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A study on job rotation on employees at syndicate bank


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A study on job rotation on employees at syndicate bank

A study on job rotation on employees at syndicate bank

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  • 1. Job Rotation A Study on “JOB ROTATION” on employees at “SYNDICATE BANK”, HASSAN Introduction: A study on “Job Rotation” with special reference to Syndicate bank Hassan Increasing productivity, new product development, creativity and cutting time to market require a stable and productive work force. The stability and productivity of the work force can be dramatically increased by ensuring that every employee is challenged and excited about their job. Employee turnover and the associated loss of tacit and explicit knowledge disrupt team effectiveness and also slow product development. An effective way of reducing turnover is a well thought out job rotation programme. Job Rotation Programmes (JRP) can not only reduce turnover but they also increase learning, and provide depth and strength of knowledge in the organization. Rotation programmes are more common in the development of top executives but there are also many reasons to use them for technical and new hire positions. Since late 1980’s Job Rotation has been developed and mainstreamed as an active labor market tool in Denmark. Job Rotation originated in Denmark as a collaborative development amongst trade unions, employers and training institutes Many successful companies encourage rapid job rotation. Some have informal programmes while some have it as an essential part in their company’s employee development strategy. Job rotation is where an individual is moved through a schedule of assignments designed to give that individual a breadth of exposure to the entire operation. The term job rotation can also mean the scheduled exchange of persons in offices, especially in public offices. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 1
  • 2. Job Rotation Objectives of the Study:  To increase the awareness of Job rotation.  The psychological objective is to study employees’ level of satisfaction which results from job rotation.  To understand the analytical and rational development of decision making capacity of employees.  To know whether job rotation is institutionalized or not in the organization.  To know the employees involvement in decision making, problem solving, information sharing etc.  Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required working at different roles and responsibilities (Job Rotation). HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 2
  • 3. Job Rotation Scope of the Study: This study helps the organization to understand the pros and cons of Job rotation like- • Employee’s perception about Job Rotation. • Their attitude (Both negative and Positive) towards Job Rotation. • Employees’ willingness to take up changes in jobs they perform. • Its effect on productivity and motivation of employees. This study also helps us to understand: • Understand the process of Job Rotation. • Pros and Cons of Job Rotation. • Effect of Job Rotation on Job Satisfaction, Employees Motivation and Productivity. • The organization in a wider perspective. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 3
  • 4. Job Rotation Problem Statement: A study on Job Rotation of employees at Syndicate bank Hassan Immense competition in the Bank has given rise to measure effectiveness of job rotation. In an organization the employees come and work, to achieve their economic objective. However it’s being observed that in addition to economic objectives the employees also demand certain social objective. Hence, Syndicate Bank division has been taken up as a case and an analysis was done to know: 1. Effectiveness of the Job rotation in the organization. 2. Ways and means to improve the awareness of Job rotation.. Research Methodology: There are 3 types. They are • Explorative Research. • Descriptive Research. • Experimental Research. Descriptive methodology is used in the present study. Data Sources: Primary Data: The primary data was collected from the respondents by administering a structured questionnaire and also through observation, interviews and discussion with management teams. Secondary Data: HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 4
  • 5. Job Rotation Apart from primary data the secondary data is being collected through text books, records of Syndicate bank, journals, from library, academic report and internet used for this study. Sampling Sampling Population There are totally 65 employees working in the bank. Sample Size Out of the total population, 30 employees are considered for this research as the remaining staff will be busy at their own responsibilities and posses very little time to support this research. Sampling Area The research is conducted at Syndicate Bank. Hassan. Sample Methods The research was made by the survey in accordance to the convenience of the employees. So the sample type is convenience sampling. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 5
  • 6. Job Rotation Tools used for Analysis Primary data was collected through the questionnaire by distributing questionnaires; questionnaire with both close ended and open ended questions have been used as samples respondents. On the basis of the tables, the facts are presented in the form of various Graphs. Plan of analysis The data is collected and classified in a organized and systematic manner. • The data is collected and classified by random sampling method. • The classified data is tabulated and calculated into percentages. • The data is interpreted for getting results required for the research study. • The tabulated data is shown in the form of various Graphs for better understanding. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 6
  • 7. Job Rotation Limitation of the Study  Chances of bias in the mind of employees.  Emotional attachments may lead to bias filled answers.  Less reliable and valid than tests of mental ability.  The fact that the questions themselves often have more direct relevance to the work place does not help.  The research study is limited to a small sample size.  The study is confined only to employees of SYNDICATE BANK. Therefore the results and conclusion of study is may not be applicable to other banks. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 7
  • 8. Job Rotation 2.1 Industry Profile: 2.1.1 Bank It is generally said that the word “BANK” has been originated in Italy. In the middle of 12th century there was a great financial crisis in Italy due to war. To meet the war expenses, the government of that period a forced subscribed loan on citizens of the country at the interest of 5% per annum.Such loans was known as “compare”, “Minto”. In Germany the word “Monte” was named as “Bank”. It is also said that the word “Bank” has been derived from the word “Banco” which means a Banch. The Jews money lenders in Italy used to transact their business sitting on banches at different market places. 2.1.2 History of Bank The word ‘Bank’ is used in the sense of a commercial bank. It is of Germanic origin though some person trace it origin to French word ‘Banqui’ and the Italian word ‘Banca’. It referred to a bench for keeping lending and exchanging of money lenders and money chargers. There was no such word as banking before 1640. All though the practice of safe keeping and saving flourished in the temple of Babylon as earlier as 2000 B.C. Chanakya in his Arthashastra written in about 300 B.C. mentioned about the existence of Merchant of Bankers who received deposits advanced loans and hundise. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 8
  • 9. Job Rotation The 1st bank in India was the ‘Bank of Hindustan’ started in 1770 by Alexander and co., an English agency house in Kolkata which failed in 1782 with the closer of the agency house. But the 1st bank in the modern sense was established in the Bengal presidency as the Bank of Bengal in 1806. 2.1.3 Growth of Bank Merchant bankers issued ‘Hundis’ to remit funds in India such Merchant bankers were known as Seth’s. The next stage in the growth of banking was the Goldsmith he started charging something for taking care of the money and bullion. The next stage in the growth of banking is the money lenders, the goldsmith found that on an average the withdrawal of coins were much less than the deposits with him. So he started advancing the coins on loan by charging interest as a safeguard he kept some money in the reserve thus the goldsmith –money lenders became a banker who started performing the 2 functions of modern banking that of accepting deposit and advancing loan. 2.1.4 Meaning of Bank Chamber’s 20th century dictionary defines a bank has an institution for the keeping lending and exchanging of money. Economists have also defined a bank highlighting its various functions. According to Crowther “The bankers business is to take the debts of other people to offer his own in exchange and there by create money”. Thus a bank is an institution which accepts deposits from the public and in term advances loans by creating credit. It is different from other financial institution in that they can’t create credit though they may be accepting deposit and making advances. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 9
  • 10. Job Rotation Types of Banks 1. Commercial Banks. 2. Exchange Banks. 3. Industrial Banks. 4. Agricultural Banks. 5. Co-operative Banks. 6. Central Banks. 7. Private sector Banks. 2.2 COMPANY PROFILE HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 10
  • 11. Job Rotation Syndicate bank was established in 1925 in Udupi with a capital of Rs8000 by three visionaries –Sri Upendra Ananth Pai, a businessman,Sri Vaman Kudva, an engineer and Dr.T.M.A.Pai, a physician. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 11
  • 12. Job Rotation In the earlier days the bank collected as low as two Anna daily under the Pigmy Deposit scheme. As the time passed by this Pigmy deposit scheme has become the brand equity today. At present bank collects over Rs2 CRORE daily under this scheme. From just one branch in 1925 the Syndicate Bank has grown leaps and bound to have over 2000 branches now. The bank is now well equipped to face the multinational banks. Bank has adapted technology to beat competition. Today all the branches are computerized and centralized banking system is implemented. In 2004, Syndicate Bank also started utility bill payment services through Internet banking introduced. In 2005, the bank commenced the online reservation of railway tickets through Indian Railway Catering & Tourism Corporation Ltd for its customers. It was during this time that it entered into a MOU with SFAC for promoting of investments in Agri-business products. The 2000th branch was opened at Tondiarpet, Chennai, in 2006. In the same year, the bank commenced the first BPO outfit of a Nationalized Bank, Synd Bank Services Limited. This was a wholly owned subsidiary of Syndicate Bank. With the age of progressive banking, Syndicate Bank has created a name for itself in the last 80 years. Rooted in rural India, the Bank has a clear picture of the grass root realities and a vision of future India. Changing with the changing times, the Bank has well equipped itself with all the facilities of the new age, without, however, altering its distinctive socio-economic and cultural culture. Syndicate Bank's unique principle of mutual development, of both the Bank and the people, has won it a long list of clientele, which includes both the rural and the semi-urban class. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 12
  • 13. Job Rotation 2.2.1Banking Industry Overview: PSU banks have been rapidly expanding their balance sheet over the past three years. It is evident from the Graph as the gap in business growth of scheduled commercial banks (SCB`s) and PSU banks is narrowing. Banks generates a ‘spread’ by accepting deposits and lending advances. This is measured by net interest income (NII), which is the difference between the interest earned and interest expended. It is surprising to note that there was no relation between the growth rate in NII and net profit of the PSU banks over the period of five years. The growth in net profit of PSU Banks was more than 20% in the past two fiscal years, while the, growth in NII was less than 10%. So, main driving force in PSU banks bottom line is rationalized cost structure. Second phase of liberalization in banking: Second phase of opening of Indian banking sectors would commence in April 2009. 2.2.2 Vision HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 13
  • 14. Job Rotation • Consolidating position as a premier public sector bank with increased global outreach. •Emerging as a strong, vibrant, responsive, competitive bank. • Embracing state-of-art technology harnessing human potential and effectively participating in the process of nation building. • Serving its constituents and shareholders’ as a faithful friendly financial partner. 2.2.3 Mission The bank continuously envisages to: •Add core deposits continuously. •Offer better customer service. •Enhance tolerance level in dealing with customers and get better understanding of their requirements. •Design and deliver the products and services according to its customer’s needs so as to give them an exhilarating and enthusiastic experience. 2.2.4 Goals The goals articulated for each of the functional areas of the bank is: 1. Business: To achieve global business of Rs. 250 thousand crores by March 2010. 2. Resources: To achieve global deposits of Rs. 170000 crore by March 2010 with emphasis on low cost resources by planned strategic initiatives including branch expansion, aggressive marketing and active involvement of each and every employee. 3. Advances: To build qualitative asset base of around Rs. 90000 crore by March 2010 to augment the income portfolio of the bank. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 14
  • 15. Job Rotation 4. Priority sector credit: To have accelerated and qualitative growth in priority sector lending to reach a level of Rs. 23800 crore, Rs. 10200 crore under agriculture, Rs. 3514 crore under SME through various customer friendly credit products and to take maximum advantage of “Financial Inclusion “so as to expand the clientele base of the bank, and provide financial assistance to all eligible candidates. 5. Information Technology: To harness state-of-art technology and network all branches so as to make available reliable MIS for DSS and deploy best practices in Information Security to manage the business effectively and profitably. 6.Management of assets : To make 2008-09 truly a “year of NPA resolution” by striving for getting “A” rating under asset quality by upgrading NPAs, bringing down gross NPA and net NPA level both in absolute and percentage terms below march 2009 figure and accomplish NPA recovery target as per commitment. 7. Foreign exchange and treasury: To profitably manage the forex and investment assets of the bank to achieve an export-import turnover of Rs. 15000 crore and Rs. 12750 crore respectively. To achieve treasury income of Rs. 2345 crore with an investment of Rs. 35000 crore. 8. Profitability: To make every branch a profits centre and ensure best possible returns to the shareholders. 9. Risk management: To continuously upgrade the risk management systems and processes, imbibe risk management in business activities and implement Basel II requirements for the benefit of all stakeholders. 10. Human resources and organizational structure: To mould and strengthen the organizational structure to meet the future business requirements and challenges. To redefine and to redevelop peoples’ management techniques so as to unleash human potential, drive growth and nurture leadership of high quality corporate governance, 11.Customer relationship management : To fine-tune its marketing strategies to meet the ever growing market odds, to ensure that our products and services adapt to the changing needs and expectations of the customers, to provide the customer the ideal banking ambience, to reorient its publicity so as to provide increased visibility to its brand. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 15
  • 16. Job Rotation 12. Inspection: To migrate progressively from the present transaction oriented system to a risk based audit exercise enhancing the effectiveness of risk management, control and governance processes. 2.2.5 OBJECTIVES 1. To have an overview of the organization. 2. To study the departments of the organization in details. 3. To know about all the products and services being offered by the company. 4. To gather study the organizational hierarchy of the company. 5. To gather sufficient information about the company so as to do its SWOT analysis. 6. To give our own suggestions for the betterment of the company. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 16
  • 18. Job Rotation Portfolios 1. Corporate Credit Division – I (CCD-I) 9. Priority Sector Credit Dept 2. Corporate Credit Division – II (CCD-II)10.Premises & Maintenance Dept 3. Retail Banking Department 11. General Administration Dept Board Secretariat, Chief Compliance Officer 4. Planning & Development Dept 12. Central Accounts & Legal Dept 5. Recoveries Dept 13. Personnel Department 6. Dept. of Information Technology 14. Inspection Department 7. Risk Management & Monitoring Dept. 15. Vigilance Department 8. Treasury & International Banking Division Regional Offices – 35 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 18
  • 19. Chairperson - Basanth Seth MD - Basanth Seth Job Directors - A R Nagappan Rotation Basanth Seth Bhupinder Singh Suri Dinkar S Punja George Joseph K Seetharamu Kawaljit Singh Oberoi M Bhaskara Rao M Deena Dayalan Mocherla Shaskara Rao R Ramachandran R Ravi Ramesh Adige Vinod Kumar Nagar Vinay Kumar Sorake Suresh Kumar Rustagi Branches – 2221 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 19
  • 20. Job Rotation 2.4 PRODUCTS AND SERVICES: Deposits: Traditional deposit products include: • savings and current accounts • fixed deposits • tax savings • Pigmy deposits Premium account services such as multi-city current and savings account are also available. Loans: Some of the most common loan products are: • Auto • Home • Agriculture • Educational • Pension loans • Priority sector lending. Other services pertain to: • Demat account • cash management • gold coins purchase • bank draft facilities HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 20
  • 21. Job Rotation Apart from the ATM, the Syndicate Bank has other multiple delivery channels such as Internet banking and SMS banking. The bank also has business ties with Visa Inc. to provide credit card and debit card services. 2.4.1 PRODUCT PROFILE A. BANKING ACTIVITIES: This activity includes the following: 1. Syndicate Bank Global Debit Card. 2.Syndicate Bank Global Credit Cards. B. BANCASSURANCE: The bank provides insurance services in association with Bajaj Allianz. 1. Life Insurance Products. 2. Non Life Insurance Some of its life-insurance products in association with Bajaj Allianz are; a. INVEST GAIN. b. CASH GAIN. c. CHILD GAIN. d. RISK CARE. e. TERM CARE. f. LIFETIME CARE g. SWARNA-VISHRANTI h. UNITGAIN i. LOAN PROTECTOR j. SYNDDRIVER Cash Management (SCMS) Deposit 1.Synd 400 Plus and Synd 500 Plus 2. Savings Deposit Account: HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 21
  • 22. Job Rotation 3. Special Premium Savings Accounts 4. Fixed Deposit Scheme. 5. Vikas Cash Certificate. 6. Social Security Deposit. 7. Senior Citizen’s Security Deposit. 8. Syndicate Suvidha Deposit 9. Cumulative SyndTaxShield Deposit Scheme 10.Pigmy Deposit 11.Super Premium Savings Bank Account 12.Synd Samanya Savings Bank Account (No Frills Account) 13.SyndFlexi Current AccountD. SYND BANK SERVICES (BPO): It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Syndicate Bank. This is a first BPO outfit of a Nationalized Bank. This BPO Company is proposed to undertake the following activities facilitating customers to file their income tax returns, undertaking Back Office functions relating to Bank's Debit / Credit Card / Bank assurance Business etc. 2.11 LOAN PRODUCTS : a. SyndRent b.SyndSaral c. SyndSenior d. SyndVidyarthi e. SyndNivas f. SyndNivasPlus g. SyndPigmy h. SyndKisan i. SyndVahan HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 22
  • 23. Job Rotation j.SyndLaghuUdyami k. SyndMahila l. SyndMortgage:SyndPravasi m. SyndSmallCredit: SyndSuvidha: n. SyndUdyog o. SyndVyapar p. SyndJaiKisan q. SyndShakti 2.12 AGRICULTURAL LOAN PRODUCTS : 1.Animal Husbandry Scheme 2.Development of Irrigation Infrastructure 3.Farm Mechanization Schemes 4.Hi-tech Agriculture 5.SyndJaiKisan 6.Jewel Loans for Agriculture 7.Land Development Schemes 8.Purchase of Land for Agricultural Purpose 9.Rural Employment Generation Program 10.Solar Water Heater Systems 11.Syndicate 2/3/4 Wheelers Scheme 12.Syndicate Farm House Scheme 13.Syndicate Kisan Credit Card(SKCC) 14.Tenant Farm LoanG. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 23
  • 24. Job Rotation 2.13 OTHER SERVICES 1. Tele Banking 2. Internet Banking. 3. ‘Any Branch Banking’. 4. Synd Bill Pay. 5. On-Line Collection of Direct Taxes 6. On-line Railway Ticket Booking. 7. Western Union Money Transfer. 8. SyndInstant - (RTGS System for instant transfer of funds) 9. Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) System 10.Syndicate Gift Cheques 11.Insurance Cover for Deposits 12.Stop Payment Facility 13.Dormant Accounts 14.Safe Deposit Lockers HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 24
  • 25. Job Rotation 2.5 ACHIEVEMENTS HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 25
  • 26. 1925 On 10.11.1925, the business of the Bank commenced in Udupi with the name "Canara Industrial and Banking Syndicate Ltd.," a joint Stock Company with just one employee. Job Rotation 1928 First branch of the Bank opened at Brahmavar in Dakshina Kannada District 1937 Bank became a member of the Clearing House for the first time at Bombay. 1946 29 branches opened in a single day in rural areas. 1953 Took over the assets and liabilities of 2 Local Banks viz. Maharashtra Apex Bank Ltd. and Southern India Apex Bank Ltd. 20 Banks merged with the Bank during the period 1953-1964. 1957 100th branch opened at Ilkal in Karnataka 1962 Entered Foreign Exchange business by opening Foreign Exchange Department at Bombay. 1963 Name of the Bank changed from "Canara Industrial & Banking Syndicate Ltd." to "Syndicate Bank Limited". Head Office was shifted to Manipal on 19.4.1964. 1966 Economic Research Department set up. One of the first few Banks to emphasise on research in Banking even before nationalisation. 1969 Bank had 306 branches at the time of nationalisation of which 66% were in Rural and Semi Urban centres. Opened a branch at Port Blair in Andaman and Nicobar islands 1970 First Staff Training College started at Head Office 1971 First specialised branch in Foreign Exchange opened at Delhi. 1972 Opened a branch at Lakshadweep islands 1976 First overseas branch opened at London on 17.8.76. 1983 Took up management of Al Shabei Finance and Exchange Co. in Doha 1984 Took up management of Musandam Exchange Co. in Muscat 1984 1000th branch opened at Delhi Hauz Khas 1989 1500th branch opened at Kanakumbi 1991 First Specialised Industrial Finance Branch opened at Mumbai. 1995 First Specialised Housing Finance Branch opened at Mangalore 1999 Bank raised Capital of Rs.125 Crore in Oct.1999 from more than 4 lakh shareholders 2000 First Specialised Capital Market Services branch opened at Mumbai 2001 First branch under CBS (Core Banking Solution) started operation at Bangalore. 2002 Centralised Banking Solution under the brand name "Syndicate-e- banking" launched at Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and Manipal. 2003 Bank enters into MOU with Bajaj Allianz for distribution of Life Insurance products. 2003 Toll Free Voice Mail System for redressal of grievances introduced. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan 2004 Bank ties up with United India Insurance Co. Ltd. for distribution of Page 26 Non-Life Insurance products 2004 Utility bill payment services through Internet banking introduced. 2005 Introduced On-line reservation of Railway Tickets through Indian Railway Catering & Tourism Corporation Ltd. (IRCTC) for Internet
  • 27. Job Rotation 2.6.GROWTH OF BANK On the back of robust growth in treasury income, Syndicate Bank’s net profit saw a three-fold rise this quarter to Rs 261.56 crore compared with Rs 87.89 crore in the corresponding quarter of the last financial year. The total income of the bank increased 30 per cent, driven mainly by an almost 10-fold increase in treasury income at Rs 270.24 crore (Rs 28.38 crore). Its net interest income stood at Rs 585.71 crore (Rs 503.27 crore), up 16 per cent. An increase of 41.97 per cent in core deposits has also aided the bank, which has reduced its dependence on high-cost deposits by about 42 per cent. “We will focus more on growth of low-cost deposits, core deposits, reducing dependence on high-cost deposits and substituting them with core deposits,” HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 27
  • 28. Job Rotation The bank’s cost of deposits was 6.62 per cent (6.92 per cent). The focus will also be on “better liability management through overall reduction in cost of deposits,” 2.7 COMPETITORS FOR THE BANK  SBI PNB  Bank of Baroda  Bank of India  Union Bank  Indian Bank  Oriental Bank  Central Bank HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 28
  • 29. Job Rotation 2.8 SWOT ANALYSIS: STRENGTHS: 1. The bank is a pioneer in introducing several initiatives such as agricultural financing and door-to-door banking, which are now recognized as benchmarks by the industry. 2. So far, the bank has won 25 awards for its excellence in providing banking services. It also offers a wide range of products to serve various needs of its customers. 3. The bank is the first public sector bank to provide BPO services and is also ISO certified. 4. The bank is well aware of its social responsibility and has been actively involved in the development of the society since its inception. 5. Pan India pressure. 6. Strong rural presence: This is key strength of Syndicate Bank as it has strong. 7. Presence in the rural India: Rural India is having big growth potential as the urban areas are becoming saturated and is facing stiff competition. 8. Implemented IT across the branches. 9. Centralized banking system. 10. Government owned bank: This guarantees in today’s circumstances the safety of the deposit and excessive regulations of the government prevent it from taking speculative position. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 29
  • 30. Job Rotation WEAKNESSES: 1. Increasing NPA 2. Poor qualification of many employees 3. It has just started implementing its core banking solutions across many of its branches. Many public sector banks have made much progress in this area. 4. Not present in big way in urban areas. 5. Bureaucratic culture still prevailing in the bank, 6. Excessive government regulation is hindering the pace of expansion OPPORTUNITIES: 1. It has created a good customer base and it is time that it leverages on this strength to cross sell and up sell its various products to them. 2. Expansion prospects in retail, SME and agricultural sector. 3. The Bank should enhance its technological capabilities to differentiate products and services from those of its competitors and continue to implement its Core Banking Solutions plan. 4. The Bank should also expand its presence in international liberalization. 5. Liberalization of banking sector in 2009 will force the government to de regulate the sector. 6. Indian bank will have the opportunity to go abroad. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 30
  • 31. Job Rotation THREATS: 1. Increasing competition posed by global and private sector banks. 2. The excessive time taken by the government to give compensation because of the recent loan waiver announced in the March 2008 Finance Budget. 3. Better performance by private sector banks as well as some of its public sector counterparts 4. Coming of MNC bank post April 2009. 5. Ongoing economic recession. 6. Government regulation HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 31
  • 32. Job Rotation REVIEW OF LITERATURE 3.1 Methodology of literature review The review of literature is conducted to analyze various factors for Job rotation at syndicate bank Hassan. The book and article of various authors are referred to find out the kinds of methods which are suited for rating job rotation level. The research has searched many books on Job rotation to collect the literature about the Hassan. The information collected was confined to the journals published about the human resources management. The review of literature helped the research to confine the survey in better and extensive manner. It should help to research for finding and getting deeper into the topic. For this purpose the abstracting and indexing journals and published biographies and unpublished biographies are first to go. 3.2 Evolution of human resources management Human resource, a relatively new term emerged during the 1970’s. Many people continue to refer to the discipline by its older, more traditional titles, such as personnel management or personal administration. The trend is changing. The term now a day used is human resource management. Coming to the evolution of HRM as a subject, it may be stated that concern for the welfare of workers in the management of business enterprises has been in existence since ages. Kautilya’s arthashastra states that there existed a sound base for systematic management of resources during as early as the 4th century BC. These processes took momentum only when government took active measures during resent passed by various HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 32
  • 33. Job Rotation rules and regulations under industrial dispute act and related acts. However the employees will have various reasons to deviate from this. When the growth of the industry is distributed due to irregularity of the employees, government showed interest in the operation of public sector enterprises and provided systematic procedures for regulating employer- employee relationships. 3.3 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT The term human resources spell the total sum of all components (like skill, creative abilities) possessed by all employees and other person (like self employed, employees, owners etc.,) who contribute their services to attain the organizational objectives and goals. Human resource include human values, ethos. 3.4 DEFINITION: “Human resource management aims to improve the productive contribution of individuals while simultaneously attempting to attain other societal and individual employee objective”. Human resource management is concerned with the people who work in the organization to achieve the objective of the organization. It concerns with the acquisition of appropriate human resources, developing their skills and competencies, motivating them for best performance and ensuring their continued commitment to the organization to achieve organizational objectives. This definition applies to all types of organization. For e.g., industry, business, government, education, health or social welfare of the people. Human resource management refers to activities and functions designed and implemented to maximize organizational as well as employee’s effectiveness. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 33
  • 34. Job Rotation 3.5 Scope of human resources management: The scope of human resource management is vast. All major activities in the working life of the employees from time of his entry into the organization until he leaves, retires come under the preview of human resources management. Employees in an organization work not as individuals but as group interactions, employees come to work place and bring not only technical skills, knowledge but also their personal feelings desires, motives, attitude and values. The HR manager plays a crucial role in understanding the changing basic needs of the organization and developing to meet such changes. 3.6 Objectives of human resources management: The primary objective of HRM is to ensure the availability of a competent and willing workforce to an organization specifically; HRM objective are four folds- societal, organizational, functional and personal.  Societal objective: To be ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands upon the organization.  Organizational objective: To recognize the role of HRM in bringing about organizational effectiveness. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 34
  • 35. Job Rotation  Functional objective: To maintain the department’s contribution at a level appropriate to the organization’s needs.  Personal objective: To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least in so far as these goals enhance the individual’s contribution to the organization. The other objectives of human resources management include: 1. To provide, create, utilize and motivate employees to accomplish organizational goals. 2. To secure integration of individuals and groups in securing organizational effectiveness. 3. To create opportunities, to provide facilities, necessary to individuals and groups for their growth with the organization by training. 4. To provide attractive, equitable, incentives, rewards, benefits, social security measures, to ensure retention of competent employees. 5. To maintain high moral, encourage value systems and create environment of trust, mutuality of interests. 3.7 Functions of HRM:  Identifying and developing person The success of every organization depends upon the quality of persons it employs. HRM helps in spotting right person for the right job. Persons are prepared for taking up different jobs. Every person may not be suitable for certain jobs. Persons are assigned jobs as per their aptitudes. Persons are given right type of training so that they are able to develop their potentialities to the maximum. They are also motivated to give their maximum to the organization. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 35
  • 36. Job Rotation  Retaining suitable persons The rapid development of technology is throwing new challenges everyday. Modernization of various techniques, computerization of data processing, introduction of micro-process controlled machines, revolution in communication techniques have resulted in a demand for trained and highly skilled persons. HRM not only helps in procuring suitable persons but is also useful in retaining them.  Creating work culture HRM approach emphasizes the development of employee’s potentialities and using it for achieving organizational goals. The aims and priorities of individual workers are given due weight age in the schemes of the organization. Human resource policy is backed by human values, understanding and concern for the welfare of people. The work culture in the organization improves; people feel satisfied and enjoy their work.  Educating managerial personnel HRM approach will succeed only when managerial personnel change their attitude towards workforce. There is a need to educate executives, managers and to top management regarding various aspects of the human resources approach adopted in the organization.  Conducting research HRM will be successful only if we know the aspirations and expectations of various persons working in the organization. The framing of human resource policies, strategies and approaches depend upon the information collected through research.  Developing a communication system HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 36
  • 37. Job Rotation There is a need to develop downward, upward and lateral communication in the organization. HRM develops a system of communication where policies of the management are properly communicated to the lowest level of hierarchy and feedback from lower is conveyed to the management. Communication system helps in understanding the view points each other and taking up remedial steps, if needed. 3.8 Nature of human resource management  Integral part of the process of management HRM is embedded in the organizational structure of an enterprise, is inherent in its functioning and is an integral part of the process of management itself. Human resource management cannot be separated from the basic management function. This function is performed by all the managers throughout the organization rather than by the personnel departments.  Comprehensive function The main function of HRM is to manage people at work. It is a comprehensive function which covers all types of people at all levels in the organization. In other words, it applies to workers, supervisors, offices, managers and other type of personnel in the organization.  Pervasive function HRM is comprehensive as well pervasive. It is inherent in all organizations at all levels. It is not confined to industry alone. It is equally useful and necessary in government, armed forces, sports organizations and the like. It applies in all the functional areas e.g., production, marketing, finance, research etc. recruitment, selection, development and utilization of people is an integral part of any organized effort. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 37
  • 38. Job Rotation  People oriented Human resource management is a people oriented function and is concerned with employees as individuals as well as groups. It deals with human relationships within an organization. It is a process of finding out optimum arrangement between individuals, jobs, organizations, and environment.  Continuous process Human resource management is a continuous process. It is not a one shot function, rather it is a never ending exercise.  Science as well as art HRM is a science as it contains an organized body of knowledge consisting of principles and techniques. It is also an art. Handling people is one of the most creative arts. It involves the application of theoretical knowledge to the problem of human resources. Thus, it is a science as well as an art.  Recent origin As compared to other areas of management, human resource management is a comparatively young discipline. It started in the later parts of the nineteenth century.  Interdisciplinary In modern times human resource management has become a highly specialized job. Moreover, it is not an isolated subject, it is interdisciplinary. It involves application of knowledge drawn from several disciplines like sociology, anthropology, psychology, economics etc. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 38
  • 39. Job Rotation 3.9 Need for HRM approach Human resource management helps in creating a better understanding between employees and management. It helps in accomplishing individual and organizational goals. HRM is considered essential due to the following reasons:  Better industrial relations There is widespread unrest, strained worker-management relations, lack of confidence in each other, rising expectations of workers, emergence of militancy in trade unions etc. These factors have created a gap among workers and management. In the absence of cordiality in and organization the performance of workers is adversely affected. HRM approach is required to create proper understanding among workers and management. The workers are developed to meet their individual and organizational goals.  Develop organizational commitment There is a humanization of work environment in industrialized countries like Japan, U.S.A., Germany etc. globalization of economy has exposed Indian industries to international competition. An improvement in efficiency and quality of work can only when workers develop organizational commitment. HRM approach helps in developing a sense of pride for the organization among work force.  Coping with changing environment The business environment is rapidly changing. Technological improvement have revolutionized production procedures. Automation has been introduced in office operations. Better communication channels have revolutionized vital areas. Of business. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 39
  • 40. Job Rotation There is a need to cope with new and changing situation. The operational efficiency of employees must improve to face the new situation.  Change in political philosophy Political philosophy has undergone change all over the world. The new approach is to develop human resource properly for making its better use. In India, central government has named a ministry as human resource development and put it under a senior minister. This development shows the importance given to human resource.  Increased pressure on employee The technological changes have necessitated the use of sophisticated machines. The installation, monitoring of machine, maintenance and controlling of operations need trained and skilled people. There is a regular need for training and development of people for coping with the emerging situations. Human resource development has become essential for every organization. Research and fresh initiatives in industry require new policy of human resource development. System approach to HRM: An enterprise cannot work in isolation. It depends on its external environment. It is a part of large system such as industry to which it belongs, the economic system and the society. The enterprise receives the inputs, transforms them and exports the output to the environment. The inputs from internal environment include people, capital, managerial skills, technical knowledge etc. various groups of people too make demands on the enterprise, e.g., employees want higher wages, stable employment, promotional avenues, consumers demand good quality products at reasonable prices,shareholfders except higher returns and appreciation of their stock holdings, government wants timely payment of taxes and compliances of various inputs into outputs .Though the managers do not have control over the external environment, still they have to respond to it .The enterprises has to adjust its working in such a way that it is able to use the environment to its advantage .In order to carry out its operations effectively a business generally creates certirain departments which are known as subsystems. The important subsystems of the HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 40
  • 41. Job Rotation business firm are human resources systems, production system, marketing systems, finance system, research and development system. Human resources system can be further classified into the following:  Recruitment and selection  Training and development  Compensation  Employees welfare and service  Personnel records and research All the subsystems must be properly integrated and closely co-ordinate so that the entire system functions as an integrated whole in accomplishing objectives for which the business has been set up. 3.10 Limitations of human resource management: HRM approach is very useful work culture in the organization but still it suffers from certain limitations:  Recent Origin HRM is of recent origin .So it lacks universally approved academic base. Different people try to define the term differently. Some organizations have named their traditional personnel management department as human resources management department.  Lack of Top Management Support HRM must have the support of the top level management .The change in attitude at the top can bring good results while implementing HRM. Because of passive attitude at the HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 41
  • 42. Job Rotation top, this work is handled by personnel management people .Unless otherwise there is a change in approach and attitude nothing spectacular is going to happen.  Improper Implementation Human resources management should be implemented by assessing the training and development needs of employees. The needs and aspirations of people should be taken into account while framing human resources polices.HRM is implemented half –heartedly. The organizing of some training programs is considered as the implementation of HRM. Management’s productivity and profitability approach remains undisturbed in many organizations.  Inadequate development programmers: HRM requires implementation of program such as career planning, on the job training, development programs; counseling etc. there is a need to create an atmosphere of learning in the organization. In reality HRM programs are confined to class room lectures and expected results are not coming out from this approach.  Inadequate information: Some organizations do not have requisite information about their employees. In the absence of adequate information and data base, this system cannot be properly implemented. There is a need to collect, store and retrieval of information before implementing human resource management. The liberalization of economy, entry of multinationals in all markets, rising of quality standards of Indian goods, growing competition will all put pressure on human resources of every organization. Managements will be required to constantly assess and reassess competence levels of their employees. Training and development programs will be needed to motivate personnel to cope with the new requirements. Human resource management will have a pivotal role in managing the business in near future. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 42
  • 43. Job Rotation 3.11 Introduction about Job Rotation. Job rotation is an approach to management development where an individual is moved through a schedule of assignments designed to give him or a breadth of exposure to the entire operation. Job rotation is also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a company, and to reduce boredom and increase job satisfaction through job variation. The term job rotation can also mean the scheduled exchange of persons in offices, especially in public offices, prior to the end of incumbency or the legislative period. This has been practiced by the German green party for some time but has been discontinued. At the senior management levels, job rotation - frequently referred to as management rotation, is tightly linked with succession planning - developing a pool of people capable of stepping into an existing job. Here the goal is to provide learning experiences which facilitate changes in thinking and perspective equivalent to the "horizon" of the level of the succession planning. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 43
  • 44. Job Rotation For lower management levels job rotation has normally one of two purposes: promotability or skill enhancement. In many cases senior managers seem unwilling to risk instability in their units by moving qualified people from jobs where the lower level manager is being successful and reflecting positively on the actions of the senior manager. Many military jobs use the job rotation strategy to allow the soldiers to develop a wider range of experiences, and an exposure to the different jobs of an occupation. Meaning of job rotation Job rotation means rotating staff members who are doing similar jobs but at different units. Definition of Job rotation Job rotation is a part of career development. Job rotation involves assigning employees to various jobs, so that they acquire a wide base of knowledge and skills. 3.12 What is Job Rotation? Job rotation involves the movement of employees through a range of jobs in order to increase interest and motivation. Job rotation can improve “multi-skilling” but also involves the need for greater training. In a sense, job rotation is similar to job enlargement. This approach widens the activities of a worker by switching him or her around a range of work. For example, an administrative employee might spend part of the week looking after the reception area of a business, dealing with customers and enquiries. Some time might then be spent manning the company telephone switchboard and then inputting data onto a database. Job rotation may offer the advantage of making it easier to cover for absent colleagues, but it may also reduce' productivity as workers are initially unfamiliar with a new task. 3.13 Why is Job Rotation Important? Job rotation is seen as a possible solution to two significant challenges faced by business: HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 44
  • 45. Job Rotation 1) Skills shortages and skills gaps, and 2) Employee motivation 3) Skills shortages occur when there is a lack of skilled individuals in the workforce. 4) Skills gaps occur when there is a lack of skills in a company’s existing workforce which may still be found in the labor force as a whole. Benefits of Job Rotation • It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries • Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required • It determines the areas where improvement is required • Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position Job rotation::When to use it • To broaden an individual's knowledge of other functions and departments in the organization. • To prepare an individual for career advancement. • To maximize an individual's exposure to customers by moving him or her into positions that requires customer interaction. • To motivate and challenge an individual who has been on a job for a long time. Job rotation::How to use it • Link job rotation to the organization goals and individual learning needs. • Establish expectations and learning goals with the individual before the job rotation. • Check with the individual periodically to ensure expectations are being met. • At the end of the job rotation, meet with the individual to discuss lessons learned, how these lessons can be applied to the individuals current jobs. Job rotation::Merits • Improves participant’s job skills, job satisfaction. • Provides valuable opportunities to network within the organization. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 45
  • 46. Job Rotation • Offers faster promotion and higher salaries to quick learners. • Lateral transfers may be beneficial in rekindling enthusiasm and developing new talents. Job rotation::Demerits • Increased workload for participants. • Constant job change may produce stress and anxiety. • Mere multiplications of duties do not enrich the life of a trainee. • Development costs may shoot up when trainees commit mistakes, handle tasks less optimally. Application of job rotation For lower management levels job rotation has normally one of two purposes: promotion or skill enhancement. This approach allows the manager to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. Basic benefits of Job Rotation • It determines the areas where improvement is required. • Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position. • It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different depts., business units, functions… • Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) of each employee required. • Job rotation can lead directly to the accelerated development of new members of staff. • Cross-functional job rotation can be a powerful way of developing organizational high- fliers. 3.14 Benefits of Job Rotation. • Raises intrinsic reward potential of a job: Job Rotation is likely to raise intrinsic reward potential of a job due to different skill and abilities needed to perform it. A worker becomes a broader based versatile worker due to job rotation. Management gets the benefit of job rotation because workers become competent in several jobs rather than only HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 46
  • 47. Job Rotation in one job. Staff adjustment in different department is possible easily due it the practice of job rotation. • Beneficial to the organization: Due to job rotation, the organization stands to gain because of the versatility of its employees who develop skills due to job rotation. It develops a common culture because of wide and common exposure to workers. • Worker becomes competent in several jobs: Due to job rotation, workers know about a variety of jobs. It also facilitates personal growth of employees and makes the workers more useful and valuable to the organization. The organization stands to benefit as the workers become competent in several jobs. As and result, the management gets employees who can perform a variety of tasks to meet contingencies Improves inter- departmental co-operation: Periodical job rotation improves inter-departmental co- operation. Employees understand each other’s problems properly and this facilitates co- operation among them. • Motivates employees: Job rotation technique is used for motivating employees in the organizations. It is suggested as a motivational strategy. • Reduce Boredom: Job rotation reduce boredom and disinterest among employees. Due to job rotation, a given employee performs different jobs of more or less the same nature. The employee gets some variety of work, workplace and peers. • Develops wide skills among workers: job rotation develops and wide range of skills among employees. It broadens knowledge and skills of an employee. Personal worth of employee also improves. 3.15 Job Rotation: Job rotation, unlike a typical management assignment, is a work change by mutual agreement wherein the employee, who is generally not in the supervisory chain of the position, takes on a new role for some period of time agreed to in advance by the parties. The ideal situation for a job rotation is one that is cross-divisional or cross-departmental. It is not intended to be a vehicle for promoting employees into a position. Successful assignments can result in the following benefits: • Improved retention of high performers HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 47
  • 48. Job Rotation • Increased teamwork • Greater innovation and creativity • Prevention of job boredom and burnout • Improved employee understanding of college operations and strategic issues • Increased learning capability of the organization • Improved organizational communication Policy: In its continuing efforts to improve the quality of the work environment, retain high performers, and provide greater accountability and leadership opportunities for employees at all levels, the college will facilitate approved job rotation assignments in related and unrelated areas. Such assignments will provide educational and learning opportunities designed to improve employee job performance and develop employee potential in current or prospective positions consistent with the college’s mission and strategic initiatives. Employees desiring a job rotation assignment will develop a plan for its execution. The assignment will be contingent on the approval of the supervisor(s), including the department head, of the department(s) affected. Job rotation assignments do not impact or change the basic terms and conditions of employment and may be terminated for any reason, at any time, by management. The parties to the job rotation assignment must agree to the Plan’s conditions and terms prior to its effective date. Some of the factors to be considered are workload, organizational priorities, existing talent, and budgetary constraints. Due to the many variables associated with the design of a Job Rotation Plan, employees are encouraged to consult with the Human Resources Office (HRD) regarding specific proposals utilizing the following checklist. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 48
  • 49. Job Rotation 3.16 Job Rotation Plan Check List Employee’s performance in current job: Solid performance in current job is important because the opportunity to learn new skills through a job rotation assignment is predicated on the assumption that employees have mastered the Skills required of their current position. Employees in a probationary status or at less than a “meets” level of performance are not eligible to participate. Documentation of employee’s current job tasks: Has the employee documented current job processes and procedures in a manner that will enable another employee to assume those tasks without undue loss of efficiency and customer service? A Plan that fails to adequately address how the work will be accomplished in the current position will result in an unfavorable decision. Documentation of employee’s current job tasks: such as reassignment to a position that unexpectedly becomes vacant). Alternatively, the employee may identify an opportunity for job rotation through exchanges utilizing existing staff. Defining the plan includes how the work will be accomplished and by whom. It precedes the next step—gaining acceptance for the plan. Plan Approval: Rotations that cross departments necessitate the support of management in both areas. Stating the benefits to each and articulating in detail how the work will be accomplished without significant loss of quality is critical to gaining acceptance of the Plan. All Plans must be approved by HRD. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 49
  • 50. Job Rotation Budget Impact: Check with HRD for input as needed. Salary adjustments may or may not be triggered by the Job Rotation Plan depending on current responsibility, salary level, and the nature of the new assignment. Timing: State when the proposed job rotation assignment will begin and end. Performance Evaluation: The employee will be evaluated by the gaining supervisor on performance at the completion of the assignment. This evaluation will be included in the employee’s subsequent annual performance evaluation. Salary Adjustments: Any salary adjustments made as a result of the job rotation will be reversed when the affected employee(s) return to their prior duties. Annual performance evaluations and pay increases tied to those evaluations will be applied to the annual salary in effect preceding the job rotation assignment. 3.17 Eight Points Need to Consider About Job Rotation 1. Proactively manage job rotation as a component of training and career-development system. Job rotation may be especially valuable for organizations that require firm- specific skills because it provides an incentive to organizations to promote from within. 2. Have a clear understanding of exactly which skills will be enhanced by placing an employee into the job-rotation process. Address skills that aren't enhanced by job rotation through specific training programs and management coaching. 3. Use job rotation for employees in nonexempt jobs, as well as for those in professional HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 50
  • 51. Job Rotation and managerial jobs. Job rotation may be of great value for developing employees in all types of jobs. 4. Use job rotation with later-career and plateaued employees, as well as with early- career employees. Some organizations may have the tendency to rotate employees too fast in early-career stages and too slow in later-career stages. Job rotation can be a good way to reduce the effects of the plateauing process by adding stimulation to employees'. 5. You can use job rotation as a means of career development without necessarily granting promotions-so it may be especially useful for downsized organizations because it provides opportunities to develop and motivate employees. 6. Give special attention to the job rotation plans for female and minority employees. Recent federal equal employment opportunity legislation has recognized the importance of job rotation to promotional opportunities when examining the limited representation of minorities and females in executive jobs (called the "glass ceiling" effect). Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 has ordered a commission to study the barriers and opportunities to executive advancement, specifically including job-rotation programs. 7. Link rotation with the career development planning process so that employees know the developmental needs addressed by each job assignment. Both job-related and development-related objectives should be defined jointly by the employee and the manager when the employee assumes a new position. The rate of rotation should be managed according to the time required to accomplish the goals of the job and the time required to achieve the developmental benefits of the job. The advantage of this approach is that both the employee and the manager will have a clear understanding of expectations and the required tenure on the job will be related to predetermine outcomes. Job rotation should be perceived as voluntary from the employee's point of view if it's going to have the intended developmental effects. 8. Implement specific methods of maximizing benefits and minimizing costs of rotation. Examples include increasing the benefits of organizational integration and stimulating HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 51
  • 52. Job Rotation work by carefully selecting jobs, increasing career and awareness benefits by ensuring that they're reflected in the development plans, decreasing workload costs by managing the timing of rotations, decreasing learning-curve costs by having good operating procedures, and decreasing the dissatisfaction of co-workers by helping them understand the role of job rotation in their own development plans. Job rotation needs to have a staged introduction: Exploration:- Job rotation should be initiated only after there has been an ergonomic assessment and engineering solutions to musculoskeletal risk factors have been implemented. In particular, it should be initiated only after the peak loads have been addressed. Job rotation can work with jobs with similar levels of risk and difficulty. It can be used to provide variety in jobs that are highly repetitive and monotonous or jobs that can be adjusted to different workers. Planning:- The jobs, sequencing, and supervision should be planned to accommodate foreseeable circumstances such as a range of training, skills, and capacities of workers in the rotation sequence. The reintroduction of injured workers should in particular be considered. Training:- An important and often forgotten requirement is the need for retraining. There needs to be an adequate training and a phase-in time. Implementation:- There is the potential for a decrease in quality and productivity at start up, and initial difficulties in formalizing the schedule. These need to be planned for. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 52
  • 53. Job Rotation Evaluation; It is important to treat each new job rotation as if it was a pilot study. Given the difficulty of performing controlled evaluations of job rotation effectiveness in each workplace, it is suggested to measure a baseline of what the situation was like before the rotation (injuries, , worker satisfaction, absenteeism, etc.) so that you can have a before and- after picture of the effect. Another way to assess the effectiveness would be to monitor the effect on the workers who were being rotated out of the “easy” jobs; use them as the “canaries” to make sure that the rotation was not increasing output. 3.18 Job Rotation System Introduction There are many reasons for implementing a job rotation system, including the potential for increased flexibility in production, increased employee satisfaction and lower MSD rates. However, establishing a rotation system that properly determines job rotations and monitors their safe use is not a simple task. There are many issues to consider and no official protocol or methodology to call upon. The successful implementation of a program requires teamwork from all parts of the organization, including management, union, medical providers, and especially the employees themselves. Many job rotation systems have failed because of lack of planning and lack of foresight into the problems and shortcomings of rotation. It can prove more difficult than it might seem at first glance, since it involves changing the organizational structure of an entire facility. The following materials provide systematic guidance for setting up a rotation system. This guidance should be viewed as a starting point for further discussion by workplace personnel. Roadblocks There are two major categories of roadblocks that are often encountered in setting up a job rotation system: HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 53
  • 54. Job Rotation Cultural issues: The first sets of difficulties are associated with the challenge of changing the work structure and not from the job rotation in and of itself. Examples of problems include experienced workers not wanting to learn new types of work Employees not wanting to “lend” their equipment to others Pre-existing differences in wage levels among employees whose jobs are to be rotated High-seniority employees who have “paid their dues” working at difficult jobs may believe that they have earned their right to easier jobs and may resist going back to more difficult work. Practical problems of physically getting from one job to the next Rotation issues: The other set of difficulties have to do with issues surrounding the rotation schedule itself: 1. Difficulties in finding appropriate jobs to rotate to (for the goal of reducing MSDs) 2. Difficulties for employees in learning the subtleties of some tasks and thus end up increasing the physical demands. 3. Inability of some employees to be physically able to perform the most difficult tasks. 4. Education and training of workers for new jobs 5. Inconsistency of application 3.19 Basic Limitation Job rotation alone does not change the risk factors present in a facility. It only distributes the risk factors more evenly across a larger group of people. Thus, the risk for some individuals can be reduced, while the risk for others can be increased. However, there will be no net change in risk factors present. This can be shown in the following graph. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 54
  • 55. Job Rotation When employees rotate between two jobs the risk exposure can be thought of as being “averaged.” Job rotation may drop the average to within a safe level, or raise the whole group in excess of safe limits. Unfortunately, it is not possible with current knowledge to determine what the safe limit is. For this reason it is prudent to be cautious about job rotation. Engineering changes should remain the goal of the ergonomics program. 3.20 Model Components The Job Rotation model has three major components: 1. Company Development: - providing support in identifying training needs, developing a company training plan, and obtaining agreement for the company to employ a Job Rotation Trainee (JRT). 2. Workforce Development: - providing individually tailored learning programmes for company employees, both in vocational skills appropriate to their current employment and core skills to increase their overall employability. This would HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 55
  • 56. Job Rotation involve guidance, work based learning, vocational training and other learning specific to the needs and interests of the individual and the SME. The main target group for this activity could be workers who wish to improve their literacy/numeracy skills, those without qualifications, or those with a poor history of employment stability. 3. Job Rotation Trainee Recruitment & Placement: - providing previously unemployed workers with a minimum period of 6 months paid work. Each JRT will receive guidance, individual support, access to employment, training prior to and during employment. Further, inherent in these three fundamental strands are other components:  Individual Guidance and Support - including counseling, training needs assessment, and development of an individual action plan, utilizing a personal exploration approach. Guidance sessions are made available throughout the beneficiaries’ period with the project. Follow-up support during project participation and aftercare provision is also available.  Development of Personal Skills - including modules on how people learn, communications, confidence and self-esteem building, basic literacy/numeracy skills along with the range of interpersonal skills. The objective is to support the learner in developing an interest and motivation to learn, and how to communicate and work with other people. These courses are adaptable and learner-led, and forming the foundation for the development of a lifelong learning focus. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 56
  • 57. Job Rotation  Core Skills Development –could include units on basic ICT, Customer Care, Time Management, Team Building, Mentoring, Equal Opportunities awareness and other areas as identified in the needs assessment. Such a portfolio of learning programmes helps participants to develop a range of transferable skills to increase their general employability and effectiveness in the workplace.  Work Skills – that is specific vocational skills related to employment or placement, which can be company-customized non-certificated training, encouragement is given to plan training that will lead to SVQ qualifications at Level 2 3 & 4. 3.21 Job rotation is a big motivator The challenges of keeping a 21st century employee motivated at work are vast. Today, an organization has very few options at hand, thanks to the ever increasing competition. Keeping an employee interested is not an easy job which is why employee retention is a major challenge that most HR teams face. This is where ‘Job Rotation’ helps. Job rotation has many advantages. One of them is that it keeps the employee interested in his work as he gets different job profiles and his work does not become monotonous. One of the other major advantages of job rotation is that it gives an employee a chance to learn a lot more than he normally would. He becomes multi-skilled and this is an asset that is always helpful. For example, if an employee falls sick or is on leave and can’t report to work and if there is a shortage of staff on a particular day, then thanks to the practice of job rotation, an organization has enough skilled manpower to replace the employee temporarily and take up his job. Many organizations use job rotation as a tool to curb absenteeism. The HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 57
  • 58. Job Rotation reason being, if an employee gets something new to learn, he would be more willing to report to work. Clearly, job rotation has a lot of advantages and one feels that every organization must have it. However, every silver cloud has a dark lining. In order to ensure that job rotation is done properly and efficiently a proper policy must be in place. This is because a lot of employees may initially resist for job rotation as they may be skeptical about it. This is why goal setting is very necessary in job rotation. This would help in convincing an employee that this policy would be for his own benefit and they would stand to gain a lot from it. Job rotation ensures that an employee does not feel ‘stressed’ out from the job, as this is a major issue that HR teams face today. To develop a good job rotation programme the organization must assess its needs and requirements. This kind of a programme can be used either for promotion, sideward movements or succession planning. Whatever the need be, it should be clearly identified before making such a programme so as to help the organization know in which direction it is moving. Job rotation programmes are known to help an organization develop management talent as well as it help in improving its competitive advantage over its rivals. It is a known fact that for an organization to succeed it is of paramount importance to ensure that the top management is very skillful and is aware of the happenings in the industry. With so much competition today, decisions made by the top management can change the fortunes of an organization drastically. Thus, whatever training and advantage that can be given to them is an added bonus. One of the most difficult issues that an HR team faces would be the criteria on which job rotation should be done. The amount of experience, education, leadership assessment as well as management preference has to be kept in mind. This makes it very complex as a lot of details need to be looked into before selecting the right employee. Employees with a good amount of experience generally are preferred as their experience would help them adapt to different situations in a better manner compared to a fresher who’s just joined the organization. What further works in the favour of an old employee is the fact that he has been around for a longer time and thus is likely to feel cheated if a HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 58
  • 59. Job Rotation fresher was given a chance to learn something new before him? Clearly job rotation has its advantages but making a fair policy for the same is not easy. However, if the organization succeeds in doing this then it surely will have long term benefits in the end, a fact that every organization needs to looks into.. Are you aware of the concept job rotation? a. Yes b. No Table No.4.1 Frequency Percent Yes 18 60% No 12 40% Total 30 100 Graph No.4.1 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 59
  • 60. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentage of employees who are aware of the program” Job Rotation”. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 60% employees are aware about the concept of job rotation & 40% are not aware about the concept of job rotation. Is job rotation followed in your Bank? a. Yes b. No Table No.4.2 Frequency Percent Yes 16 53% No 14 47% Total 30 100 Graph No.4.2 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 60
  • 61. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentage of employees who knows that Job rotation is followed at the bank. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 53% employees say yes and 47% employees say no respectively. Do you think you can enhance your knowledge through job rotation? a. Yes b. No Table No.4.3 Frequency Percent Yes 20 67% No 10 33% Total 30 100 Graph No.4.3 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 61
  • 62. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentage of employees who can enhance their knowledge through job rotation. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 67% employees say yes and 33% employees say no respectively. Do you think job rotation will help you to build strong career? a. Yes b. No Table No.4.4 Frequency Percent Yes 24 80% No 06 20% Total 30 100 Graph No. 4.4 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 62
  • 63. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentage of employees which job rotation helps them to build a strong career. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 80% employees say yes and 20% employees say no respectively Have you ever undergone job rotation in your bank? a. Yes b. No Table No.4.5 Frequency Percent Yes 20 67% No 10 33% Total 30 100 Graph No.4.5 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 63
  • 64. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentage of employees who have undergone job rotation in bank. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 67% employees and 33% employees say no respectively Are you aware of the advantage and disadvantages of job rotation? a. Yes b. No Table No.4.6 Frequency Percent Yes 15 50% No 15 50% Total 30 100 Graph No. 4.6 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 64
  • 65. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentages of employees are aware about the advantages and disadvantages of job rotation. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 50% employees say yes and 50% employees say no respectively. Have you ever felt stress while working on a rotational basis? a. Yes b. No Table No.4.7 Frequency Percent Yes 18 60% No 12 40% Total 30 100 Graph No.4.7 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 65
  • 66. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentage of employees who felt stress while working on a rotational basis. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 60% employees say yes and 40% employees say no respectively Have you ever resented working in other department at your bank? a. Yes b. No Table No.4.8 Frequency Percent Yes 13 43% No 17 57% Total 30 100 Graph No.4.8 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 66
  • 67. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentage of employees who have not readily agreed to work in any department. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 43% employees say yes and 57% employees say no respectively Do you think job rotation will reduce the boredom? a. Yes b. No Table No.4.9 Frequency Percent Yes 21 70% No 09 30% Total 30 100 Graph No.4. 9 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 67
  • 68. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentage of employees who think job rotation will reduce their boredom. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 70% employees say yes and 30% employees say no respectively Does job rotation results in job satisfaction? a. Yes b. No Table No.4.10 Frequency Percent Yes 25 83% No 05 17% Total 30 100 Graph No.4.10 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 68
  • 69. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentage of employees who says job rotation results in job satisfaction. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 83% employees say yes and 17% employees say no respectively. Was training offered to you before putting on a job rotation? a. Yes b. No Table No.4.11 Frequency Percent Yes 20 67% No 10 33% Total 30 100 Graph No.4.11 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 69
  • 70. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentage of employees who offered them training before putting on a job rotation. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 67% employees say yes and 33% employees say no respectively. Will job rotation help you to come out of monotonous work? a. Yes b. No Table No.4.12 Frequency Percent Yes 17 57% No 13 43% Total 30 100 Graph No.4.12 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 70
  • 71. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentage of employees which job rotation helps to come out of monotonous work. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 57% employees say yes and 43% employees say no respectively. Will job rotation help employees to improve their skills and expertise? a. Yes b. No Table No.13 Frequency Percent Yes 23 77% No 07 23% Total 30 100 Graph No.4.13 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 71
  • 72. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentage of employees which job rotation helps to improve their skill and expertise. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 77% employees say yes and 23% employees say no respectively. Have you undergone any job rotation till date in your bank? a. Yes b. No Table No.4.14 Frequency Percent Yes 28 93% No 02 07% Total 30 100 Graph No.4.14 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 72
  • 73. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentage of employees who have undergone job rotation in their bank. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 93% employees say yes and 7% employees say no respectively. Do you feel training must be given before job rotation? a. Yes b. No Table No.15 Frequency Percent Yes 25 83% No 05 17% Total 30 100 Graph No.4.15 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 73
  • 74. Job Rotation Interpretation: The above Graph shows the percentage of employees who feel training must be given before job rotation. From the data collected it can be analyzed that 83% employees say yes and 17% employees say no respectively. Findings: Job rotation concept should be followed in syndicate bank. 1. Majority of the employees are aware of the concept job rotation. This is a good development. 2. The success of any organization depends on employee’s performance 3. Due to job rotation employees can enhance their knowledge and skills. 4. Job rotation is a good motivator. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 74
  • 75. Job Rotation 5. The members of the organization take active interest and feel personally responsible for the work they do. It clearly indicates about the people’s commitment and involvement. 6. Job can be always performed to a satisfactory level, if all the adequate information is available to the employees. 83% 0f employee feels job rotation results in job satisfaction. 7. Most of the employees feel that proper training must be given before job rotation. 8. 60% of employees felt stress while working on a rotational basis. 9. 50% of employees are aware about the advantages and disadvantages of job rotation. 10. Job rotation helps the employees to come out their monotonous work. 11. Job rotation helps employees to build a strong career. 12. Job rotation builds positive growth among employees. 13. It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries 14. Job rotation reduces “boredom, work stress, absenteeism, and turnover and “increase innovation, production and loyalty. 15. Job rotation contributes to career satisfaction by sharing “good and bad” assignments, and provides an organization the ability to rapidly fill vacancies, 16. An employee who rotates is competent in skills that are not necessarily performed in their normal duties making them more responsive when change is necessary. 17. Almost all the employees are happy with the job rotation 18. Most of the employees feel they are not recognized for their performance 70% of employees feel that job rotation will reduce their boredom. 19. The employees are interested to take part in Job rotation programme. 20. By rotation programme organization will be benefit as well as employees. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 75
  • 76. Job Rotation Suggestions: After conducting a study on job rotation among the employees at Syndicate bank Hassan. I have identified some facts based on questionnaire & interview. Job rotation is an important criterion in banking sector. The awareness of Job rotation should be increased. HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 76
  • 77. Job Rotation • Organization is benefited by introducing job rotation, it is better to follow the same concept. • Only some of the employees are actively participating in the job rotation, management should take interest and initiative in motivating others. • The job rotation programme should result in improvement in quality of work, job satisfaction, increase of commitment and higher work productivity and it has to be maintained. • Proper training must be given to employees before putting them on a rotational basis. • The suggestions accepted shall be implemented effectively just by announcing some rewards or cash awards. • Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required • Employee council/shop council should solve the work related problems of employees as early as possible. • The efforts of employees are not recognized to the greater extent so it has to be improved. Some of the respondent is satisfied with their jobs but it should be increased. Conclusion: Finding and suggestion are based on the survey conducted and these points are to be looked into and steps are to be taken in this regard for higher growth. Job rotation is a positive approach which results in job satisfaction. Job rotation is an excellent executive development tool -- if executed correctly and if used as part of an overall development program. It can be more effective than regular HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 77
  • 78. Job Rotation training for executives because the opportunity presents a large enough challenge and the practical experience gives them a competitive edge. The results that employees of bank think highly of job rotation. Hence, the practicing of job rotation was associated with higher job satisfaction and higher training evaluation by the employees. The findings of this study indicated that job rotation might be part of the solution. Traditionally job rotation has been linked to some obvious advantages, as mentioned previously. As I’ve suggested: “Job rotation is certainly one of the most important learning methods, to my mind the most important single one.” To date, job rotation programs can help a company meet the challenges of a highly competitive environment and a flattening management structure. Considering the above analysis done in Syndicate bank, It can be observed that employees are satisfied with job rotation programme. Employees responded that the organization is a good place and the employees at Syndicate bank feel more responsible and accountable for the work they do. The awareness of the job rotation programmes among the employees is there. But some has expressed that they are not aware of some of the job rotation programmes. Bibliography References of books • V S P Rao, Human Resource Management , 1st edition, Excel book house publishing, Page Number - 300-340 HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 78
  • 79. Job Rotation • Madhurima Lall Sakina Qasim Zaidi, Human Resource Management, 1st edition, Excel book publication, Page Number – 120- 140 Magazines Companies manuals, old reports etc Website Questionnaire Dear sir/madam, HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 79
  • 80. Job Rotation I am Raghavi D Y, student of final semester M.B.A (specialization in HRM) studying at H R institute of higher education, university of Mysore. As a part of academic curriculum, I am carrying out a project work in SYNDICATE BANK Hassan. In this regard a questionnaire has been provided to you. This questionnaire is aimed at understanding the effectiveness of Job rotation in your organization. Kindly fill all the questions without bias. Thanking you, Raghavi D Y 1. Name: 2. Age: 3. Sex: (a) Male ( ) (b) Female ( ) 4. Marital Status: (a) Married ( ) (b) Unmarried ( ) 5. Are you aware of the concept Job Rotation? Yes ( ) No ( ) 6. Is Job Rotation followed in your Bank? Yes ( ) No ( ) HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 80
  • 81. Job Rotation 7. Do you think you can enhance your knowledge through job rotation? Yes ( ) No ( ) 8. Do you think Job Rotation will help you to build strong career? Yes ( ) No ( ) 9. Have you ever undergone Job Rotation in your Bank? Yes ( ) No ( ) 10. Are you aware of the advantages and disadvantages of Job Rotation? Yes ( ) No ( ) 11. Have you ever felt stressed while working on a rotational basis? Yes ( ) No ( ) 12. Do you think Job Rotation will reduce the boredom? Yes ( ) No ( ) 13. Have you ever resented working in other department at your bank? HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 81
  • 82. Job Rotation Yes ( ) No ( ) 14. Does Job Rotation results in Job Satisfaction? Yes ( ) No ( ) 15. Was training offered to you before putting on a job rotation? Yes ( ) No ( ) 16. Will job rotation help you to come out of monotonous work? Yes ( ) No ( ) 17. Will job rotation help employees to improve their skills and expertise? Yes ( ) No ( ) 18. Have you undergone any Job Rotation till date in your bank? Yes ( ) No ( ) HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 82
  • 83. Job Rotation HR Institute Of Higher Education, Hassan Page 83