraisal  Potential Appraisal  Career Planning  Career Development  Employee Training  Executive Development  Organizational Change  Organizational Development  Social and Cultural Programmes  Workers’ Participation in Management  Quality Circles H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 39
  • 40. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  Employee Counselling  Team work  Role Analysis  Communication Policies and Practices  Monetary Rewards  Non-monetary Rewards  Employee Benefits and  Grievance Mechanism  Role Analysis: The HRD manager should design the wider roles rather than mere jobs based on the organization’s present and future needs. The HRD manager should also take into consideration the internal and external environmental factors.  Human Resources Planning: The HRD manager, based on the role analyses, should plan for the human resources which would meet not only the future organisational requirements but also capable of being developed.  Recruitment: It is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization.  Selection: It is the process of ascertaining the qualifications, experiences, skills, knowledge etc. of an applicant with a view to appraising his / her suitability to a job.  Placement: It is the process of assigning the selected candidate with the most suitable job. It is matching of employee specifications with job requirements.  Induction and Orientation: H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 40
  • 41. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Induction and Orientation are the techniques by which a new employee is rehabilitated in the changed surroundings and introduced to the practices, policies, purposes and people etc. of the organization.  Performance Appraisal: It is the systematic evaluation of individuals with respect to their performance on the job and their potential for development.  Training: Training is a systematic process by which employees learn skills, knowledge, abilities or attitudes to further organisational and personal goals.  Management Development: It is the process of designing and conducting suitable executive development programmes so as to develop managerial and human relations skill of employees.  Career Planning and Development: It is the planning of one’s career and implementation of career plans by means of education, training, job search and acquisition of work experiences. It includes internal and external mobility. Internal Mobility: It includes vertical and horizontal movement of an employee within an organization. It consists of transfer, promotion, and demotion.  Organization Development: Organization development is an organization wide, planned effort, managed from the top, with a goal of increasing organizational performance through planned interventions.  Compensation: It is the process of providing equitable and fair remuneration to the employees. It includes job evaluation, wage and salary administration, incentives, bonus, fringe benefits, social security measures etc. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 41
  • 42. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  Social and Cultural Programmes: Social and Cultural programmes enable the employees to interact closely with each other, open-up their cognitions, share the strengths etc. The HRD, manager, should arrange for social and cultural programmes and enable the employees to learn from each other.  Workers’ Participation in Management: Workers’ participation in management enables both the management’s and workers’ representatives to share and exchange their ideas and view points in the process of joint decision-making.  Quality Circles: Quality Circle is a self-governing group of workers with or without their supervisors who voluntarily meet regularly to identify, analyse and solve problems of their work field.  Employee Counselling: The process of employee counselling about his job and organizational related activities helps him to acquire additional skills, knowledge and abilities from his counsellor-mostly his supervisor. Therefore, the HRD manager should arrange for frequent employee counselling.  Team Work: Teamwork requires a joint effort of the members to plan, make decisions, implement them, evaluate them and correct them. This process enables the members to learn from each other and make the others’ strength their own.  Communication Policies: H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 42
  • 43. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters The free-flow of upward comm.:unication policies encourage and motivate the subordinates to share their new ideas, experiences and other work related issues with their supervisors. The supervisors in turn learn them.  Grievance Mechanism: Prompt settlement of employee grievances leads to job satisfaction and satisfied employees are encouraged to enrich their resources with a view to enhance their contributions to the organization. As such, the HRD manager should help the top management to design an efficient grievance handling mechanism.  The other functions of HRD manager include:  To develop a human resources philosophy for the entire organization and get the top management committed to it openly and consistently.  To influence personnel policies by providing the necessary inputs to the personnel department / top management.  To plan and design new HRD methods.  To monitor effectively the implementation of various HRD methods.  To conduct human process research, organizational health surveys and renewal of exercises periodically.  To work with unions and associations and inspire them. Meaning: Any act which is subversive, of discipline may be called as indiscipline. Discipline is the backbone of any industry. Discipline is to be followed by everyone whether workers, supervisor, manager, CEO. No organization can survive without discipline. Definition: H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 43
  • 44. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), “Industrial Relations deal with either the relationship between the state and employers’ and workers’ organizations or the relation between the occupational organizations themselves.” The concept of industrial relations has been extended to denote the relations of the state with employers, workers and their organizations. The subject therefore includes individual relations and joint consultations between employers and people at their work place, collective relations between employers and their organizations collective relations between employers and their organizations and trade unions and the part played by the state in regulating these relations. Dale Yoder, industrial relations is a “whole field of relationship that exists because of the necessary collaboration of men and women in the employment process of an industry.” The following points emerge from a close examination of the above definitions:  Employer – employee interactions: Industrial relations arise out of employer-employee interactions. These relations cannot exist without the basic building blocks, i.e., the employer on one side and the employees on the other side.  Web of rules: Industrial relations are a ‘web of rules’ formed by the interaction of the government, the industry and the labour. They include the relations between employer and employees and between employers’ associations, trade unions as well as the State.  Multidimensional: Industrial relations are fairly multi-dimensional in nature as they are influenced, by a complex set of institutional, economic and technological factors.  Dynamic and changing: Industrial relations change with the times, generally keeping pace with expectations of employees, trade unions, employers, associations, and other economic and social institutions in a society. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 44
  • 45. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  Spirit of compromise and accommodation: The industrial relations system is characterized by forces of conflict and compromise on either side. In the larger interests of society, both the employer and employees must put out fires amicably and get along with each other in a spirit of compromise and accommodation.  Government’s role: The government influences and shapes industrial relations with the help of laws, rules, agreements, awards of courts and emphasis on usages, customs, traditions, as well as the implementation of its policies and interference through executive and judicial machinery.  Wide coverage: The scope of industrial relations is wide enough to cover a vast territory comprising of grievances, disciplinary measures, ethics, standing orders, collective bargaining, participatory schemes, dispute settlement mechanisms etc.  Interactive and consultative in nature: Industrial relations includes individual relations and joint consultation between labour, management, unions, the state etc. It pinpoints the importance of compromise and accommodation in place of conflict and controversy in resolving disputes between labour and management. 3.16 Characteristics of Industrial Relations:  Industrial relations are the outcome of employment relationship in an industrial enterprise.  Industrial relations develop the skills and methods of adjusting to and cooperating with each other. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 45
  • 46. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  Industrial relations system creates complex rules and regulations to maintain harmonious relations.  The Government involves to shape the industrial relations through laws, rules, agreements, awards etc.  The important factors of industrial relations are: employees and their organizations, employer and their associations and the Government. 3.17 Factors of Industrial Relations:  Institutional Factors: These factors include government policy, labour legislations, voluntary courts, collective agreement, employee courts, employers’ federations, social institutions like community, caste, joint family, creed, system of beliefs, attitudes of works, system of power status etc.  Economic Factors: These factors include economic organization, like capitalist, communist mixed etc., the structure of labour force, demand for and supply of labour force.  Technological Factors: These factors include mechanization, automation, rationalization, computerization etc.  Social and Cultural Factors: These factors include population, religion, customs and traditions of people, ethnic groups, cultures of various groups of people etc.  Political Factors: These factors include political system in the country, political parties and their ideologies, their growth, mode of achievement of their policies, involvement in trade unions etc.  Governmental Factors: H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 46
  • 47. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters These factors include governmental policies like industrial policy, economic policy, labour policy, export policy etc. 3.18 Objectives of Industrial Relations:  To promote and develop congenial labour management relations;  To enhance the economic status of the worker by improving wages, benefits and by helping the worker in evolving sound budget;  To regulate the production by minimizing industrial conflicts through state control;  To socialize industries by making the government as an employer;  To provide an opportunity to the workers to have a say in the management and decision-making;  To improve workers’ strength with a view to solve their problems through mutual negotiations and consultation with the management;  To encourage and develop trade unions in order to improve the worker’s strength;  To avoid industrial conflict and their consequences and  To extend and maintain industrial democracy. 3.19 Functions of Industrial Relations:  Communication is to be established between workers and the management in order to bridge the traditional gulf between the two.  To establish a rapport between managers and the managed.  To ensure creative contribution of trade unions to avoid industrial conflicts, to safeguard the interests of workers on the one hand and the management on the other hand, to avoid unhealthy, unethical atmosphere in an industry. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 47
  • 48. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  To lay down such considerations which may promote understanding, creativity and cooperativeness to raise industrial productivity and to ensure better workers participation. 3.20 Approaches to Industrial Relations:  Psychological approach: According to psychologists, the problems of industrial relations are attributable to the differences in the perceptions of labour and management. Both parties tend to look at factors influencing their relations – i.e. wages, benefits, working conditions etc. – in different ways. Dissatisfaction with pay, benefits, services, conditions of work compel workers to turn aggressive and resort to strikes, gheraos etc.  Sociological Approach: A number of sociological factors such as the value system, customs, and traditions-affect the relations between labour and management.  Human Relations Approach: According to the human relations approach, individuals are motivated by a variety of social and psychological factors, not just earnings. Human behavior is influenced by feelings, sentiments, and attitudes.  Giri Approach: According to V.V. Giri (Former President of India) collective bargaining and joint negotiations be used to settle disputes between labour and management.  Gandhian approach: Gandhi ji accepted the worker’s right to strike but cautioned that this right be exercised in just cause and in a peaceful, non-violent fashion. Significance or Importance of Industrial Relations: H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 48
  • 49. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Good Industrial Relations implies peaceful, harmonious, fruitful relations between labour and management.  Industrial Peace: Unilateral actions disappear; both parties consult each other before initiating any action; they primarily focus on goals that are realizable without overstepping their territories. This leads to peaceful co-existence.  Industrial Democracy: The process of joint consultation paves the way for industrial democracy. This motivates workers to give of their best to the organization and share the fruits of progress jointly with management.  Improved Productivity: Cordial relations between labour and management ensures uninterrupted production and single-minded pursuit of pre-determined goals.  Benefits to Workers: Cordial labour-management relations ensure higher productivity. The company would be in a position to offer fair economic and non-economic incentives to its employees. This, in turn, would spur people to realize targets and get ahead productively. 3.21 ESSENTIAL CONDITIONS FOR SOUND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS The establishment of good industrial relations depends on the constructive attitude on the part of both management and the union. The constructive attitude in its turn depends on all the basic policies and procedures laid down in any organization for the promotion of healthy industrial relations.  Existence of strong, well organized and democratic employees’ unions: Industrial relations will be sound only when the bargaining power of the employees’ unions is equal to that of management. A strong trade union can protect the employees’ interest relating to wages, benefits, job security, etc. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 49
  • 50. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  Existence of sound and organized employers’ unions: These associations are helpful for the promotion and maintenance of uniform personnel policies among various organizations and to protect the interests of weak employers.  Spirit of collective bargaining and willingness to resort to voluntary negotiations: The relationship between an employee and the employer will be congenial only when the differences between them are settled through mutual negotiation and consultation rather than through the intervention of a third party.  Maintenance of industrial peace: Permanent industrial peace in an organization can be ensured through the following measures: i) Establish machinery for prevention and settlement of industrial disputes. This includes legislative and non-legislative measures. Preventive measures include works committees, standing orders, welfare officers, shop councils, joint councils and joint management councils. Settlement methods include voluntary arbitration, conciliation and adjudication. ii) Government should be provided with requisite authority for settling the industrial disputes wherever necessary. iii) Provision for the bipartite and tripartite committees in order to evolve personnel policies, code of conduct, code of discipline, etc. iv) Provision for the various committees to implement and evaluate the collective bargaining agreements, court orders and judgements, awards of voluntary arbitration, etc. v) Introduction: The economic growth of a country depends upon the industrial development. Therefore, the progress of a country being dependent upon the development of industry, the Industrial Laws play an important role in the national economy of a country. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 50
  • 51. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Definition: The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, defines an industrial dispute as “ any dispute or difference between employees and employees, or between employees and employers, or between employers and employers, which is connected with the employment, or non- employment, or the terms of employment or with the conditions of work of any person.” Forms of Industrial Disputes:  Strikes  Lock-outs  Gherao  Picketing and Boycott  Strikes: A strike is a spontaneous and concerted withdrawal of labour from production temporarily. It is a collective stoppage of work by a group of workers for pressuring their employers to accept certain demands.  Lock-outs: Lock-out is the counterpart of strike. It is the weapon available to the employer to close down the factory till the workers agree to resume work on the conditions laid down by the employer.  Gherao: Gherao means to surround. In this method, a group of workers initiate collective action aimed at preventing members of the management from leaving the office.  Picketing and Boycott: H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 51
  • 52. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters When picketing, workers often carry / display signs, banners and placards ( in connection with the dispute ), prevent others from entering the place of work and persuade others to join the strike. Boycott aims at disrupting the normal functioning of an enterprise. Through forceful appeals and negative behavioural acts, striking workers prevent others from entering the place of work and persuade them not to cooperate with the employer. 3.22 Causes of Industrial Disputes:  Employment: The list here includes disputes over wages, allowances, bonus, benefits, working conditions, retrenchment of workers, methods of job evaluation, changes in methods of production.  Nationalisation: Workers protested against the introduction of rationalisation, automation, and computerization.  Psychological / Social causes: On occasion, family, friends, community, environmental pressures and concerns also instigated the workers to take to the streets.  Institutional causes: Disputes arose on account of institutional factors such as: recognition of unions, membership of unions, scope of collective bargaining, unfair practices.  Political causes: Political leaders have used unions as powerful weapons to build tensions inside a plant / industry with a view to satisfy their own private ends.  Administration – related causes: These pertain to ill-treatment, undeserved punishment, physical assaults, etc. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 52
  • 53. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  Recognition: Disputes arose when employers failed to recognise a union as a bargaining agent.  Sympathetic Strikes: Workers struck work in one plant / industry when they wanted to exhibit their solidarity with striking workers from another plant / industry. Settlement of Conflicts:  Investigation: This is conducted by a board or court appointed by the government . It may be voluntary or compulsory. If the investigation is conducted on an application by either or both the parties to the dispute, it is voluntary. If the government appoints a court of inquiry to investigate in to a dispute without the consent of the parties, it is compulsory. Investigations do not aim at bringing about the settlement of disputes directly, but by analysing the facts, they aim at bringing about an amicable solution.  Mediation: Another attempt to settle disputes is Mediation. In this method, an outsider assists the parties in their negotiations. It takes place with the consent of both the parties. The mediator performs the messenger’s job for both the parties and he neither imposes his will nor his judgement upon them.  Conciliation: Conciliation is a process by which representatives of both workers and employers are brought together before a third party with a view to persuading them to arrive at some sort of settlement. It is an extension of collective bargaining with third party assistance.  Voluntary Arbitration: If the two parties to the dispute fail to come to an agreement, either by themselves or with the help of a mediator or conciliator, who agrees to submit the dispute to an impartial authority, whose decision, they are ready to accept.  Compulsory Arbitration / Adjudication: H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 53
  • 54. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters It is the ultimate remedy for the settlement of disputes in India. Adjudication consists of settling disputes through the intervention of a third party appointed by the government. An industrial dispute can be referred to adjudication by the mutual consent of the disputing parties. 3.23 Code of Industrial Relations: Management and Trade Unions formulate a code of industrial relations in a number of Indian industries.  The attitude of management towards trade unions and employees should be positive.  The attitude of employees and union towards management should be positive.  The attitude of employees towards trade unions should be positive.  There would be differences of opinions among trade unions, employees and management.  Management should not have absolute authority to enforce decisions affecting the interests of trade unions and employees.  Management need not consult the trade unions and employees regarding disciplinary cases.  Management should not influence employees regarding joining or withdrawing from unions.  Management should not encourage the workers for forming rival unions.  Trade unions should not involve in managerial activities which do not affect the employees.  Managers and supervisors should be empowered to deal with grievances and disciplinary cases.  All the collective bargaining agreements should be implemented in good faith as early as possible. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 54
  • 55. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  Employees and trade unions should emotionally cooperate in implementing company strategies.  All employees should attend the training programmes as and when they are asked to do so. 3.24 ACTS OF MISCONDUCT There are many reasons for misconduct. Each misconduct will be having its own reasons. Some of them are as follows:  Go-Slow Tactics: It may be due to stress and strain, having no proper facilities at the work place or may be intentional go-slow because of his lazyness. If it is due to sheer lazyness, then it is definitely an indiscipline on the part of workmen. If the workmen refuses to accept an alternative job which doesn’t call for additional skill, then it also amounts to act of misconduct.  Leaving work place: Leaving work place before due time or absence from the place of work without due permission. Handling any machine or apparatus not entrusted to his change.  Impersonation.  Drunkenness or intoxication while on duty.  Engaging in any private, personal unauthorized trade or business within the company premises.  Failure to observe safety instructions or unauthorized removal of guards and other safety devices.  Gambling and money lending or doing any other private business within the factory premises. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 55
  • 56. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  Habitual absence without leave or without permission.  Picketing or making demonstrations within the factory premises without the permission of the management.  Refusal to wear prescribed uniforms and safety clothing and equipments.  Sleeping or napping while on duty.  Smoking where it is prohibited within the premises.  Unauthorized use of any property, machinery, tools, quarters or land belonging to the company.  Refusal or failure to attend any training programme arranged by the company. 3.25 PROCEDURES FOR HANDLING MISCONDUCT  Counselling:  Oral warning  Issue a Show Cause Memo  Getting his reply and analysing the facts  Issue Charge Sheet Memo  Appointing Domestic Enquiry Officer  Appointing Management Representative 3.26 PUNISHMENT PERMISSIBLE UNDER STANDING ORDER / SERVICE RULES  Warning.  Fine.  Stoppage of increment / withholding promotion with cumulative effect.  Demotion.  Removal from service which does not disqualify for future employment. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 56
  • 57. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  Dismissal.  Any other punishment which meets ends of justice. 1. You have good relationship with your fellow employees. Table Chart H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 57
  • 58. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 30 60 No 12 24 Can’t say 8 16 Total 50 100 Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of employees who possess good relations with their fellow workers. Out of the 50 respondents, 60% of the employees says that they have good relationship with their fellow employees, 24% of the employees says that they are not having good relationship with their fellow employees, and another 16% of the employees are refused to answer this question. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 58
  • 59. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 2. Your organisation’s working environment is good. Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 25 50 No 7 14 Can’t say 18 36 Total 50 100 Chart 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No can't say Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of employees feels that the organization working environment is good. Out of 50 respondents, 50% of employees says that they are satisfied with the working environment, 14% of employees says that they are not satisfied with the working environment, and 36% of employees failed to answer this question. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 59
  • 60. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 3. Our organization working hours are not stressful. Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 37 74 No 03 06 Can’t say 10 20 Total 50 100 Chart : Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of employees feels that the organization working hours are not stressful. Out of 50 respondents, 74% of employees says that the working hours are not stressful, 6% of the employees says that the working hours are stressful, and 20% of the employees couldn’t respond for this question. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 60
  • 61. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 4. Your organization follows fair labor practices. Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 35 70 No 12 24 Can’t say 03 06 Total 50 100 Chart Interpretation: This chart shows that the percentage of employees feels that organization follow fair labour practices. Out of 50 respondents, 70% of the employees says that organization follow fair labour practices, 24% of the employees says that organization does not follow the fair labour practices, and 6% of the employees are not answered for this question. 5. Your are satisfied with the way disputes are handled. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 61
  • 62. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 21 42 No 09 18 Can’t say 20 40 Total 50 100 Chart Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of employees are satisfied with the way disputes are handled. Out of 50 respondents, 42% of the employees are satisfied with the way disputes are handled, 18% of the employees are not satisfied with the way disputes are handled, and 40% of the employees refused to answer this question. 6 .You are satisfied with the way disciplinary actions are initiated. Table H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 62
  • 63. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 35 70 No 07 14 Can’t say 08 16 Total 50 100 Chart Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of employees are satisfied with the way disciplinary actions are initiated. Out of 50 respondents, 70% of the employees are satisfied with the way disciplinary actions are initiated, 14% of the employees are not satisfied with the way disciplinary actions are initiated, and 16% of the employees can’t say anything. 7. Trade unions in your organization have sufficient powers. Table Particulars Frequency Percentage H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 63
  • 64. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Yes 24 48 No 12 24 Can’t say 14 28 Total 50 100 Chart Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of Trade Unions in organization have sufficient powers. Out of 50 respondents, 48% of the employees says that Trade Unions in organization have sufficient powers, 24% of the employees says that Trade Unions in organization are not having sufficient powers and 28% of the employees are failed to answer this question. 8. Code of conduct at your organization is clearly defined. Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 21 42 H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 64
  • 65. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters No 17 34 Can’t say 12 24 Total 50 100 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes No Can’t say Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of employees says Code of Conduct is clearly defined in the organization. Out of 50 respondents, 42% of the employees says that code of conduct is clearly defined, 34% of the employees says that code of conduct is not clearly defined and 24% of the employees are refused to answer this question. 9. Collective bargaining is followed fairly to both management and workers Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 21 42 No 22 44 H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 65
  • 66. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Can’t say 07 14 Total 50 100 Chart Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of Collective Bargaining is followed fairly to both management and workers. Out of 50 respondents, 42% of the employees says that the collective bargaining is followed fairly to both management and workers, 44% of the employees says that the collective bargaining is not followed fairly to both management and workers, and 14% of the employees are not answer for this question. 10.Are you happy with the wage system followed by your organisation? Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 21 42 No 22 44 Can’t say 07 14 H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 66
  • 67. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Total 50 100 Chart Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of employees are happy with the wage system followed by organization. Out of 50 respondents, 42% of the employees are happy with the wage system followed by the organization, 44% of the employees are not happy with the wage system followed by the organization, and 14% of the employees couldn’t answer for this question. 11.Are you happy with the reward and recognition system? Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 20 40 No 12 24 Can’t say 18 36 Total 50 100 H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 67
  • 68. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Chart Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of employees are happy with the reward and recognition system. Out of 50 respondents, 40% of the employees are happy with the reward and recognition system, 24% of the employees are not happy with the reward and recognition system, and 36% of the employees are refused to answer for this question. 12. Are you happy with the safety measures taken by management to protect employees at work? Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 35 70 No 12 24 Can’t say 03 06 Total 50 100 H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 68
  • 69. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Chart Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of employees are happy with the safety measures taken by management to protect employees at work. Out of 50 respondents, 70% of the employees are happy with the safety measures taken by management to protect employees at work, 24% of the employees are not happy with the safety measures taken by management to protect employees at work, and 6% of the employees are not answer for this question. 13. Do you feel that Managers Trade Union are stronger than Employees Trade Union or vice versa? Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 42 84 No 05 10 Can’t say 03 06 Total 50 100 Chart H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 69
  • 70. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of Managers Trade Union are stronger than Employees Trade Union or vice versa. Out of 50 respondents, 84% of the employees says yes to this, 10% of the employees says no to this, and 6% of the employees couldn’t answer for this question. 14. Are contract labourers treated at par with permanent employees? Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 20 40 No 23 46 Can’t say 07 14 Total 50 100 Chart H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 70
  • 71. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of contract laborers treated at par with permanent employees. Out of 50 respondents, 40% of the employees says yes to this, 46% of the employees says no to this, and 14% of the employees are not answer for this question. 15. Are you happy with the bonus and profit sharing practices? Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 21 42 No 12 24 Can’t say 17 34 Total 50 100 Chart H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 71
  • 72. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of employees are happy with the bonus and profit sharing practices. Out of 50 respondents, 42% of the employees are happy with the bonus and profit sharing practices, 24% of the employees are not happy with the bonus and profit sharing practices, and 34% of the employees are refused to answer this question. 16. Are you happy with the supervisory practices? Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 29 58 No 11 22 Can’t say 10 20 Total 50 100 Chart H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 72
  • 73. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of employees are happy with the supervisory practices. Out of 50 respondents, 58% of the employees are happy with the supervisory practices, 22% of the employees are not happy with the supervisory practices, and 20% of the employees can’t say anything for this. 17. Are you happy with the Promotion Policies? Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 29 58 No 20 40 Can’t say 01 02 Total 50 100 Chart H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 73
  • 74. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of employees are happy with the Promotion policies. Out of 50 respondents, 58% of the employees are happy with the promotion policies, 40% of the employees are not happy with the promotion policies, and 2% of the employees are refused to answer for this question. 18. Are you happy with the Leave Policies? Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 22 44 No 18 36 Can’t say 10 20 Total 50 100 Chart H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 74
  • 75. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of employees are happy with the ‘leave policies.’ Out of 50 respondents, 44% of the employees says yes to this, 36% of the employees says no to this, and 20% of the employees can’t say anything for this. 19. Does your organisation provide social security like medical, health care etc. Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 26 52 No 24 48 Can’t say O 0 Total 50 100 Chart H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 75
  • 76. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of organization provide social security like medical, health care etc. Out of 50 respondents, 52% of the employees says yes to this, and 48% of the employees says no this. 20. How frequently employees go on strike? Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 40 80 No 10 20 Can’t say O 0 Total 50 100 Chart H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 76
  • 77. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of employees go on strike. Out of 50 respondents, 80% of the employees say yes to this and 20% of the employees say no to this. 21. Are the strikes managed effectively? Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 32 64 No 18 36 Can’t say O 0 Total 50 100 Chart H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 77
  • 78. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of strikes managed. Out of 50 respondents, 64% of the employees says yes to this and 36% of the employees says no to this. 22. Is workers participation in management encouraged? Table Particulars Frequency Percentage Yes 21 42 No 17 34 Can’t say 12 24 Total 50 100 Chart H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 78
  • 79. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Interpretation: This chart shows the percentage of encouragement towards workers participation in management. Out of 50 respondents, 42% of the employees are encouraged, 34% of the employees are not encouraged , and 24% of the employees are refused to answer this question. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 79
  • 80. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters FINDINGS 1. The research on discipline helps to build a strong relationship between the employers and enployees in the organization. 2. Rules and responsibilities of employees are clearly stated in the organization. 3. Discipline helps to build good relationship among the management and the workers. 4. Creates a good environmental condition. 5. Discipline helps the organization to follow fair labour practices. 6. Discipline helps to avoid industrial dispute. 7. Trade Unions are having sufficient powers in the organization. 8. Code of Conduct is clearly defined in the organization. 9. Collective Bargaining is followed fairly to both management and workers in the organization. 10. Employees are happy with the wage system followed by the organization. 11 Employees are happy with the reward and recognition system in the organization. 12.Employees are happy with the safety measures taken by management to protect them at work. 13.Employees are happy with the bonus, profit sharing practices, supervisory practices, promotion policies, leave policies. 14.Organization provide social security like medical, health care facilities to the employees. 15. Workers participation in management is encouraged in the organization. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 80
  • 81. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters SUGGESTIONS 1.Creating a good environmental condition helps the workers to work efficiently and effectively in the organization. 2.Employees stress level must be assessed clearly. This helps to avoid indiscipline. 3.Creating a good relations between the employees and the employers in the organization. 4.Organization should follow the fair labour practices. 5.Both management and workers should made a collective bargaining agreement. 6.Proper wages should be provided to the employees in the organization. 7. Proper training should be provided to the employees in the organization. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 81
  • 82. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 8.Code of Conduct should be clearly defined in the organization. 9.Fringe benefits and medical benefits should be provided to the employees in the organization. 10.Safety measures should be used by management to protect the employees at work. 11.Proper bonus and other benefits should be provided to the workers. 12.This helps the organization to build a strong relationship between employees and employers. This also helps to build / develop strong discipline among employees in the organization. CONCLUSION Industrial Relations plays a very important role for the development of any industry. If there is a good relationship between the employees and employers it helps to avoid industrial conflicts. If there is a good industrial relations, it leads to individual development and overall organizational development. In the same way discipline is the backbone of any industry. Discipline is to be followed by every one whether worker, supervisor, manager, and CEO. No organization can survive without discipline. The Company has adopted a suitable measure to control indiscipline. Some of them are, H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 82
  • 83. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  Counselling  Warning  Conducting training programmes  Displaying safety slogans and cartoons The main objectives of Industrial Relations are;  To promote and develop congenial labour management relations;  To enhance the economic status of the worker by improving wages, benefits and by helping the worker in evolving sound budget;  To regulate the production by minimizing industrial conflicts through state control;  To socialize industries by making the government as an employer;  To provide an opportunity to the workers to have a say in the management and decision-making;  To improve workers’ strength with a view to solve their problems through mutual negotiations and consultation with the management;  To encourage and develop trade unions in order to improve the worker’s strength;  To avoid industrial conflict and their consequences and  To extend and maintain industrial democracy. Code of Industrial Relations:  Management and Trade Unions formulate a code of industrial relations in a number of Indian industries.  The attitude of management towards trade unions and employees should be positive.  The attitude of employees and union towards management should be positive.  The attitude of employees towards trade unions should be positive. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 83
  • 84. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters  There would be differences of opinions among trade unions, employees and management.  Management should not have absolute authority to enforce decisions affecting the interests of trade unions and employees.  Management need not consult the trade unions and employees regarding disciplinary cases.  Management should not influence employees regarding joining or withdrawing from unions.  Management should not encourage the workers for forming rival unions.  Trade unions should not involve in managerial activities which do not affect the employees.  Managers and supervisors should be empowered to deal with grievances and disciplinary cases.  All the collective bargaining agreements should be implemented in good faith as early as possible.  Employees and trade unions should emotionally cooperate in implementing company strategies.  All employees should attend the training programmes as and when they are asked to do so. These are some of the most important methods adopted by industry to avoid / control industrial conflicts and indiscipline and build good industrial relations. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 84
  • 85. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters Bibliography  P.SUBBA RAO, Personnel and Human Resource Management, Himalaya Publications, Third Edition, 1-18, 114-118, 346-350.  V S P Rao, Human Resource Management, Excel Books, Second Edition, 2-5, 11, 269-272, 583-587, 589-592, 599-601.  C.S. VENKATA RATNAM, Industrial Relations, Oxford Publications, First Edition, 22, 655. H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 85
  • 86. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters ANNEXURE PROCEDURES FOR HANDLING DISCIPLINARY MATTERS I Chethan.H.R. Student of Harnahalli Ramaswamy Institute of Higher Education, Hassan. I request you to fill up this questionnaire, which will be purely used for academic purpose and performation provided by you will kept confidential. Your cooperation in this regard will be highly appreciated . 1. Name : 2. Sex : 3. Length of service : 4. Department : 5. Marital Status : 1. Married [ ] 2. Single [ ] 3.Widower [ ] 4. Separated [ ] 6. Age group : 1. 20 - 30 years [ ] 2. 35 - 40 years [ ] 3. 40 - 50 years [ ] 4. 40 and above [ ] H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 86
  • 87. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 7. Educational Qualification : 1. S.S.L.C [ ] 2. I.T.I [ ] 3. DIPLOMA [ ] 4. B.E. [ ] 5. OTHERS [ ] 8. Experience : 1. Below 5 years [ ] 2. Above 5 years [ ] 3. Above 10 years [ ] 4. Above 15 years [ ] 9. You have good relationship with your fellow employees. Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 10. Your organization working environment is good. Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 11. Your organization working hours are not stressful. Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 12. Your organization follow fair labour practices. Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 87
  • 88. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 13. You are satisfied with the way disputes are handled. Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 14. You are satisfied with the way disciplinary actions are initiated. Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 15. Trade Unions in your organizations have sufficient powers. Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 16. Code of Conduct at your organization is clearly defined. Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 17. Collective Bargaining is followed fairly to both management and workers. Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 18. Are you happy with the wage system followed by your organization? Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 19. Are you happy with the reward and recognition system? Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 88
  • 89. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 20. Are you happy with the safety measures taken by management to protect employees at work? Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 21. Do you feel that Managers Trade Union are stronger than employees Trade Union or vice versa? Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 22. Are contract laborers treated as for with permanent employees? Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 23. Are you happy with the bonus and Profit sharing practices? Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 24. Are you happy with the supervisory practices? Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 25. Are you happy with the Promotion Policies? Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 26. Are you happy with the Leave Policies? Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 27. Does your organization provide social security like medical, health care etc. Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 89
  • 90. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters 28. How frequently employees go on Strike? Once in a year [ ] Twice in a year [ ] Thrice in a year [ ] 29. Are the Strikes managed effectively? Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] 30. Is workers participation in management encouraged? Yes [ ] No [ ] Can’t Say [ ] H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 90
  • 91. Procedures for Handling Disciplinary Matters H.R.Institute of Higher Education, Hassan 91