Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
  • Save
A study on investment pattern of investors on different products conducted at asit c. mehta investment intermediates ltd,
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

A study on investment pattern of investors on different products conducted at asit c. mehta investment intermediates ltd,

  • 62,249 views
Published

A study on investment pattern of investors on different products conducted at asit c. mehta investment intermediates ltd,

A study on investment pattern of investors on different products conducted at asit c. mehta investment intermediates ltd,

Published in Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • Please mail me a copy of this at weblink_vishalkumar@yahoo.com
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • hello Mr. Hemanth
    since download option is not accessible, can you please mail me this project for my study purpose..
    email id - vishakatembhare@yahoo.com
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • hello sir can u please mail me this project i really need this project and also your link(which u have given above) is not accessible.so please mail me at parul1990.aries@gmail.com
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • Hello, Please contact us through www.projectsformba.blogspot.com/p/feedback.html so that one of our team mate will get back to you at the earliest. Thank you!
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • plz mail me mhd.juned12@skisp.in it very important for me for geting information
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
62,249
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
2
Comments
32
Likes
72

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Investment pattern of investors on different products INTRODUCTION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY An investment refers to the commitment of funds at present, in anticipation of some positive rate of return in future. Today the spectrum of investment is indeed wide. An investment is confronted with array of investment avenues. Among all investment, investment in equity is in best high proportion. This is because the history of stock market is booming and bursts overnight millionaires, an instant pauper. Indian economy is doing indeed well in recent years. The study has been undertaken to analyze the investment pattern of investment community. The main reasons behind the study are the factors like income, economy condition, and the risk covering nature of the Indian investors. The percentage of Indian investors investing in the Indian equity market is very less as compared to foreign investors. This study has been undertaken in Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd. (ACMIIL), which was incorporated in the year 1986. And the company, which is, diversified into many fields like securities, insurance, distribution, commodities and investment services. This project contains the investors’ preferences and as well as the different factors that affect investors decision on the different investment avenues most of them investors are the clients of Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd., which provides a complete bouquet of products in equity, debt, commodities, forex, depository, derivatives and allied services in India . This study includes response of investor in choosing securities in each classification and analysis has been for the respective performance based on their returns. The findings relates to the outperforming products and investors risk taking ability while investing in each different products. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 1
  • 2. Investment pattern of investors on different products 1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT The statement of the problem under study is to analyze the investment pattern of investors and the popularity of different products/Services provided by Asit C. Mehta for investment. This problem tries to identify the investors’ perception and their risk taking ability while investing in different products of market. 1.2 OBJECTIVES: • To study the investment pattern of investors. • To study the investment decisions of different social class investors (in term of age group, education, income level etc.) • To analyze the investment pattern of investors who reside in an economically developed area and economically developing area. • To study the difference between various investment options offered at Asit C. Mehta. • To study the role of Asit C. Mehta as a depository participant. 1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The primary market starts from broad environmental factors to the industry, which influences the share price and finally analyzing the companies’ potentiality by considering possible risk associated with securities for investing public. Since share prices of the company is empirically found to depend up to 50% on the performance of the industry and the economy, studying those related field provide insights for selecting different products of Asit C. Mehta. Income and risk factors play a significant role while selecting particular product of a Asit C Mehta, as it can create an opportunity for one product and may not for the other, the analyzing impact of income and risk on investment pattern of investors is important. As research reports shows that frequency of investment pattern, factors, income level play more significant role in deciding pattern of investment. So analyzing the factors that affect investment pattern of investors and other investment criteria provide the valuable insights. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 2
  • 3. Investment pattern of investors on different products 1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • Definitions of the population Since the study is mainly related to know the investment patterns of the investors on different products of company. Their potentiality of earning income and reducing risk of the investment community on the products, where each security in the market has to be analyzed through their earnings over the others. The population here was being Asit C. Mehta customers. • Type of research: This is a descriptive research where survey method is adopted to collect primary information from the investors using different scales as required and the required secondary information for the analysis. • Primary Data A questionnaire schedule was prepared and the primary data was collected through survey method. • Secondary Data Company website Books Related information from net Customer database • Sample Size The population being large the survey was carried among 50 respondents, most of them are the clients of Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd, Hassan. They will be considered adequate to represent the characteristics of the entire population. • Sampling Procedure The sampling procedure followed in this study is non-probability convenient sampling. Simple random procedures are used to select the respondent from the available database. The H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 3
  • 4. Investment pattern of investors on different products research work will be carried on the basis of structured questionnaire. The study is restricted to the investors of the Hassan. • Techniques for data analysis The analysis of data collection is completed and presented systematically with the use of Microsoft Excel and MS-Word. The various tools which were used for presentation are: • Bar graphs. • Pie charts. • Column graphs. 1.5 LIMITATIONS: • The investment pattern analysis has been limited to only 50 investors. • This study is conducted to analyze their pattern not all those factors that really matter while investing. • It is conducted in Hassan city. • An interpretation of this study is based on the assumption that the respondents have given correct information. • The economy and industry are so wide and comprehensive that it is difficult to encompass all the likely factors influencing the investors’ investment pattern in the given period of time. • As the study has been limited to only 50 only out of them most are Asit C. Mehta clients and potential customers. • Besides the study has the limitation of time, place and resources. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 4
  • 5. Investment pattern of investors on different products REVIEW OF LITERATURE Investment is the sacrifice of certain present value for the uncertain future reward. It entails arriving at numerous decisions such as type, mix, amount, timing, grade etc of investment and disinvestments. Further such decisions making has not only to be continuous but rational too. Instead of keeping the savings idle you may like to use savings in order to get return on it in the future, which is known as ‘investment’. There are various investment avenues such as Equity, Bonds, Insurance, and Bank Deposit etc. A Portfolio is a combination of different investment assets mixed and matched for the purpose of achieving an investor's goal. There are various factors which affects investors’ portfolio such as annual income, government policy, natural calamities, economical changes etc. 2.1What is Investment? Investment is the employment of funds with the aim of achieving additional income or growth in value. The essential quality of income is that, it involves ‘waiting ‘for a reward. It involves the commitment of resources which have been saved or put away from current consumption in the hope that some benefits will occur in future. The term ‘investment’ does not appear to be a simple as it has been defined. Investment has been categorized by financial experts and economists. It has also often been confused with the term speculation.  Financial and Economic Meaning of Investment Investment is the allocation of monetary resources to assets that expected to yield some gain or positive return over a given period of time. These assets range from safety investment to risky investments. Investments in this form are also called ‘Financial Investments’. To the economists, ‘Investment’ means the net additions to the economy’s capital stock which consists of goods and services that are used in the production of other goods and services. In this context the term investment implies the information of new and productive capital in the form of new construction, new producers’ durable equipment such as plant and equipment. Inventories and human capital are included in the economist’s definition of investment. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 5
  • 6. Investment pattern of investors on different products In simple words investment means buying securities or other monetary or paper (financial) assets in the money markets or capital markets, or in fairly liquid real assets, such as gold as an investment, real estate, or collectibles. Valuation is the method for assessing whether a potential investment is worth its price. Types of financial investments include shares or other equity investment, and bonds (including bonds denominated in foreign currencies). These investments assets are then expected to provide income or positive future cash flows, but may increase or decrease in value giving the investor capital gains or losses  Features of an investment programme In choosing specific investments, investors will need definite ideas regarding features, which their investment avenue should possess. These features should be consistent with the investors’ general objectives and in addition, should afford them all the incidental conveniences and advantages, which are possible under the circumstances. The following are the suggested features as the ingredients from which many successful investors compound their selection policies.  Safety of principal The investor, to be certain of the safety of principal, should carefully review the economic and industry trends before choosing the types of investment. Errors are avoidable and therefore, to ensure safety of principal, the investor should consider diversification of assets. Adequate diversification involves mixing investment commitments by industry, geographically, by management, by financial type and maturities. A proper combination of these factors would reduce losses.  Liquidity Even investor requires a minimum liquidity in his investment to meet emergencies. Liquidity will be ensured if the investor buys a proportion of readily saleable securities out of his total portfolio. He may therefore, keep a small proportion of cash, fixed deposits and units which can be immediately made liquid investments like stocks and property or real estate cannot ensure immediate liquidity. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 6
  • 7. Investment pattern of investors on different products  Income stability Regularity of income at a consistent rate is necessary in any investment pattern. Not only stability, it is also important to see that income is adequate after taxes. It is possible to find out some good securities, which pay particularly all their earnings in dividends.  Appreciation and purchasing power stability Investors should balance their portfolios to fight against any purchasing power stability. Investors should judge price level inflation, explore their possibility of gain and loss in the investments available to them, limitations of personal and family considerations. The investor should also try and forecast which securities will possibly appreciate. A purchase of property at the right time will lead to appreciation in time. Growth stock will also appreciate over time. These, however, should be done thoughtfully and not in a manner of speculation.  Legality and freedom from care All investments should be approved by law. Law relating to minors, estates, trusts, shares and insurance be studied will bring out many problems for the investor. One way of being free from care is to invest in securities like Unit Trust of India, Life Insurance Corporation or Saving Certificates. The management of securities is then left to the care of the Trust who diversifies the investments according to safety, stability and liquidity with the consideration of their investment policy. The identity of legal securities and investments in such securities also help the investor in avoiding many problems.  Tangibility Intangible securities have many times lost their values due to price level inflation, confiscatory laws or social collapse. Some investor prefers to keep a part of their wealth invested in tangible properties like building, machinery and land. It may, however, be considered that tangible property does not yield an income apart from direct satisfaction of possession or property. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 7
  • 8. Investment pattern of investors on different products TABLE: 2.1 FEATURE OF INVESTMENT AVENUES Particulars Risk Return/ Capital Liquidity/ Tax Current appreciation Marketability benefits yield Equity High Low High High High Shares Debentures Low High Very low Very low Nil Bank Deposit Low Low Nil High Nil Life Nil Nil Low Low Moderate Insurance Policies Real Estate Low Low High in Moderate Changes Long-term according to rules Gold and Low Nil High in Moderate Nil Silver Long-term H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 8
  • 9. Investment pattern of investors on different products 2.2 THE INVESTMENT PROCESS-STAGES IN INVESTMENT The investment process is generally described in four stages. These stages are investment policy, investment analysis, valuation of securities and portfolio construction. a. Investment Policy The first stage determines and involves personal financial affairs and objectives before making investments. It may also be called preparation of the investment policy stage. The investor has to see that he should be able to create an emergency fund, an element of liquidity and quick convertibility of securities in to cash. This stage may, therefore, be considered appropriate for identifying investment assets and considering the various features of investment. b. Investment Analysis When an individual has arranged a logical of the types of the investments that he requires on his portfolio, the next step is to analyse the securities available for investment. He must make a comparative analysis of the type of the industry, industry of security and fixed vs. variable securities. The primary concern at this stage would be to form beliefs regarding future behavior or prices and stocks, the expected returns and associated risk. c. Valuation of investments The third step is perhaps most important consideration of the valuation of investments, investments value, in general, is taken to be the present worth to the owners of the futures benefits from investments. The investor has to bear in mind the value of these investments. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 9
  • 10. Investment pattern of investors on different products Appropriate sets of weights have to be applied with use of the forecasted benefits to estimate the value of the investment assets. Comparison of the value with the current market price of the asset allows a determination of the relative alternativeness of the asset. Each asset must be valued on its individual merit. Finally the portfolio should be constructed. d. Portfolio Construction As discussed under features of investment programme, portfolio construction requires knowledge of the different aspects of securities. consisting of safety and growth of principal, liquidity of assets after taking into account the stage involving investment timing, selection of investment, allocation of savings to different investments. The success of every investment decision has become increasingly important in recent times. Making sound investment decision requires both knowledge and skill. Skill is needed to evaluate risk and returns associated with an investment decision. Knowledge is required regarding the complex investment alternatives available in the economic environment. 2.3 SUCCESS IN INVESTMENT Success in most things is relative, and not less so in the field of investment. Success in investment means earning the highest possible return with the constraints imposed by the investor’s personal circumstances-age, family needs, liquidity requirements, tax position and acceptability of risk. If possible, performance should be measured against alternative investment, or combination of investment, available to the investor within those constraints. Genuine success also means winning the battle against inflation, against the fall in the real value of savings and capital. To be successful investor, one should strive to achieve no less than the rate of return consistent with the risk assumed. But is this success? If markets are efficient, abnormal returns ere not likely to be achieved, and so the best one can hope for return consistent with the level of risk assumed. The trick is to assess the level of risk we wish to assume and make certain that the collection of assets we buy fulfills our risk expectations. As a reward for assuming this level of risk, we will receive the returns that are consistent with it. If however, we believe that we do better than the level of return warranted by the level of risk assumed, then success must be measured in these terms. But care must be exercised here. Merely realizing higher returns does H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 10
  • 11. Investment pattern of investors on different products not indicate success in this sense. We are really talking about outperforming the average of the participant in the market for assets. And if we realize higher return we must be certain that we are not assuming higher risks consistent with those returns in order to measure our success. Thus we are left with two definitions of success. (i) Success is achieving the rate of return warranted by the level of risk assumed. Investors expect returns proportional to the risk assumed. (ii) Success is achieving a rate of return in excess or warranted by the level of risk assumed. Investors expect abnormal returns for the risk assumed. To be successful under the first definition, an investor must have a rational approach to portfolio construction and management. Reasonably efficient diversification is the key. To be successful under the second definition, an investor must have at least one of the following: Superior Analytical Skill, Superior Forecasting Ability, Inside Information, Dumb Luck Whether and to what extent anyone is likely to possess these characteristics and consistently be able to outperform the market by the level of risk assumed is critical issue. The investor should be aware of, but not denoted by, the fact that professional investors in particular, largely dominate investment markets, the stock market. As a consequence, grossly under-valued investments are rarely easy to come by. Moreover, he should beware of books subtitled. How I made a Million in the Stock Market, Get Rich Quick and statements such as ‘You can have a high return with no risk’. In reasonably efficient markets risk and return go together like bread and butter; in the words of Milton Friedman, there is no such thing as a free lunch. Success involves planning—clearly establishing one’s objectives and constraints. Investments should be looked at in terms of what they contribute to the overall portfolio, rather than their merits in isolation. Institutional investment will probably play some part, and performance tables are available to give some guidance. But personal direct investment should not be overlooked, particularly in the obvious area of Turk ownership, and one’s own knowledge, skills, hobbies and acquaintances can also be put to advantage. Remember Francis Bacon’s words: If a man look sharply and attentively, he shall see fortune; for though she be blamed, yet she is not so invisible. More money has been lost in the stock market, then one can imagine simply because of the failure of investors to clearly define their objectives and assess their financial temperaments. In analyzing the portfolios of individual investors, the most common errors observed are: Firstly, portfolio is over diversified, containing so many issues that the investors cannot follow closely the development in those companies. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 11
  • 12. Investment pattern of investors on different products Secondly, many portfolios suffer from overconcentration in one or two issues. Thirdly, all too often, the quality of these securities is not consistent with the stated investment goal and usually a portfolio contains too many speculative securities. Fourthly, many individual investors are afraid to take losses; they want to wait for their stock to come back to the price they paid. Fifthly, most investors, without realizing it, do not have a plan. They are buying and selling and believe is going where the action is instead of sticking to an investment goal. Finally, most serious of all some investors consider only profit potential never the risk factor. They try to wait for the bottoms to buy and tops to sell, they don’t learn from their mistakes and sight of their financial goals for the timeframe of the investment objectives under pressure of hope, fear, or greed. Should investors play a winner’s game or a loser’s game while buying securities? To answer this question, probably the best way to explain it is to use a sport as an illustration. Let us take tennis. To professionals like Williams sisters, tennis is a winner game. To win, they must deliver the ball to a place where the opponent will find it difficult to return or play at a speed that the opponent cannot keep up with. They win the game by delivering winning shots. According to sports writers, on the one hand, tennis to amateurs is actually a loser’s game. They do not have the strikes that in any way resemble those of Williams sisters and other professionals. The best strategy to win a game, they, is to keep the ball in play and let the opponent defeat himself by hitting the ball into the net or outside the court. They win game by loosing less than their opponent. The above analogy clears the distinction between winner and loser’s game. Probably now the investors can guess whether buying securities is a winner’s game or a loser’s game. Recently, buying securities has become a loser’s game even for professionals engaged in institutional investing. For those who determine to win the loser’s game, it is required: 1) Play your own game. Know your policies very well and play according to them all the time. 2) Do the things do best? Make ‘fewer’ but ‘better’ investment decisions. 3) Concentrate on your defences. Most investors spend too little time on sell-decisions. Sell decisions are as important as buy-decisions. Investors should spend at least equal time in making sell-decision. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 12
  • 13. Investment pattern of investors on different products The crucial point of loser’s game is to put the balance sheet and the income statement through a fine screen. This is the first step in making sure to avoid a mistake and will help the investor to keep away from letting the excitement make him move too quickly. Remember the old saying. A fool and his money are quickly parted.  THREE APPROACHES TO SUCCEED AS AN INVESTOR As Charles Ellis argued, it appears that there are three different ways of earning superior risk- adjusted returns on stock market. The first one is physically difficult, the second one is intellectually difficult, and the third one is psychologically difficult.  Physically Difficult Approach Many investors seem to follow this approach, wittingly or unwittingly. They look at the newspapers and financial periodicals to learn about new issues, they visit the offices of brokers to get advice and application forms, and they apply regularly in the primary market. They follow the budget announcements intently, they read CMIE reports to learn about the developments in economy and various industrial sectors, they read investment columns written by the so called ‘experts’, they follow developments in the companies, they solicit information from company executives, they read the columns in technical analysis, and they attend seminars and conferences. In a nutshell, they apply themselves assiduously, diligently, and even doggedly. They operate on the premise that if they can be a step ahead of others, they will outperform the market. The physically difficult approach seems to have worked reasonably well for most of the investors in India since the late 1970s to the early 1990s, for three principal reasons: 1. Typically, issues in the primary market have been priced very attractively. 2. The secondary market, thanks to limited competition till almost 1991, was characterized by numerous inefficiencies that provided rewarding opportunities to the diligent investor. 3. An advancing price-earnings multiple, in general, bailed out even inept investors. Things, however, have changed from mid-1995. The opportunities for subscribing issues in the primary market have substantially dried up as companies, quite understandably, are placing securities with institutional investors at prices that are fairly close to the prevailing market prices. Likewise, the scope for earning superior returns in the secondary market has diminished as the degree of competition and efficiency is increasing, thanks to the emergence of hundreds of new H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 13
  • 14. Investment pattern of investors on different products institutional players (mutual funds, foreign institutional investors, merchant banking organisations, corporate bodies) and millions of new individual investors. Finally, the prospects of a fluctuating price-earnings multiple seem to be a greater than the prospects of a rise in the price-earnings multiple.  Intellectually Difficult Approach The Intellectually Difficult Approach to successful investing calls for developing profound understandings of the nature of investments and hammering out a strategy based on superior insights. This approach has been followed mainly by the highly talented investors who have an exceptional ability, a rare perceptiveness, an unusual skill, or a touch of clairvoyance. Such a gift has been displayed by investors like Benjamin Graham, John Maynard Keynes, John Templeton, George Soros, Warren Buffet, Phil Fisher, Peter Lynch, and others. Benjamin Graham, widely acclaimed as the father of modern security analysis, was an exceptionally gifted quantitative navigator who relied on hard financial facts and religiously applied the ‘margin of safety’ principle. John Maynard Keynes, arguably the most influential economist of the 20th Century, achieved considerable investment success on the basis of his sharp insights into market psychology. John Templeton had an unusual feel for bargain stocks and achieved remarkable success with the help of bargain stock investing. Warren Buffett, the most successful stock market investor of our times, is the quintessential long-term value investor. George Soros, a phenomenally successful speculator, developed and applied a special insight which he labels as the ‘reflexivity’ principle. Growth Phil Fisher, a prominent growth stock advocate, displayed a rare ability with regard to invest in growth stocks. Peter Lynch, perhaps the most widely read investment guru in recent years, has performed exceptionally well, thanks to a rare degree of openness and flexibility in his approach. The intellectually difficult approach calls for a special talent that is diligently honed and nurtured over time. Obviously, it can be practiced only by a select few and you should have the objectivity to discern whether you can join this elite club. Remember that many investors unrealistically believe that they have a rare gift because the stock market provides an exceptionally fertile environment for self-deception. Participants in the stock market can easily live in a world of make belief by accepting confirming evidence and rejecting contradictory evidence. As David Dreman says: “Under conditions of anxiety and uncertainty, with vast interacting information grid, the market can become a giant Rorschach test, allowing the investor to see any pattern that he H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 14
  • 15. Investment pattern of investors on different products wishes....experts cannot only analyse information incorrectly, they can also find relationships that aren’t there- a phenomenon called illusory correlation.”  Psychologically Difficult Approach The stock market is periodically swayed by two basic human emotions, viz. Greed and fear. When greed and euphoria sweep the market prices rise to dizzy heights. On the other hand, when fear and despair envelop the market, prices fall to abysmally low levels. If you can surmount these emotions which can wrap your judgment, create distortions in your thinking, and induce you to commit follies, you are likely to achieve superior investment results. The psychologically difficult approach essentially calls for finding ways and means of substantially overcoming fear and greed. Its operational guidelines are as follows: 1. Develop an investment policy and adhere to it consistently 2. Do not try to forecast stock prices 3. Rely more on hard numbers and less on judgment 4. Maintain a certain distance from the market place 5. Face uncertainty with equanimity These guidelines look simple, but they are psychologically difficult to follow. Yet, for the bulk of the investors this appears to be only sensible approach to improve the odds of their investment performance. 2.4 INVESTMENT AND SPECULATION Traditionally, investment is distinguished from speculation in three ways, which are based on the factors of: 1. Capital gains. 2. Time period. 3. Risk H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 15
  • 16. Investment pattern of investors on different products The distinction between investments and speculations is given in the table below: TABLE: 2.2 Investment Speculation Time Horizon Long-term time Short-term planning framework beyond 12 holding assets even months. for one day with the objective. Risk It has limited risk. There are high profits and gains. Return It is consistent and High returns, though moderate over a long risk of loss is high. period. Use of funds Own funds through Own and borrowed savings funds. Decisions Safely, liquidity, Market behaviour profitability and information, stability, judgements on considerations and movement in the performance of stock market. companies. Hunches and beliefs. 1. Capital Gain The distinction between investment and speculation emphasizes that if the motive is primarily to achieve profits through price changes, it is speculation. If purchase of securities is preceded by proper investigation and analysis and review to receive a stable return over a period of time, it is termed as investment. Thus, buying low and selling high, making large capital gain is associated with speculation. 2. Time Period H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 16
  • 17. Investment pattern of investors on different products The second difference is the consideration of the time period. A longer-term fund allocation is termed as investment. A short-term holding is associated with trading for the ‘quick turn’ and is called speculation. The distinction between investment and speculation is helped to identify the role of the investor and speculator. The investor constantly evaluates the worth of a security through fundamental analysis, whereas the speculator is interested in market action and price movement. These distinctions also draw out the fact that there is a very fine line of division between investment and speculation. There are no established rules and loss, which identify securities, which are permanent for investment. There has to be a constant review of securities to find out whether it is a suitable investment. To conclude, it will be appropriate to state that some financial experts have called investment ‘a well grounded and carefully planned speculation’, or good investment is a successful speculation. Therefore, investment and speculation are a planning of existing risks. If artificial and unnecessary risks are created for increased expected returns, it becomes gambling. 3. Risk The word ‘risk’ has a definite financial meaning. It refers to possibility of incurring a loss in a financial transaction. In a broad sense, investment is considered to involve limited risk and is confined to those avenues where the principal is safe. ‘Speculation’ is considered as an involvement of funds of high risk. An example may be cited of stock brokers’ lists of securities which labels and recommends securities separately for investments and speculation purposes. Risk, however, is a matter of degree and no clear-cut lines of demarcation can be drawn between high risk and low risk and sometimes these distinctions are purely arbitrary. No investments are completely risk-free. Even if it safety of principal and interest are considered, there are certain non manageable risks which are beyond the scope of personal power. These are (a) the purchasing power risk – In other words, it is the fall in real value of the interest and the principal and (b) the money rate risk or the fall in market value when interest rate rises. These risks affect both the speculator and the investor. High risk and low risk are, therefore, general indicators to help and understanding between the terms investments and speculation. 2.5 What causes the risks? H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 17
  • 18. Investment pattern of investors on different products The risks are caused by the following factors: 1) Wrong decision of what to invest in. 2) Wrong timing of investment. 3) Nature of the instrument invested say, the category of assets like corporate shares or bonds, Chit funds, Nidhis, Benefit funds etc. are highly risky, as they are in the unorganized sector. Some instruments as bank deposits or P.O Certificates are less risky, due to their certainty of payment of principal and interest. 4) Creditworthiness of the issuer: The securities of Government end semi-Government bodies are more credit worthy than those issued by the corporate sector and much less secure are those in the unorganized sector like indigenous bankers, shroffs, chit funds etc. private limited companies share and shares of unlisted companies are more risky. 5) Maturity period are length of investment: The longer the period, the more risky is the investment normally. 6) Amount of investment: The higher the amount invested in any security the larger is the risk, while a judicious mix of investments in small quantities may be less risky. 7) Method of investment, namely, secured by collateral or not. 8) Terms of lending such as periodicity of servicing, redemption periods etc. 9) Nature of the industry or business in which the company is operating. 10) National and international factors, acts of god etc. Reference was made to two types of Risk of investor: • Systematic Risks- • Unsystematic Risks- 1. Systematic Risks- H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 18
  • 19. Investment pattern of investors on different products Systematic Risks are out of external and uncontrollable factors, arising out of the market, nature of the industry and state of the economy and a host of other factors. In other words systematic risk refers to that portion of the total variability of the return caused by common factor affecting the prices of all securities alike through economic, political and social factors. 2. Unsystematic Risks- Unsystematic Risks emerge out of the known and controllable factors, internal to the issuer of the securities or companies. In other words unsystematic risk refers to that portion of the total variability of the return caused due to unique factors, relating that firm or industry, through such factors as management failure, labour strikes, raw material scarcity etc. While the systematic risk is common to all companies and has to be borne by the investor and compensated by the Risk Premium, The unsystematic risk can be reduced by the investor through proper diversification and planning a proper investment strategy for the purpose. Examples of Systematic Risks  Market Risk: This arises out of changes in Demand and Supply pressures in the markets, following the changing flow of the information or expectations. The totality of the investor perception and subjective factors influence the events in the market which are unpredictable and give rise to risk, which is not controllable.  Interest Rate Risk: The return on an investment depends on the interest rate promised on it and changes in market rates of interest from time to time. The costs of funds barrowed by companies or stockbrokers depend on interest rates. The market activity and investor perceptions change with the changes in interest rates. These interest rates depend on nature of instruments, stocks, bonds, loans etc maturity of the periods and the creditworthiness of the issuer of securities. But basically the monetary and credit policy, which is not controllable by the investor, affects the riskiness of investments due their effects on returns, expectations, and the total principal due to be refunded  Purchasing Power Risk: H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 19
  • 20. Investment pattern of investors on different products Inflation or rise in prices lead to rise in costs of production, lower margins, wage rises and profit sqeezing etc. The return expected by the investors will change due to change in real value of returns. Cost pushed inflation is caused by rise in the costs, due to wage rise or rise in input prices. Demand-pull forces operate to increase prices due to inadequate supplies and rising demand. The increase in demand may be caused by changing expectation of future interest rates and inflation or due to increase in money supply or creation of currency to finance the deficits of the government. This element of purchasing power risk is inherent in all investments and cannot be controlled by him. Examples of Unsystematic Risks  Business Risk: This relates to variability of business, sales income, profits etc., which in turn depend on the market conditions for the product mix, input supplies, strength of competitors etc. This business risk is sometimes external to the company due to changes in government policy or strategy of competitors or unforeseen market conditions. They may be internal due to fall in production, labour problem, raw materials problem or inadequate supply of electricity etc. The internal business risk leads to fall in revenues and in profit of the company, but can be corrected by certain changes in the company’s policies.  Financial Risk: This relates to the method of financing, adopted by the company, high leverage leading to larger debt servicing problems or short-term liquidity problems due to bad debts, delayed receivables and fall in current assets or rise in current liabilities. These problems could no doubt to be solved, but they may lead to fluctuations in earnings, profits and dividends to share holders. Sometimes, if the company runs in to losses or reduced profits, these may lead to fall in returns to investors or negative returns. Proper financial planning and other financial adjustments can be used to correct this risk and as such it is controllable.  Default Or Insolvency Risk: The barrower or issuer of securities may become insolvent or may default, or delay the payments due, such as interest installments or principal repayments. The barrower’s credit rating might have fallen suddenly he became default prone and in its extreme form it may lead to H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 20
  • 21. Investment pattern of investors on different products insolvency or bankruptcies. In such cases the investor may get no return or negative returns. An investment in a healthy company’s share might turn out to be a waste paper, if within a short span, by the deliberate mistakes of management or acts of God, the company became sick and its share price tumbled below its face value. Other Risks In addition to the above major risks both in controllable and uncontrollable categories, there are many more risks, which can be listed, but in actual practice, they may vary in form, size and effect. Some of such identifiable risks are:  Political Risks: Political risks, fallowing the changes in the government, or its policy shown in fiscal or budgetary aspects etc., through changes in tax rates, imposition of controls or administrative regulations etc.  Management Risks: Management Risks, due to errors or inefficiencies of management, causing losses to the company.  Marketability Risks: Marketability Risks, involving loss of liquidity or loss of value in conversions from one asset to another say, from stocks to bonds, or vice versa. Such risks may arise due to some features of securities, such as capability; or lack of sinking fund or Debenture Redemption Reserve fund, for repayment of principal or due to conversion terms, attached to the security, which may go adverse to the investor. All the above types of risks are of varying degrees, resulting in uncertainty or variability of return, loss of income and capital losses, or erosion of real value of income and wealth of the investor. Normally the higher the risk taken, the higher is the return. But sometimes the risk is caused by acts of God and there may be no return at all. 2.6 Investment and Gambling The difference between investment and gambling is very clear. From the above discussion, it is established that investment is an attempt to carefully plan, evaluate and allocate H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 21
  • 22. Investment pattern of investors on different products funds in various investment outlets which offers safety of principal, moderate and continuous returns and long-term commitment. Gambling is quite the opposite of investment. It connotes high risk and the expectation of high returns. It consists of uncertainty and high stakes for thrill and excitement. Typical examples of gambling are horse racing, game of cards, lottery etc. Gambling is based on tips, rumours and hunches, it is unplanned, non-scientific and without knowledge of the exact nature of risk. These distinctions between investment, speculation and gambling give us a basic idea of their nature, purpose and role. 2.7 Investment and Arbitrage Investment is usually a planned method of safely putting ones savings into different outlets to get a good return. Arbitrage is the mechanism of keeping one’s risk to the minimum through hedging and taking advantage of price differences in different markets. The simultaneous purchase of the same or similar security in two different markets would be an arbitrage transaction. Short-term gains can be expected through such transactions. An investor can also be an arbitrageur if he buys and sells securities in more than one stock exchange to take advantage of the price differentials in such exchanges. Derivatives introduced in the Indian market have a great potential for arbitrage transactions. Arbitrage transactions help in enhancing efficiency and liquidity in the stock market and in increasing the volume of trade. Hedgers, speculators and arbitrageurs can make riskless profits through the arbitrage process.  Real Assets Real assets refer to tangible assets, which are in the form of land and buildings, furniture, gold, silver, diamonds, or artifacts. These assets have a physical appearance. They may be marketable or non-marketable. They may also have the feature of being movable or non- movable. These assets are used to produce goods or services.  Financial Assets H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 22
  • 23. Investment pattern of investors on different products A financial asset is a claim represented by securities. These assets are popularly called paper securities. Shares, bonds, debenture, bills, loans, lease, derivatives and fixed deposits are some of the financial assets. Therefore, financial assets represent a claim on the income generated by real assets of some other parties. Financial assets can be easily traded, as they are marketable and transferable. Financial assets are usually between two parties, for example, if a person buys a bond of Rs. 10,000 of ICICI Bank. The bond is liabilities of ICICI, but an asset of the person buying a bond because he has a claim over the bank to receive the principal sum with interest.  Commodity Assets Commodities are a new form of investment in India. Commodity assets consist of wheat, sugar, potatoes, rubber, coffee and other grains. Commodities are also in the form of metal like gold, silver, aluminium and copper. It also consists of items like cotton oil and foreign currency. Importers and exporters invest in commodities to diversify their portfolios. Traders hedge or transact in commodities to make gains. A National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Ltd. (NCDEX) have been set up in India in 2003 as a public limited company to transact in commodities. The promoters of NCDEX were ICICI Bank Ltd., National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), Life Insurance Corporation of India, (Punjab National Bank, Canara Bank, CRISIL Ltd., Indian Farmers Fertilizer, Co-operative Ltd. (IFFCO) and National Stock Exchange of India Ltd., (NSE). All these institutions subscribed to the equity shares of NCDEX. 2.8 Factors Favourable For Investment The investment market should have a favourable environment to be able to function effectively. Business activities are marked by social, economic and political considerations. It is important that the economic and political factors are favourable. Generally, there are four basic considerations, which foster growth and bring opportunities for investment. These are legal safeguards, stable currency and existence of financial institutions to aid savings and forms of business organization. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 23
  • 24. Investment pattern of investors on different products  Legal Safeguards A stable government, which frames adequate legal safeguards, encourages accumulation of savings and investments. Investors will be willing to invest their funds if they have the assurance of protection of their contractual and property rights. In India, the investors have the dual advantage of free enterprise and control. Freedom, efficiency and growth are ensured from the competitive forces of private enterprises. Statutory control exerts discipline and curtails some element of freedom. In India, the political climate is conducive to investment since the new economic reforms in 1991 leading to liberalization and globalization.  A Stable Currency A well-organized monetary system with definite planning and proper policies is a necessary prerequisite to an investment market. Most of the investments such as bank deposits, life insurance and shares are payable in the currency of the country. A proper monetary policy will give direction to the investment outlets. As far as possible, the monetary policy should neither promote acute inflationary pressures nor prepare for a deflation model. Neither condition is satisfactory. Price inflation destroys the purchasing power of investments. Thrift is also penalized when the net interest after taxes received by the investor is less than the rise in the price level, leaving the investor with less total purchasing power than he had at the time of saving. Inflation occurs generally in unstable conditions like war or floods but in the last decade, it also discernible in peace conditions especially in developing countries because of huge government deficit in creating infrastructure. Deflation is equally disastrous because the nominal values of inventories, plant and machinery and land and building tend to shrink. An example of the evil effects of deflation can be cited for the period 1929-1933 in the United States when the shrinkage in nominal values came to a point of producing wholesale bankruptcy. A reasonable stable price level, which is produced by wise monetary and fiscal management, contributes towards proper control, good government, economic well being and a well- disciplined growth oriented investment market and protection to the investor. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 24
  • 25. Investment pattern of investors on different products  Existence of Financial Institutions and Services The presence of financial institutions and financial services encourage savings, direct them to productive uses and helps the investment market go grow. The financial institutions in existence in India are mutual funds, development banks, commercial banks, life insurance companies, investment companies, investment bankers and mortgage bankers. The financial services include venture capital, factoring and forfeiting, leasing, hire purchase and consumer finance, housing finance, merchant bankers and portfolio management. Investment bankers are merchants of securities. They buy bonds and stocks of companies for re-sale to investors. The investment bankers are distinguished from security brokers who act as agents in buying and selling already issued securities for commission. Mortgage bankers sometimes act as merchants and sometimes as agents on mortgage loans generally on residential properties. They serve as middlemen between investors and borrowers and perform collateral service in connection with loans. Commercial banks and financial institutions also act as mortgage bankers in giving mortgage loans and servicing the loans. In India, there are a large number of financial institutions under Central Government and State Governments and rural bodies that have encouraged the growth of savings and investment. The Life Insurance Corporation and Unit Trust of India offer a wide variety of schemes for savings and give tax benefits also. Apart from these, there is a well-organized network of development banks such as the Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI), Industrial Credit Investment Corporation of India (ICICI) and Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI). At the state level, there are State Financial Corporation, for rural areas and agriculture, the National Bank of Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD). These financial institutions and development banks offer a wide variety of policies for encouraging savings and investment. These institutions lend an element of strength to the capital market and promote discipline while encouraging growth. Since 1991, there has been a development of the private corporate sector. Many new financial institutions have emerged in the private sector. Insurance companies, mutual funds and venture capitalists leasing companies have been opened up to private financing agencies. Foreign banks have been allowed to do business. Thus, there is the presence of a large number of institutions and services, which channel the funds in productive directions. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 25
  • 26. Investment pattern of investors on different products  Choice of Investment The growth and development of the country leading to greater economic activity has led to the introduction of a vast array of investment outlets. Apart from putting aside savings in savings banks where interest is low, investors have the choice of a variety of instruments. The question to reason out is which is the most suitable channel? Which media will give a balanced growth and stability of return? The investor in his choice of investment will have to try and achieve a proper mix between high rate of return and stability of return to reap the benefits of both. Some of the instruments available are equity shares and bonds, provident fund, life insurance, fixed deposits and mutual funds schemes. The three golden rules for all investors are: Invest early Invest regularly Invest for long term and not short term One needs to invest for Earn return on your idle resources Generate a specified sum of money for a specific goal in life Make a provision for an uncertain future To meet the cost of inflation 2.9 Fundamental analysis of various investment alternatives: Before investing in various investment alternatives fundamental analysis is very necessary. A fundamental analysis believes that analyzing the economy, strength, management, production, financial status and other related information will help to choose investment avenues that will outperform the market and provide consistent gain to the investor. Fundamental analysis is the examination of the underlying forces that affect the interests of the economy, industrial sectors, and companies. It tries to forecast the future movement of capital market using signals from the economy, industry, company. Fundamental analysis requires an examination of the market from broader prospective. It also examines the economic environment, industrial performance, and company performance before taking an investment decision. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 26
  • 27. Investment pattern of investors on different products  Economic Analysis The economic analysis aims at determining if the economic climate is conductive and is capable of encouraging the growth of business sector, especially the capital market. When the economy expands, most industry groups and companies are expected to benefit and grow and when the economy declines, most sectors and companies usually face survival problems. Hence, to predict scrip prices, an investor has to spend time exploring the forces operating in the overall economy. Economic analysis implies the examination of GDP, government financing, government borrowings, consumer durable goods market, non-durable goods and capital goods market, saving and investment pattern, interest rates, inflation rates, tax structure, foreign direct investment, and money supply. The most used tools for performing economic analysis are; o Gross Domestic Product o Monetary policy and liquidity o Inflation o Interest rate o International influences o Consumer behaviors o Fiscal policy etc  Industry Analysis: It is very important to see how the industry to which the company belongs is faring. Specifics like effect of Government policy, future demand of its products etc. need to be checked. At times prospects of an industry may change drastically by any alterations in business environment. For instance, devaluation of rupee may brighten prospects of all export-oriented companies. Investment analysts call this as Industry Analysis. Companies producing similar products are subset (form a part) of an Industry/Sector. For example, National Hydroelectric Power Company (NHPC) Ltd., National Thermal Power Company (NTPC) Ltd., Tata Power Company (TPC) Ltd. etc. belong to the Power Sector/Industry of India. Tools for industry analysis H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 27
  • 28. Investment pattern of investors on different products o Cross study of performance of the industry. o Industry performance over times. o Differences in industry risk. o Prediction about market behaviors, o Competition over the industry life cycle  Company Analysis: Company analysis involved choice of investment opportunities within a specific industry that consists of several individual companies. How has the company been faring over the past few years? Seek information on its current operations, managerial capabilities, growth plans, its past performance vis-à-vis its competitors etc.  Financial Analysis: If performance of an industry as well as of the company seems good, then check, if at the current price, the share is a good to buy or not. For this, look at the financial performance of the company and certain key financial parameters like Earnings per Share (EPS), P/E ratio, current size of equity etc. for arriving at the estimated future price. This is termed as Financial Analysis. For that you need to understand financial statements of a company i.e. balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account contained in the Annual Report of a company. 2.10 Types of investment: (i) Short term Investment- It is an investment made by the investor for very short period of time i.e. for one to three years. Such as investment in bank, money market, liquid funds etc. (ii) Long Term Investment – When investor invests money for more than three to five years then it is called long term investment. Such as investment in bonds, mutual funds, fixed bank deposits, PPF, insurance etc H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 28
  • 29. Investment pattern of investors on different products 2.11 Investor: Investor is a person or an organization that invest money in various investment sources for specific objective. Attitude of investment is different in each alternative. E.g. financial market have different attitude towards risk and return. Some investors are risk averse, while some have an affinity of risk. The risk bearing capacity of investor is a function of personal, economical, environment, and situational factors such as income, family size, expenditure pattern, and age. A person with higher income is assumed to have higher risk- bearing capacity. Thus investor can be classified as risk skiers, risk avoiders, or risk bearers. 2.12 Categories of Investors While there are as many investing styles as there are investors, most people fall more or less into one of three broad categories: conservative, moderate, aggressive.  Conservative investors Generally, conservative investors feel that safeguarding what they have is their top priority. These investors want to avoid risk — particularly the risk of losing any principal (their original investment) — even if that means they’ll have to settle for very modest returns. Conservative investors allocate most of their portfolios to bonds, such as Treasury notes or high- rated municipal bonds, and cash equivalents, such as CDs and money market accounts. They’re generally reluctant to invest in stocks, which may lose value, especially over the short term. When conservative investors do venture into stocks they‘re often inclined to choose blue chips or other large-cap stocks with well-known brands because they tend to change value more slowly than other types of stock and often pay dividend income.  Moderate investors Moderate investors want to increase the value of their portfolios while protecting their assets from the risk of major losses. For example, a moderate investor might use an allocation model that has 60% in stock, 30% in bonds, and 10% in cash equivalents. While they will tend to favor blue chip and other large-cap stocks, they may be willing to invest a modest portion of their principal in higher risk securities — such as international stock, small-caps, and volatile sector funds — in order to increase their potential for higher returns. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 29
  • 30. Investment pattern of investors on different products  Aggressive investors Aggressive investors concentrate on investments that have the potential for significant growth. They are willing to take the risk of losing some of their principal, with the expectation that they will realize greater returns. Aggressive investors might allocate from 75 to 95% of their portfolios to individual stocks and stock mutual funds. While large- and small-cap stocks and funds may make up the core of their portfolios, many aggressive investors will have significant holdings in more speculative stocks and funds, such as emerging market and sector mutual funds. Since aggressive investors focus on growth, they are usually less inclined to hold income producing securities, such as bonds. An aggressive investing style is definitely not for the faint of heart. It’s best suited for investors with a long-term investing horizon of 15 years or more, who are willing to make a long-term commitment to the stocks they buy. But history has shown that an aggressive investing approach, combined with a well diversified portfolio, and the patience to stick to a long-term buy-and-hold investing strategy through inevitable market downturns, can be the most profitable in the long run. Before making any investment, one must ensure to: o Obtain written documents explaining the investment o Read and understand such documents o Verify the legitimacy of the investment o Find out the costs and benefits associated with the investment o Assess the risk-return profile of the investment o Know the liquidity and safety aspects of the investment o Ascertain if it is appropriate for your specific goals o Compare these details with other investment opportunities available o Examine if it fits in with other investments you are considering or you have already made o Deal only through an authorized intermediary o Seek all clarifications about the intermediary and the investment o Explore the options available to you if something were to go wrong, and then, if satisfied, make the investment. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 30
  • 31. Investment pattern of investors on different products 2.13 Investment Avenues: In India, numbers of investment avenues are available for the investors. Some of them are marketable and liquid while others are non-marketable and some of them also highly risky while others are almost risk less. The investor has to choose Proper Avenue among them, depending upon his specific need, risk preference, and return expected Investment avenues can broadly be categorized under the following heads o Corporate securities Equity shares Preference shares Debenture/Bonds GDR’s/ADR’s o Deposit in bank and non banking companies o Post office deposits and certificate o Life insurance policies o Provident fund schemes o Government and semi-government securities o Mutual fund and schemes o Real estate (i) Corporate securities: (a) Equity share Total equity capital of a company is divided into equal units of small denominations, each called a share. The holders of such shares are members of the company and have voting rights. When company makes profit shareholder receives their share of the profit in form of dividends. In addition, when company performs well and the future expectation from the company is very high, the price of the companies share goes up in the market. Investor can invest in shares either primary market offerings or in the secondary market. (b) Preference shares Preference share as that part of share capital of the Company which enjoys preferential right as to: (a) payment of dividend at a fixed rate during the lifetime of the Company; and (b) the return H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 31
  • 32. Investment pattern of investors on different products of capital on winding up of the Company. It is lie in between pure equity and debt. But preference shares cannot be traded, unlike equity shares, and are redeemed after a pre-decided period. Also, Preferential Shareholders do not have voting rights. These are issued to the public only after a public issue of ordinary shares. Preference shares also get traded in the market and give liquidity to investor. Investor can opt for this type of investment when their risk performance is very low. (c) Debentures and Bonds It is a fixed income (debt) instrument issued for a period of more than one year with the purpose of raising capital. The central or state government corporations and similar institutions sell bonds. A bond is generally a promise to repay the principal along with a fixed rate of interest on a specified date, called the Maturity Date. Many types of debenture and bonds have been structured to suit investors with different time needs. Though having higher risk as compared to bank fixed deposits, bonds and debentures do offer higher returns. Debenture instruments require scanning the market and choosing specific securities that will cater to investment objectives of the investor. (d) Depository Receipts (GDRs/ADRs) Global depository receipts are the instrument in the form of a depository receipts or certificate created by the overseas depository bank outside India and issued to non-resident investors against ordinary shares. A GDR issued in America, is an American Depositary Receipts. As investors seek to diversify their equity holdings, the option of GDRs and ADR’s is very lucrative, while investing in such securities, investors should identify the capitalization and risk characterizes of the instrument and the companies’ performance in the home country. (e) Warrants A warrant is a certificate giving its holder rights to purchase securities at a stipulated price within a specified time limit. The warrants act as a value addition because holder of the warrant has the right but not the obligation to investing in equity at the indicated rate. An option contract often sold with another security. For instance, corporate bonds may be sold with warrants to buy common stock of that corporation. Warrants are generally detachable. Options H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 32
  • 33. Investment pattern of investors on different products generally have lives of up to one year. The majority of options traded on exchanges have maximum maturity of nine months. Longer dated options are called Warrants and are generally traded over-the counter (ii) Savings bank account with commercial bank Broadly speaking, savings bank account, money market/liquid funds and fixed deposits with banks may be considered as short-term financial investment options: Savings Bank Account is often the first banking product investors use, which offers low interest (3.5% ), making them only marginally better than fixed deposits. (iii) Bank fixed deposits Fixed Deposits with Banks are also referred to as term deposits. Fixed Deposits in banks are for those investors, who have low risk appetite. Bank FDs is likely to be lower than money market fund returns. Fixed deposits may be recurring deposits where in savings are deposited at regular intervals or fixed deposits of varying maturities or with the varying notice periods such as 15 days, etc. The interest rates on these deposits vary depending on the maturity period, from 4 to 9%. In general, it is lower for fixed deposits of shorter term and higher for fixed deposits of longer term. If the deposit period is less than 90 days, the interest is paid on maturity; otherwise it is paid quarterly. (iv) Company fixed deposits For a manufacturing company the term of deposits can be one to three years, whereas for non-banking finance company it can vary between 25 months to five years. A manufacturing company can mobilize, by way of fixed deposits, an amount equal to 25 percent of its net worth from the public and an additional amount equal to 10 percent of its net worth from its share holders. A non banking finance company, however can mobilize a higher amount. The interest rates on company deposits are higher than those on bank fixed deposits. (v) Post Office Time Deposits (POTDs): Similar to fixed deposits of commercial banks, POTDs can be made in multiples of Rs 50without any limit. The interest rates on POTDs are, in general, slightly higher than those on bank deposits. The interest is calculated half-yearly and paid annually. No withdrawal is H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 33
  • 34. Investment pattern of investors on different products permitted upto 6 months. After 6 months, withdrawals are permitted. However, on withdrawals made between 6 months and 1 year, no interest is payable. On withdrawals after 1 year, but before the term of deposit, interest is paid for the period the deposit has been held, subject to a penal deduction of 2%. A POTD account can be pledged. Deposits in 10 years to 15 years Post Office Cumulative Time Deposit Account can be deducted before computing the taxable income under Section 80c. (vi) Monthly Income Scheme of the Post Office: Post Office Monthly Income Scheme is a low risk saving instrument, which can be availed through any Post Office. It provides an interest rate of 8% per annum, which is paid monthly. Minimum amount, which can be invested, is Rs. 1,000/- and additional investment in multiples of Rs. 1,000/-. Maximum amount is Rs. 3, 00,000/- (if Single) or Rs. 6, 00,000/-(if held jointly) during a year. It has a maturity period of 6 years. A bonus of 5% is paid at the time of maturity. Premature withdrawal is permitted if deposit is more than one year old. A deduction of 1% is levied from the principal amount if withdrawn prematurely. The 5% bonus is also denied. (vii) Life insurance policies Insurance companies offer many investment schemes to investors. These schemes promote saving and additionally provide insurance cover. LIC is the largest life insurance company in India. Some of its schemes include life policies, convertible whole life assurance policy, endowment assurance policy, jeevan Saathi, money back policy etc. Insurance policies, while catering to the risk compensation to be faced in the future by investor, also have the advantage of earning a reasonable interest on their investment insurance premiums. (viii) Public Provident Fund: A long-term savings instrument with a maturity of 15 years it can be made in monthly installments with a minimum of Rs.100 and a maximum of Rs.60,000 per annum and interest payable at 8% per annum compounded annually. It is not transferable, but has nomination facility. One withdrawal per financial year can be made any time after 5 years from the end of the year in which the subscription is made. Withdrawal is limited to 50% at the end of the 4th year. All subscription of PPF are completely free and balances in PPF are not taken into account for wealth tax purpose. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 34
  • 35. Investment pattern of investors on different products (ix) Government and semi-government securities It is a fixed income (debt) instrument issued for a period of more than one year with the purpose of raising capital. The central or state government, corporations and similar institutions sell bonds. A bond is generally a promise to repay the principal along with a fixed rate of interest on a specified date, called the Maturity Date. The government issues securities in the money market and in the capital market. Money market instruments are traded in Wholesale Debt Market (WDM) trades and retail segments. Instruments traded in the money market are short term instruments such as treasury bills and convertible bonds. (x) Mutual fund These are funds operated by an investment company, which raises money from the public and invests in a group of assets (shares, debentures etc.), in accordance with a stated set of objectives. It is a substitute for those who are unable to invest directly in equities or debt because of resource, time or knowledge constraints. Benefits include professional money management, buying in small amounts and diversification. Mutual fund units are issued and redeemed by the Fund Management Company based on the fund's net asset value (NAV), which is determined at the end of each trading session. NAV is calculated as the value of all the shares held by the fund, minus expenses, divided by the number of units issued. Mutual Funds are usually long term investment vehicle though there some categories of mutual funds, such as money market mutual funds, which are short term instruments. On the basis of objective we can categories mutual funds as equity funds/growth funds, diversified funds, sector funds, index funds, tax saving funds, debt/income funds, liquid funds/money market funds, gift funds, balanced funds. And on the basis of flexibility we can categories them as open-ended funds, close-ended funds and interval funds. (xi) Real Estate Investment in real estate also made when the expected returns are very attractive. Buying property is an equally strenuous investment decisions. Real estate investment is often linked with the future development plans of the location. At present investment in real assets is booming H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 35
  • 36. Investment pattern of investors on different products there are various investment source are available for investment which are directly or indirectly investing real estate. (xii) Bullion investment The bullion offers investment opportunity in the form of gold, silver, and other metals; specific categories of metals are traded in the metal exchange. The bullion market presents an opportunity for an investor by offering returns and the end value of future. It has been absurd that on several occasions, when stock market failed, the gold market provided a return on investments. 2.14 Sources of study for investors: A look out for new investment opportunities helps investors to beat the market. There are many sources from which investors can gather the required information. Such as; (i) Financial institutions Corporate house, government bodies and mutual funds are the main source of investment information. Many of these enterprises have their own website and post investment related information on their websites. (ii) Financial market Stock exchange and regulated bodies also provide useful information to investor to make their investment decisions. With respect to secondary market, the Securities and Exchange Board of India uses various modes to promote investors education and takes great effort to achieve an investor friendly secondary market in India. The Reserve Bank of India also provide useful information relating to the prevent interest rates and non-banking financial intermediaries that mobiles money through deposit schemes. (iii) Financial service intermediaries These are intermediaries who promote securities among the public. Many of these intermediaries are the agencies of specific instruments especially tax saving instruments. These intermediaries offer to share their commission from there concerned organization with the individual investor thus investor get additional advantages while investing through intermediaries. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 36
  • 37. Investment pattern of investors on different products (iv) Media Press sources such as financial newspapers, financial magazine, business news channel, websites etc. provide information related to investment to the public. Besides information on securities, these sources also provide analysis of information and in certain instance suggest suitable investment decisions to be made by investor. The foregoing discriminations about stock market and investment having under stood its important and its unique optimization in the money market. 3.1 INDUSTRY SCENARIO: A. Introduction: Basically, Securities markets provide a channel for allocation of savings by an individual or an organization to those who have a productive need for them. So, a security market can be said a location where the savers meet the real investors who need the fund. The savers and investors are constrained by the economy’s abilities to invest and save respectively which thus helps market in enhancing savings and investment in the economy. The dynamics of the economic, political, cultural and environmental activities within the country and rest of the world therefore affect Stock Market. A stock market is a public market for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price; these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. The size of the world stock market was estimated at about $36.6 trillion US at the [1] beginning of October 2008. The total world derivatives market has been estimated at about [2] [3] $791 trillion face or nominal value, 11 times the size of the entire world economy. The value of the derivatives market, because it is stated in terms of notional values, cannot be directly H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 37
  • 38. Investment pattern of investors on different products compared to a stock or a fixed income security, which traditionally refers to an actual value. Moreover, the vast majority of derivatives 'cancel' each other out (i.e., a derivative 'bet' on an event occurring is offset by a comparable derivative 'bet' on the event not occurring.). Many such relatively illiquid securities are valued as marked to model, rather than an actual market price. B. Brief History: Indian Share Market is the oldest Asian stock market incorporated in 1875. The name of the first share trading association in India was Native Share and Stock Broker’ Association which later came to be known as Bombay Stock Exchange. This association started with 318 members. The Bombay Stock Exchange is known as the oldest exchange in Asia. It traces its history to the 1850s, when stockbrokers would gather under banyan trees in front of Mumbai's Town Hall. The location of these meetings changed many times, as the number of brokers constantly increased. The group eventually moved to Dallas Street in 1874 and in 1875 became an official organization known as 'The Native Share & Stock Brokers Association'. In 1956, the BSE became the first stock exchange to be recognized by the Indian Government under the Securities Contracts Regulation Act. The Bombay Stock Exchange developed the BSE Sensex in 1986, giving the BSE a means to measure overall performance of the exchange. In 2000 the BSE used this index to open its derivatives market, trading Sensex futures contracts. The development of Sensex options along with equity derivatives followed in 2001 and 2002, expanding the BSE's trading platform. Today, BSE is the world's number 1 exchange in terms of the number of listed companies and the world's 5th in transaction numbers. The market capitalization as on December 31, 2007 stood at USD 1.79 trillion. An investor can choose from more than 4,700 listed companies, which for easy reference, are classified into A, B, S, T and Z groups. The BSE Index, SENSEX, is India's first stock market index that enjoys an iconic stature, and is tracked worldwide. It is an index of 30 stocks representing 12 major sectors. The SENSEX is constructed on a 'free-float' methodology, and is sensitive to market sentiments and market realities. Apart from the SENSEX, BSE offers 21 indices, including 12 sect oral indices. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 38
  • 39. Investment pattern of investors on different products Three segments of the NSE trading platform were established one after another. The Wholesale Debt Market (WDM) commenced operations in June 1994 and the Capital Market (CM) segment was opened at the end of 1994. Finally, the Futures and Options segment began operating in 2000. Today the NSE takes the 14th position in the top 40 futures exchanges in the world. In 1996, the National Stock Exchange of India launched S&P CNX Nifty and CNX Junior Indices that make up 100 most liquid stocks in India. CNX Nifty is a diversified index of 50 stocks from 25 different economy sectors. The Indices are owned and managed by India Index Services and Products Ltd (IISL) that has a consulting and licensing agreement with Standard & Poor's. In 1998, the National Stock Exchange of India launched its web-site and was the first exchange in India that started trading stock on the Internet in 2000. The NSE has also proved its leadership in the Indian financial market by gaining many awards such as 'Best IT Usage Award' by Computer Society in India (in 1996 and 1997) and CHIP Web Award by CHIP magazine (1999). The past decade has been quite remarkable for the Securities market in India with the boom in the economy fuelled by better banking system. It has grown exponentially and the market has also witnessed fundamental institutional changes. There have also been significant improvements in efficiency, transparency and safety. However global economic activity decelerated towards the end of the calendar year resulting in investment concerns on account of the sub-prime crisis in the US and other developed nations. Naturally the effects of this slowdown spilled over into developing economies also and we are looking ahead with some degree of concern over the prospects in the near future. In recent days economic collapsed in variation of the foreign investors fund main effect of the Indian economy in 2008-2009 the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) the sensex was 13,400 in the month of 8th July 2009. In other side National Stock Exchange (NSE) 3,974 is in the same month of 2009. Since the markets has taken up word moment from 9th July 2009 from the low of 3,974 to 4,578 on 24th July 2009 due to the Sharpe recovery in global economy as well as the 1 st quarter Results of all major company which has been announced better than expectations, Hence Indian markets are one of the fastest emerging markets in world and attracted by many Foreign intuitional investors. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 39
  • 40. Investment pattern of investors on different products C. The Regulatory Authority: SEBI The rise in number of investors was also leading to an increase in malpractices on part of the companies, brokers, merchant bankers, investment consultants and various other agencies involved in new issues. This led to erosion of investor confidence. The Government and the stock exchanges Realizing this, Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) was constituted were helpless as the existing legal framework was just not enough. By the Government of India in 1992  The Major Functions Of SEBI:  To promote fair dealings by the issuers of securities and ensure a market place where funds can be raised at relatively low costs.  To provide protection to the investors and safeguard their rights and interests such that there is steady flow of savings into the market.  Registration and regulation of stock brokers, sub-brokers, registrar to all issue, merchant bankers, underwriters, portfolio managers and such other intermediaries who are associated with securities market  Prohibit insider trading in securities.  To regulate and develop a code of conduct and fair practices by the intermediaries involved in the stock market etc.  Outlook 2009-10 The Indian markets traded in a very narrow range during April amidst mixed cues coming from global and domestic markets. While the markets were hurt by the sovereign debt default concerns of Greece and SECs allegations against Goldman Sachs, it found some comfort from good set of FY 2009-2010earnings numbers declared by India Inc... India’s industrial output, as measured by the Index of Industrial Production (IIP), grew by 15.1% as against an annual gain of 16.7% in January 2010, and17.6% in December 2009. Industrial production grew by a mere 0.2% in the same month last year. Manufacturing output rose by 16% as against a mere 0.2% in February 2009, while Mining production was at 12.2% H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 40
  • 41. Investment pattern of investors on different products versus (-) 0.2% in the year-ago period. Electricity sector output expanded by 6.7%compared to just 0.7% in the same month a year Consumer Durables production expanded by 29.9%in February 2010 as against 6% in the same period in 2009. Output in Capital Goods grew by 44.4% in February 2010 as against 11.8% for the same month of 2009. The growth rate in Basic Goods category stood at 8.4% versus a contraction of 0.1% in the year-ago period. Interrmediates Goods' output rose by15.6% in the month under review versus (-) 3% in the year- ago period. As many as 14 out of the 17 industry groups showed a positive growth during February 2010 compared to the corresponding month of the previous year. 3.2 COMPANY PROFILE: Company History & Background Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd. (ACMIIL) was established in the year 1986 with a view to offer a one-stop solution to Indian entities for their needs in financial services. Over the last two decades it has achieved the distinction of being amongst the most trusted and reputed brokerage houses in India. It provides a complete bouquet of products in equity, debt, commodities, forex, depository, derivatives and allied services in India. Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd. (ACMIIL) is the most trusted and reputed brokerage house for providing investment-related services in the capital market and money market and depository services in India. The company is jointly promoted by noted stock market professionals, Mr. Asit C. Mehta and Mrs. Deena A. Mehta, and is a part of the Mumbai-based Nucleus Group of Companies. The other group companies are engaged in IT and IT related services such as development of databases, back-office applications for banks, corporate document management solutions and geographical information systems (GIS). H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 41
  • 42. Investment pattern of investors on different products ACMIIL has pan-India presence through its branches, business associates, and marketing agents. You can also become a part of this growing business and assist us in increasing investor base, spreading investor education, and providing capital market services to clients.  Vision, mission & quality: Envisioned to be the “Trusted Financial Intermediary”, the group has etched out a very specific corporate purpose – “To reach appropriate financial products, services and solutions to every Indian entity.”  Purpose To reach appropriate financial products, services and solutions to every Indian entity.  Our Belief  That every household can, should, and will need to participate in the financial markets directly or indirectly to protect their financial interests  That regulatory/legal compliance ensures economic sustainability.  That transparency and fairness are the cornerstones of all dealings.  That knowledge rather than capital is the key driver of this business.  That product, process, and technology led innovations are necessary preconditions for continuously adding value for all our constituents.  The firsts to our credit:  First limited liability Company to acquire membership on Bombay Stock Exchange.  First multiple seat holder and multiple exchange members.  First to achieve the ISO quality certification for business processes.  First to receive a CRISIL grading for quality of operations and services.  Company Managing Director Mrs. Deena Mehta was the first lady to be elected to the governing board of the Stock Exchange Mumbai and first and only lady to be the President of Stock Exchange, Mumbai.  Values, Relationship…core to our business H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 42
  • 43. Investment pattern of investors on different products We are currently expanding our business in the retail and institutional segments on the domestic and overseas (NRI/FII) fronts. We have select positions open for marketing, sales, research, back office operations, and business development activities. At Asit C. Mehta, we aim to select a candidate whose goals are aligned with ours. Knowledge about the product, a conceptual understanding of the financial markets, a thirst to innovate, desire to grow within the company, meticulousness towards the task on hand, an ability to design and follow process are all qualities valued in the company. We foster a culture that rewards talent, initiative, hard work, and accountability and nurtures teamwork.  Shareholders Asit C Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd. (ACMIIL) is incorporated as a publicly held limited liability company in India under the Indian Companies Act, 1956. The company was incorporated in the year 1993 under the new enabling provisions for limited liability stock broking companies framed by the Government to encourage limited liability company in this area. ACMIIL was first such company on the Bombay Stock Exchange. Currently, the company is mostly held by its founder shareholders as follows:  Mr.Asit C Mehta  Mrs.Deena Asit Mehta  Mr.Kirit H Vora  Nucleus Netsoft & GIS (India) Ltd.  Service standards & compliance: In order to institutionalize business processes, our company has moved to a documented customer-centric quality management system. This has ensured that the entire organization is driven by the common objective of delivering quality brokerage services that would create a unique brand and top-of-the-mind recall. We are the first brokerage house to be certified under ISO 9001:2000 for the Equity and Debt segments. We are also first stock brokerage house to be graded under the Broker Grading service by Credit Rating & Information Services of India Ltd. (CRISIL) for our quality of operations and services provided to clients. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 43
  • 44. Investment pattern of investors on different products 3.3 ORGANISATION STRUCTURE: DESIGNATION NAME Chairman and Managing Director Mr. Asit C. Mehta Chief Executive Officer Mrs. Deena Asit Mehta Whole-Time Director Mr. Kirit H Vohra Chief Operating Officer Mr. Kirit H Vohra Chief Technological Officer Mr. Kamal Goel Chief Officer Wealth centre Mr. T .S Netrajan Chief Manager Co-operative commodities Mr. Vidia Chief Financial Manager Mr. Veerendra Thakur Chief Officer Human Resources Mr. V. Vishvanath Senior Vp Operation Mr. T .S Netrajan Branch Manager Mr. Kapadia Unit Manager Mr. B.P Shanthish H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 44
  • 45. Investment pattern of investors on different products MEMBERSHIP: • Cash Market: BSE, NSE • Derivatives: BSE, NSE • Debt: NSE • Foreign Exchange: Accredited by FEDAI • PMS under SEBI License • Merchant Banking: Approved by SEBI under Category I • Commodities: NCDEX MCX, DGCX, EAST INDIA Clearing Bank: State Bank of India Reach and Access (as on July 01, 2009) Investment Centre’s: 665 (branches, franchisee, etc.) States & UT covered: 26 Employees: 1002 3.4 PRODUCTS AND SERVICES: • Equity – Initial Public Offering (IPO) • Equity – Secondary trading (cash and derivative) • Equity – PMS • Equity – Online Trading • Equity – Depository Services • Equity – Investment Advisory (fundamental and technical) • Equity – Mutual Fund • Equity - Arbitrage • Commodity - Derivatives • Debt – Government Securities • Debt – Primary Placements H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 45
  • 46. Investment pattern of investors on different products • Debt – Advisory • Debt – Mutual Funds • Debt – Relief bonds, etc. • Forex – Interbank broking • Merchant Banking – Amalgamation & Mergers • Merchant Banking – Private Equity Merchant Banking – Public Offering.  Our services:  Equity and Derivatives Trading: Equity trading is offered to retail clients through different channels in the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) & the National Stock Exchange of India (NSE), for the cash and the derivatives segments. Investors are serviced through a PAN India network of over 650 associates / locations comprising of 585 franchisee and 65 company branches. (as on July 2009)  Online Trading: Investmentz.com is our trading portal that offers online trading to retail investors in the BSE and NSE cash and derivatives segments. The investors can do their own trading through a browser- based interface as well as a streamer-based solution called Live exchange. This service is also available through an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) facility for those clients who are unable to access the Internet service at any time. The company has tied up with leading nationalized, private and co-operative banks to offer share-trading services to the banks' customers. A seamless gateway has been established between the banking and depository software of the bank.  Institutional Desk: Equity trade execution services are provided to institutional investors both domestic and FII by our institutional desk. Research and market.  Investment Banking: H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 46
  • 47. Investment pattern of investors on different products ACMIIL has been granted a Category I Merchant Banking license by SEBI. It offers services in mergers, amalgamations, private equity, public offerings and a full gamut of investment banking services.  Commodity Trading Service are Provided Through Our Associate: Asit C. Mehta Commodity Services Pvt. Ltd. The company is member of India’s premier commodity exchanges, namely, the Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd. (MCX), the National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange, India (NCDEX) and the East India Cotton Exchange Association (EICA). The online trading portal also provides facility to trade on NCDEX. One of the group company is a member of Dubai Gold & Commodity Exchange (DGCX).  Inter-Bank Forex Desk: Our associate company, Asit C Mehta Forex Pvt. Ltd., undertakes inter-bank forex order execution. Accredited by the Foreign Exchange Dealers’ Association of India (FEDAI), the company is empanelled with approximately 60 banks and has a reasonable presence in the market.  Support Services  Research: Investors are provided with extensive information on markets and companies through hourly market reviews, periodic market commentary and recommendations, which enable them to make informed decisions. The company firmly believes that providing continuous and accurate decision making tools can add substantial value to its investors.  Advisory Services: H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 47
  • 48. Investment pattern of investors on different products Advisory services are provided as a value-added service to all retail and institutional clients. This service is delivered through the hourly, daily, weekly, fortnightly and monthly publication of fundamental and technical research. Calls are made through broadcast services on our private VSAT network, SMS and e-mail.  Accounts Information: Accounts information to the retail clients is provided through access on our website. This assists clients in knowing details about their trading accounts and their resultant obligations through various reports like Bill, Contract, Financial Ledger, Transaction Register, Stock Register, Portfolio Tracker, Stock holding position, etc. E-contracts are generated for investors giving trade details.  Other services:  Price Ticker ACMIIL, in association with Capital Market Publications, presents the equity/derivative/commodity price ticker for easy desktop access to capital market information. The prices reflected are generally delayed by five minutes, and any additional delay (if any) depends on the user’s connectivity and computer system configuration. You can customize the ticker as per your individual needs.  Alertz As our registered client, Investmentz.com provides you with ‘Alertz’ facility on your email SMS and assists you in your investment decision, thus enriching your capital market investment experience through us. Investmentz.com’s Alertz service keeps you informed about stock prices through email and SMS. You may activate the Email Alertz service and track your selected stocks/indices without monitoring the trading terminal during market hours. It is now very easy to track the prices of your selected stocks without deviating from normal activities .The SMS Alertz service is H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 48
  • 49. Investment pattern of investors on different products available for trade confirmation, fund pay-in and pay-out, market views/calls, etc, to clients who actively use our trade execution services. As general information, Investmentz.com does not guarantee any accuracy of generation, databases, and delivery timings, and does not make any claims of any nature in this matter The critical components to avail the Alertz service are: a) Internet connectivity / bandwidth speed at your end, b) Information feed available from the exchange, c) Computing speed of the Alertz, and d) Speed of your Internet Service provider (ISP) and/or domain provider and/or Telecom service provider (TSP).  Advice Me To service general retail investor and assistance them in systematic creation of wealth, we could try to provide you with some basic / brief investment idea on stock of your interest. You could ask us an investment question related to a particular stock or sector and we would see that brief research (fundamental / technical) input could be provided on that stock or sector. Whatever may be our research input on your inquiry, still the final investment decision would need to be taken by you as you know your investment profile & habits, risk appetite, income – cash flow, person / family / social obligation, etc.  Potential Growth Areas: India is amongst the least affected countries in the 2008 global meltdown. May 2009 general election in the country provided a fairly stable government. We see great potential for the country in general and financial market in particular in the years to come. Investor participation, product innovations, volume growth is likely to be in exponential proportion. Our company is well poised to build a great institution in India to service the Indian and global investors for their financial services needs The company has created a strong organization driven by processes to handle multifold volume growth.  Do not disturb: To service our clients and aide them in wealth creation process, we at Asit C Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd. keep on sending information about our products and services, information related to capital market investment, etc. This information might be sent / conveyed to you via H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 49
  • 50. Investment pattern of investors on different products letter, newsletter, email, phone; SMS, etc. based on our assumption that you would need this information and benefit you in your wealth creation process. But, at times, you might need privacy and wish us not to contact you for such information. We would take the precaution and see not to disturb you by excluding your contact details from our marketing list. Kindly provide your details so as to not disturb you.  Message Board: Welcome to our new website! We are pleased to announce some exciting new features, an improved user-friendly design and services to benefit our esteemed customers. We have also taken steps to ensure faster loading of pages.  User-friendly design: No part of the website is more than three clicks away. This ensures speedy access to whatever information you may need.  Easy Trading: We have two options for trading: Quick Trade and Regular Trade. Quick Trade enables you to transact in any share quickly by presenting only the most relevant information. Regular Trade gives you full information about the share, enabling you to take an informed decision.  New features: We've added some exciting new features like Advise Me and Online Purchase of Mutual Funds and IPOs.  Knowledge Center: Investor Education and Empowerment is essential for inculcating correct investment habits. We undertake various initiatives to educate investors and enable them to make informed investment decisions based on their investment profiles, risk appetites, and return expectations. Three important parts of our Investor Education and Awareness Program are: Market Wisdom series, Video broadcasts of Investment Education Topics, and the Nucleus Investmentz newsletter. We also conduct activities such as seminars, exhibitions, etc. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 50
  • 51. Investment pattern of investors on different products  Market Wisdom This is an Investor Empowerment series comprising material prepared to assist investors as they just step into the capital market or when they are in the middle of various curves in the wealth creation process. The various market wisdom series for general investor education and awareness some of them are as follows: Why do we need financial planning? Investors guide to share markets Safety, liquidity and returns What is Stock market? Equity or Mutual funds? The first step How to select your broker? Why is the stock market not a gambling den? Do operators run the stock market? Why do prices go up and down in the stock market? A Lesson in Options and Futures Sensex 12000...12800...13000...What to do? Dividend: What does it mean to investor? Margins and investors Hedge funds Dabba trading Exchange-traded funds Basics of commodities futures market Settlement of trades.. Investor grievance redressal mechanism Risk associated with equity investments etc.  Investor Education Topics We have been conducting the Investor Education and Awareness program via video broadcasts through our own network (branches and business associates), which is spread over 600 locations across 25 states and union territories in India. Speakers with industry expertise participate in H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 51
  • 52. Investment pattern of investors on different products video broadcasts from our head office in Mumbai, which is accessible from any of our branches across the country. The last session was on February 21, 2009; our expert in-house fundamental and technical research team conducted an investor education program on crude oil market outlook.  Nucleus Investmentz. For the past seven years, we have been publishing a fortnightly newsletter, Nucleus Investmentz. It includes analyses of current financial topics, insights on investment-relevant topics, and performance score cards of various mutual funds. This is available in English, Hindi & Gujarati. Benefits of Trading With Us:  Focus on wealth creation for the investors.  Client Level Risk Management.  Auto Pay-in / Payout of securities.  Transfer of payout directly to the designated customer bank account.  Account & Portfolio information through Internet 24x7, 365 days.  Strong foundation of Technology, Compliance and Transparency First corporate member of the Bombay Stock Exchange Proven track record for the last 25 years in the stock broking industry First broking house to gain the ISO 9001:2000 certification Presence in 23 states and 650 locations. Achievements of Asit C Mehta Investment Interrmediates Limited.  Having secured brokerage grading of BQ1 from CRISIL of India. (Top Most Grading given to any Good Broking House) It has been marked as a very good broking house as regards to all the criteria given by CRISIL of India. In previous year it was in the BQ2 grade, but looking at the workings and very good Risk management system of the company, it has been upgraded to BQ1 H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 52
  • 53. Investment pattern of investors on different products  It is an ISO 2000-9001 company.  Making a very good turnover and giving directly and indirectly appointment for more than 2500 people in India. It has got more than 600 branches network all over India covering all most all states in India.  To become the very old brokerage house in India and getting incorporated in the year 1984 got the BSE membership card at the early stages.  Having its leadership position in equity broking, equity research, forex and commodity markets & mutual funds.  Holding an equity brand of investments.  Now serving around 2lakhs clients all over India and abroad. (NRIs). 3.5 SWOT ANALYSIS: SWOT analysis refers to; analyzing the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of the organization SWOT is a compound of two factors namely external factors and Internal factors. Strengths and weaknesses are the internal factors controlled by the technical and personnel departments. Opportunities and threats are the external factors, which cannot be controlled by the company. External factors may include political factors, Socio –Cultural factors, Technical factors, demography, and Environmental factors. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 53
  • 54. Investment pattern of investors on different products STRENGTHS:  One of the fastest growing brokerage firms in India.  Rich experience of wealth creation.  Robust technology with online trading facility.  Swift response to market dynamics.  Customer first support team.  Handheld/mobile feeds and SMS update. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 54
  • 55. Investment pattern of investors on different products WEAKNESS:  Less number of branches in south India.  Unable to compete with the brokerage rates of their competitors.  Lack of efficient and effective strategies in attracting customers.  Unable to market their products & services more efficiently. OPPORTUNITIES:  Growing India economy opens up huge market for stock broking companies.  Introduction of new technologies leads to trapping new markets.  Company is committed to achieve profitable progress consistently.  Targeting rural and sub urban areas. THREAT:  Facing Increased level of competition.  Uncertainty in the market.  Changes in government polices and regulation.  Falling brokerage rates & the entry of several big players. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 55
  • 56. Investment pattern of investors on different products DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION TABLE: 4.1 Investment preference among various age groups: Age Group (in Years) Investment < 20 20 – 30 31 - 40 41 – 60 > 60 Respo Respo Respo Respo Respo Avenues ndents (%) ndents (%) ndents (%) ndents (%) ndents (%) Equity 13 26 12 24 13 26 14 28 7 14 Debenture / Bonds 5 10 5 10 5 10 7 14 12 24 Bank Deposits 9 18 9 18 9 18 8 16 10 20 Insurance 10 20 12 24 11 22 11 22 7 14 Mutual Fund 3 6 3 6 4 8 2 4 4 8 Gold & Real Estate 9 18 7 14 7 14 6 12 8 16 Others 1 2 2 4 1 2 2 4 2 4 TOTAL 50 100 50 100 50 100 50 100 50 100 Investment preference among various age groups: 30 Equity ) 25 % Debenture / Bonds n 20 i Bank Deposits ( y c 15 Insurance n e Mutual Funds u 10 q Gold & Real Estate e 5 r F Others 0 < 20 20 - 30 31 - 40 41 – 60 > 60 Age Group (in Years) H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 56
  • 57. Investment pattern of investors on different products Interpretation: From the above tables we can conclude that, all the age groups are give more preference on investing in equity, except those who are more than sixty years. The age group, which is more than sixty years, gives more preference to invest in Debenture, Tax saving bonds and then bank deposits. TABLE: 4.2 Investment preference among various income levels: Annual Income (in Rs. Lakh) Investment <1 1–2 2 - 3.5 3.5 – 5 >5 Avenues Respo (% Respo (% Respo (% Respo (% Respo ndents ) ndents ) ndents ) ndents ) ndents (%) Equity 8 16 10 20 13 26 13 26 15 30 Debenture / Bonds 3 6 3 6 4 8 4 7 4 8 Bank Deposits 16 32 12 24 10 20 9 18 7 14 Insurance 7 14 8 16 9 18 10 20 10 20 Mutual Fund 7 14 8 16 9 18 7 15 8 16 Gold & Real Estate 1 2 2 4 3 6 4 8 4 8 Others 8 16 7 14 2 4 3 6 2 4 TOTAL 50 100 50 100 50 100 50 100 50 100 Investment preference among various income levels: 35 30 Frequenvy (in %) Equity 25 Debenture / Bonds 20 Bank Deposits 15 10 Insurance 5 Mutual funds 0 Gold & Real Estate <1 2-.3 2 - 3.5 3.5 - 5 >5 Others Annual Income (in Rs. Lakh) Interpretation: H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 57
  • 58. Investment pattern of investors on different products The above table reveals that higher income levels are giving more preference to invest in equity where as lower income levels given more preference to invest in bank deposits. It implies that the higher income level groups are preferred to take more risk in investment rather than lower income level. And those who are taken more risk in investment are preferred to invest in equity rather than any investment avenues. TABLE: 4.3 Relationship between income level and investment: Annual income Investment per annum (Weighted Average) Less than 1 lakh 28500 1 – 2 lakhs 45000 3.5 – 5 lakhs 70000 More than 5 lakhs 100000 Relationship between income level and investment 120000 100000 80000 Investment per annum 60000 (Weighted Average) 40000 20000 0 Less than 1–2 3.5 – 5 More 1 lakh lakhs lakhs than 5 lakhs Annual income (in rupees) Interpretation: From above table and chart we can come to know when increases in income of investor his investment also increases and % increase of investment is more than % increase in income. It H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 58
  • 59. Investment pattern of investors on different products means when income of investor changes his portfolio also changes. So portfolio of investor is depend on income of an investor. TABLE: 4.4 Occupation of the investors: No: of (Frequency Occupation Respondent in %) s Government Employee 8 16 Private sector 15 30 Employee Self-Employee 19 38 Retired 7 14 Others 1 2 Total 50 100 Occu pation of the investors: 40 35 ) 30 Government Employee % n i ( 25 Private sector Employee y c n 20 Sel f-Employee e u q e 15 r Retired F Others 10 5 0 Interpretation: From the above table and chart it can be seen that 38% of the investors are self-employed, 30% of the investor are Private sector employee, 16% of the investor are Government employee and 14% of the investors are retired. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 59
  • 60. Investment pattern of investors on different products TABLE: 4.5 Types of Investment: Types of No: of (Frequency investmen Respondent in %) t s Short Term 11 22 Investment Long Term 22 44 Investment Both 17 34 Total 50 100 Types of Investment: Short Term Investment Both 22% 34% Long Term Investment 44% Short Term Investment Long Term Investment Both Interpretation: Among the total sample size 44 per cent investors are prefer to investing in long term and 22 percent are prefer to investment in short term. Whereas 34 per cent of investors are preferred to invest in both long term as well as in short term investment avenues. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 60
  • 61. Investment pattern of investors on different products TABLE: 4.6 Frequency of Investment: Frequency of No: of (Frequency Investment Respondent in %) s Weekly 6 12 Monthly 18 36 Quarterly 13 26 Half Yearly 7 14 Yearly 6 12 Total 50 100 Frequency of Investment: 40 35 30 Frequency 25 20 15 10 5 0 Weekly Monthly Quarterly Half Yearly Yearly Time Period Interpretation: This graph reveals that 36 percent of investors are investing monthly, 26 per cent of investors are investing quarterly. 12 per cent of investors are investing in a yearly basis where as 12 per cent and 14 per cent of investors are investing in weekly and half-yearly basis respectively. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 61
  • 62. Investment pattern of investors on different products TABLE: 4.7 Basis of investment: Basis of No: of (Frequency Investment Respondent in %) s Self 26 52 Analysis Financial 10 20 Advice Broker 6 12 Advice F/R Advice 5 10 C A Advice 3 6 Total 50 100 Basis of investment: 6% 10% 12% 52% 20% Self Analysis Financial Advice Broker Advice F/R Advice C A Advice Interpretation: From this we can come to know most of the investor i.e. 52% basis of study is self analysis and remaining 48% of investors take advice from advisers such as broker advice, H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 62
  • 63. Investment pattern of investors on different products financial advice, friends or relatives advice or charted account advice for investment. So it shows most of the individual investor basis of study is self-analysis. TABLE: 4.8 Investment pattern affected by market movement: Options No: of Frequency Respondent (in %) s Yes 34 68 No 16 32 Total 50 100 Investment pattern affected by market movement: No 32% Yes 68% Yes No Interpretation: From this we can come to know that 68 investors investment pattern will affect if any market movement (BSE index, inflation rate etc). So majority of the investor’s investment pattern will affect if any changes in the market. Market movement is very important factor for changing in investment pattern. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 63
  • 64. Investment pattern of investors on different products TABLE: 4.9 Risk management techniques of investors: Investor No: of Frequency reaction Respondent (in %) s Switching 6 12 Averaging 14 28 Locking 24 48 Cut Loss 6 12 Total 50 100 Risk management technique of investors: 60 50 Frequency (in %) 40 Switching Averaging 30 Locking 20 Cut Loss 10 0 Interpretation: It can be seen that out of the risk management techniques, 48% of the investors use locking, 28% use switching and 12% use cut loss technique. So locking is the mostly used risk management technique. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 64
  • 65. Investment pattern of investors on different products TABLE: 4.10 Factors influence to choice various investment alternatives: Factors No: of Frequency influence Respondent (in %) s Risk Involved 8 16 Return They 15 30 Give Past 10 20 Performance Future Growth 12 24 Other Factor 5 10 Total 50 100 Percentage Other factor Risk Involved 10% 16% Future Growth 24% Return they give Past 30% performance 20% Risk Involved Return they give Past performance Future Growth Other factor Interpretation: By seeing this findings we can say 30% of investor investment decision is depend on return on investment, second important factor is future growth and past performance of the H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 65
  • 66. Investment pattern of investors on different products company are 24% and 20% respectively. 16% of investor’s investment is based on risk involved. Choice of factor is changing from investor to investor. TABLE: 4. 11 Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd clients: Asit C. Mehta No: of Frequency Investment Respondents (in %) Intermediates Ltd client YES 37 74 NO 13 26 Total 50 100 Asit C. Mehta’s client NO 26% YES 74% YES NO Interpretation: Out of 50 respondents 37 are Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates ltd clients. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 66
  • 67. Investment pattern of investors on different products TABLE: 4.12 Investment option in Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd: Investment option in No: of Respondents Frequency (in %) Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd Equity 12 24 Commodities 10 20 Debt 9 18 Forex 6 12 Total 37 74 Investment option in Asit C. Mehta Investment Intermediates Ltd: 30 25 Frequency (in %) 20 Equity Commodities 15 Debt 10 Forex 5 0 Frequency (in %) Interpretation: Asit C. Mehta clients are given more preference to invest in equity than any other products of Asit C. Mehta and the second preference is Commodities, which is followed by Debt and Forex respectively. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 67
  • 68. Investment pattern of investors on different products TABLE: 4.13 Investor’s investment option in Hassan: No: of Investment Frequency Respondent Avenues (in %) s Equity 22 44 Debenture / 5 10 Bonds Bank 9 18 Deposits Insurance 6 12 Mutual Fund 3 6 Gold & Real 3 6 Estate Others 2 4 Total 50 100 Investment Pattern in Hassan 50 45 Equity 40 Frequency (in %) 35 Debenture / Bonds 30 Bank Deposits 25 Insurance 20 Mutual Fund 15 Gold & Real Estate 10 Others 5 0 Frequency (in %) Interpretation: The above graph reveals that, the investors of Hassan are preferred to investing more in equity. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 68
  • 69. Investment pattern of investors on different products FINDINGS: On investment decision of investor  Income level of an investor is an impotent factor, which affects portfolio of the investor.  44 per cent of investors are preferred to invest in long-term avenues where as 34 per cent of investors are preferred to invest in both long term and short-term avenues.  36 percent of the investors are preferred to invest in monthly and 26% 0f investors preferred to invest in quarterly basis.  52 per cent of the investors are investing on the basis of self-analysis.  Business paper is an important source of study for the investor. Apart from this, business channels and web sites are some other important sources of study. .  Return on investment and risk involved is most important factor for the investor before taking any investment decisions.  Return on investment and credit rating are two important factors for those investor who are interested to invest in Bonds/Debenture.  Past record, dividend record and future growth of the firm are the important factor for those investors who are interested to invest in equity.  Higher income level groups and risk taking investors are preferred to invest in equity rather than any other investment avenues.  Middle age group investors are preferred to invest in equity, where as the old age group investors are preferred to invest in bank deposit or any other type of tax saving bonds.  Lower income level groups are not preferred to take risk and they choose bank deposits, post office savings and insurance as a better investment option. They also look for tax saving investment avenues.  68% of investors investment pattern will effect if any changes in the market , so market movement is very important factor in changing of investment pattern. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 69
  • 70. Investment pattern of investors on different products Generally those investors who are invested in equity, are personally follow the stock market frequently i.e. in daily basis. But those who are invested in mutual funds are watch stock market weekly or fortnightly. Investors of Hassan are preferred to invest more in equity. In Hassan, investors are more aware about various investment avenues and the risk associated with that. On the Products and services of Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd is India’s largest and oldest DP service, which is customer friendly and it is free from any misappropriation, scandals. Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd providing wide range of products and services for investment but all the products and services of Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd is not aware to the client. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 70
  • 71. Investment pattern of investors on different products SUGGESTIONS:  Better analysis tools should be used to make better predictions.  It is recommended that investors’ decision should be based on their broker advice.  Risk and return should be evaluated before making an investment decision.  There should be a regular sms updates to the investors regarding their investment.  Those investors who want to avoid risk should invest in treasury notes or high-rated municipal bonds and debentures etc.  Client awareness program has to be conducted by Since the intent and web based communication is getting popular Asit C. Mehta should update web site frequently and provide information up to date.  Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd clients give more preference to invest in equity and second preference is commodity. So Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd Should adds more products/services like equity research, futures and options to attract more investors.  Since the investors expect better products/services from Asit C. Mehta it should provide more value added services like Gold Bees, ETFs (Exchange Traded funds) etc.  As investors’ investment decision is based on the study of different sources, Asit C. Mehta should start giving advertisement in business newspaper and in business magazine.  Most of the investor’s portfolio is diversified so there is huge scope in various new services. So Asit C. Mehta should come with new intermediaries services like add more mutual funds.  Asit C. Mehta should expand its business by setting up of new branches in various places where they have lot of client. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 71
  • 72. Investment pattern of investors on different products CONCLUSION The investors decisions are driven by the economic indicators such as GDP, inflation rate, unemployment rate, NNP, GNP, Monsoon, Government Policies, etc. The study shows how different factors and instruments have different risk, returns and tax considerations while taking investment decisions and are of diverse natures. It is very difficult to come to any definite conclusions that how a particular market instrument is doing and how they will perform in the future, but still the study concludes to an extent that the particular instruments or product like equity or government security has performed well in the past, and supported with strong demands will perform well in the future. Indian economy has grown from a position of 2 to 3% of growth rate to a position of 8.5% at present in a very less time. The economy has done immensely well and so is the performance of the equity market, which has given a very high return to the investors. Thus equity market is presently very booming and expected even more in the future. The study takes a random sample of fifty prospective and existing clients that denotes the whole population of investing community, which is limited to the extent of accurate results. The population for the future of the investing community is that it will give very high returns for the securities that are fundamentally strong and not by any other means. The study also draws an important conclusion from the study that the investors are a keen to invest in long term and less risk products, much interested to earn the good return on their investments. Investors are aware about the factor affecting their short term as well as long-term investment plans and they do take advice from different experts, self-analysis by investors themselves. This intensive study will somehow help investors in deciding the correct investment for their savings. This study is conducted in Hassan; most of the respondents are Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd (ACMIIL) clients. Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd is also a H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 72
  • 73. Investment pattern of investors on different products leading player in the security dealing market. The analysis and interpretations very clearly shows that the investors have different views like investment pattern by market movement, factors influencing their decision, frequency of investment, alternatives available and investment preferences truly influence their perception towards different products and services of the company. Thus to conclude the study says that the Indian investment community have shown much interest in investing different financial products available in the market due to the spiraling growth of Indian GDP, better performance by the companies, liberal rules and regulations by the authority like SEBI to protect the investors interest and this process will grow much more quicker in the future. Scope for further research: The study is conducted by taking a limited number of sample sizes, which is stated earlier. And this study reflects the perceptions of those investors who are residing in Hassan. There might be a chance that the perceptions of the investors’ of different nature are varied due to diversity in social life, living pattern, income level etc that needs to be studied further. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 73
  • 74. Investment pattern of investors on different products Books o Preeti Singh, “Investment Management”(security analysis and portfolio management), 17th Revised Edition: 2009, Himalaya Publishing House, New Delhi, page no: 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,11,12,13. o V.K. Bhalla, “Investment Management”,(security analysis and portfolio management), 16th Revised Edition, S. Chand & Company Ltd, New Delhi, page no:3,16,17. o Prasanna Chandra, “Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management”, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publication Company Limited, New Delhi, page no: 27,31,32,33. o V.A Avadhani, “Securities Analysis and Portfolio Management”, 9th Revised Edition, Himalaya Publishing House, New Delhi, page no: 14,15,49,50. Websites www.nseindia.com www.bseindia.com www.sebi.com www.investmentz.com www.google.com H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 74
  • 75. Investment pattern of investors on different products QUESTIONNAIRE Respected sir, I am Niman Ulla Sharieff, student of MBA studying in Haranahalli Ramaswamy Institute of Higher Education. As a part of my curriculum, I am doing project in Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd (Sugam Share Services, Sahyadri Circle,) Hassan. The project is on “Investment Pattern of Investors on Different Products of Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd. (ACMIIL)”. So please take some time out of your schedule to fill this questionnaire. I would be thankful for your precious time. Kindly fill up the following questionnaire. Name of the Person: Phone No:  Educational level  PUC  Graduation  Post-Graduation  Professional  Others (Please Specify)……………….  Age  Less than 20  20 – 30  31 – 40  41 – 60  More than 60  Occupation H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 75
  • 76. Investment pattern of investors on different products  Government Employee  Private Sector Employee  Self-Employee  Retired  Others (Please Specify)……………….  Annual income and investments a. Annual income (in Rs.)  Less than 1 lakh  1 – 2 lakhs  2 – 3.5 lakhs  3.5 – 5 lakhs  More than 5 lakhs b. Annual Investments (in Rs.)  Less than 25,000  25,000 – 50,000  50,001 – 1,00,000  1,00,001 – 2,00,000  2,00,001 & above  Investment avenues that you like to choose.  Post-office Savings.  Bank Deposits.  Life Insurance.  Mutual Funds.  Gold  Equity  Corporate Debenture  Company Fixed Deposits  Real Estate  Others (Please Specify)……………….  Are you a short term or long term investor?  Short term  Long term  Both.  State reason behind choice of your investment options H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 76
  • 77. Investment pattern of investors on different products  Self – Awareness  Financial Advisors  Broker’s Advice  Friends’ or Relatives’ Advice  Media  What is your frequency of investments?  Weekly  Monthly  Quarterly  Half-yearly  Yearly  Market movement affects your investment pattern?  Yes  No  Which is the risk management technique, which you use mostly?  Switching  Averaging  Locking  Cut Loss  Your Investment Decision is depending on?  Risk Involved  Return They Give  Past Performance  Future Growth  Other Factor  Have you invested through Asit C Mehta Investment Interrmediates s Ltd.?  Yes  No  If yes, then in which products/services of Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd you have invested?  Equity  Commodity  Debt  Forex  What kind of new product/service would you want from Asit C. Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd.? a. ……………….. b. ……………….. c. ………………… H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 77
  • 78. Investment pattern of investors on different products Do you have any suggestion to make Asit C Mehta Investment Interrmediates Ltd product/service better? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………... H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 78