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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • Sir, please send me this project report. my email id is moni21bansal@gmail.com
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  • can u plzzz send this report to me .. its a very nice project n i thoroughly need it. plz .. shubhisngh95@gmail.com it is mine id u can send mail to it..
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  • send to me this one plz...........its report is good so plz mail me....riyanishathmulla@gmail.com
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  • nice,, really i like it
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  • Hi, Please contact us through www.projectsformba.blogspot.com/p/feedback.html so that one of our team mate will get back to you at the earliest. Thank you!
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A project report on job satisfaction at birla ltd., A project report on job satisfaction at birla ltd., Document Transcript

  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com A ════════════════════════════════════════════════ SUBMITTED BY : DIVISION : COMPANY GUIDE : (PERSONAL AND ADM. MANAGER) BATCH : 2008-2009. AProjectsformba.blogspot.com 1
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com PROJECT REPORT ON “JOB SATISFACTION” FOR PVT. LTD. Submitted to BIRLA ERICSSON OPTICAL LIMITED Submitted by VNS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, BHOPAL (M.P.) In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of MBA Program (HUMAN RESOURCE) Batch (2008-2010)Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com DECLARATIONI, the under signed ……………………….. hereby declarethat the Project Work entitled “ JOB SATISFACTIONFOR BIRLA ERICSSON OPTICAL LIMITED”undertaken during the Period For 6 weeks is the resultof my Own efforts and the same has not beenpreviously submitted to any Examination of theBARKATULLAH UNIVERSITY, BHOPAL (M.P.) orany other University.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com PREFACEIt is mandatory for every student of master of businessadministration from VNS INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT affiliatedto BARKATULLAH UNIVERSITY, BHOPAL to undergo projecttraining at organization location with a project on live program. My training has been a faithful experience for me. Now Igot a broad idea about the functioning of organization and thiswill be helpful for me in the coming days.In this report I describe the company profile and history of thecompany.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to express my sincere thanks to ……………………. ,Department Head of MBA (VNS Institute Of Management) Bhopal(M.P.) giving me opportunity to work with Birla Ericsson Optical Ltd. for my Summer Internship Program. I would also like to thanks…………………., (Personal and Administration Manager),……………… (DGM), …………………. (Personnel Officer), ………..(Asst. Personnel Manager) and ……………….(Computer & DataOperator) of Birla Ericsson Optical Ltd. At Rewa (M.P.) for giving me anopportunity to work under his guidance .My extended thanks to ………..,Placement cell Head (VNS Institute Of Management, Bhopal) for hisguidance during the course of my project for his suggestions which has leadto a successful completion of my Summer Internship Program. Last but notthe least I would also like to acknowledge contributions of various officialwebsites and books named in the references for helping me with the datacollection and analysis which have provided me with the relevantinformation for me to successfully complete my Project Report. TABLE OF CONTENTProjectsformba.blogspot.com 5
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com Sr. No. Conte nt Page No. 1 EXEC UTIVE SUMM ARY 7-8 2 INTRO DUCTI ON OF HRM 9-14 3 JOB SATIS FACTIProjectsformba.blogspot.com 6 ON
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com EXECUTIVE SUMMARYJob satisfaction in regards to one’s feeling or state of mind regarding nature of their work.Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of one’s relationship with theirsupervisor, quality of physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment intheir work, etc.Positive attitude towards job are equivalent to job satisfaction where as negative attitudetowards job has been defined variously from time to time. In short job satisfaction is aperson’s attitude towards job.Job satisfaction is an attitude which results from balancing & summation of many specificlikes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job- their evaluation may rest largelyupon one’s success or failure in the achievement of personal objective and upon perceivedcombination of the job and combination towards these ends.According to pestonejee, Job satisfaction can be taken as a summation of employee’sfeelings in four important areas. These are: 1. Job-nature of work (dull, dangerous, interesting), hours of work, fellow workers, opportunities on the job for promotion and advancement (prospects), overtime regulations, interest in work, physical environment, and machines and tools. 2. Management- supervisory treatment, participation, rewards and punishments, praises and blames, leaves policy and favoritism.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 7
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3. Social relations- friends and associates, neighbors, attitudes towards people in community, participation in social activity socialibility and caste barrier. 4. Personal adjustment-health and emotionality.Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and apredictor of work behavior such as organizational citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover.Job satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction in complaints and grievances,absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved punctuality and workermorale. Job satisfaction is also linked with a healthier work force and has been found tobe a good indicator of longevity.Job satisfaction is not synonyms with organizational morale, which the possessions offeeling have being accepted by and belonging to a group of employees through adherenceto common goals and confidence in desirability of these goals.Morale is the by-product of the group, while job satisfaction is more an individual state ofmind.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 8
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTDefinition – Edwin Flippo defies HRM as “planning, organizing, directing, controlling ofprocurement, development, compensation, integration , maintenance and separation ofhuman resources to the end that individual, organizational and social objectives areachieved.”Features of HRM or characteristics or nature 1. HRM involves management functions like planning, organizing, directing and controlling 2. It involves procurement, development, maintenance of human resource 3. It helps to achieve individual, organizational and social objectives 4. HRM is a mighty disciplinary subject. It includes the study of management psychology communication, economics and sociology. 5. It involves team spirit and team work.Evolution of HRMThe evolution of HRM can be traced back to Kautilya Artha Shastra wherehe recommends that government must take active interest in public andprivate enterprise. He says that government must provide a proper procedurefor regulating employee and employee relation In the medieval times there were examples of kings like AllaudinKhilji who regulated the market and charged fixed prices and provided fixedProjectsformba.blogspot.com 9
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comsalaries to their people. This was done to fight inflation and provide a decentstandard of livingDuring the pre independence period of 1920 the trade union emerged. Manyauthors who have given the history of HRM say that HRM started because oftrade union and the First World War.The Royal commission in 1931 recommended the appointment of a labourwelfare officer to look into the grievances of workers. The factory act of1942 made it compulsory to appoint a labour welfare officer if the factoryhad 500 or more than 500 workers. The international institute of personnel management and nationalinstitute of labour management were set up to look into problems faced byworkers to provide solutions to them. The Second World War createdawareness regarding workers rights and 1940’s to 1960’s saw theintroduction of new technology to help workers. The 1960’s extended the scope of human resource beyond welfare.Now it was a combination of welfare, industrial relation, administrationtogether it was called personnel management. With the second 5 year plan, heavy industries started and professionalmanagement became important. In the 70’s the focus was on efficiency oflabour wile in the 80’s the focus was on new technology, making it necessaryfor new rules and regulations. In the 90’s the emphasis was on human valuesand development of people and with liberalization and changing type ofworking people became more and more important there by leading to HRMwhich is an advancement of personnel management.Scope of HRM/functions of HRMThe scope of HRM refers to all the activities that come under the banner of HRM.These activities are as follows 1. Human resources planning :-Projectsformba.blogspot.com 10
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com Human resource planning or HRP refers to a process by which the company to identify the number of jobs vacant, whether the company has excess staff or shortage of staff and to deal with this excess or shortage. 2. Job analysis design :- Another important area of HRM is job analysis. Job analysis gives a detailed explanation about each and every job in the company. Based on this job analysis the company prepares advertisements. 3. Recruitment and selection :- Based on information collected from job analysis the company prepares advertisements and publishes them in the news papers. This is recruitment. A number of applications are received after the advertisement is published, interviews are conducted and the right employee is selected thus recruitment and selection are yet another important area of HRM. 4. Orientation and induction :- Once the employees have been selected an induction or orientation program is conducted. This is another important area of HRM. The employees are informed about the background of the company, explain about the organizational culture and values and work ethics and introduce to the other employees. 5. Training and development :- Every employee goes under training program which helps him to put up a better performance on the job. Training program is also conducted for existing staff that have a lot of experience. This is called refresher training. Training and development is one area were the company spends a huge amount. 6. Performance appraisal :- Once the employee has put in around 1 year of service, performance appraisal is conducted that is the HR department checks the performance of the employee. Based on these appraisal future promotions, incentives, increments in salary are decided. 7. Compensation planning and remuneration :-Projectsformba.blogspot.com 11
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com There are various rules regarding compensation and other benefits. It is the job of the HR department to look into remuneration and compensation planning. 8. Motivation, welfare, health and safety :- Motivation becomes important to sustain the number of employees in the company. It is the job of the HR department to look into the different methods of motivation. Apart from this certain health and safety regulations have to be followed for the benefits of the employees. This is also handled by the HR department. 9. Industrial relations :- Another important area of HRM is maintaining co-ordinal relations with the union members. This will help the organization to prevent strikes lockouts and ensure smooth working in the company.Challenges before the HR manager/before modern personnelmanagementPersonnel management which is know as human resource management hasadapted itself to the changing work environment, however these changes arestill taking place and will continue in the future therefore the challengesbefore the HR manager are 1. Retention of the employees :- One of the most important challenge the HR manager faces is retention of labour force. Many companies have a very high rate of labour turnover therefore HR manager are required to take some action to reduce the turnover 2. Multicultural work force :- With the number of multi cultural companies are increasing operations in different nations. The work force consists of people from different cultures. Dealing with each of the needs which are different the challenge before the HR manager is integration of multicultural labour work force. 3. Women in the work force :- The number of women who have joined the work force has drastically increased over a few years. Women employees face totally different problems. They also have responsibility towards the family.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 12
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com The organization needs to consider this aspect also. The challenge before the HR manager lies in creating gender sensitivity and in providing a good working environment to the women employees. 4. Handicapped employees :- This section of the population normally faces a lot of problems on the job, very few organization have jobs and facilities specially designed for handicapped workers. Therefore the challenge before the HR manager lies in creating atmosphere suitable for such employees and encouraging them to work better. 5. Retrenchment for employees :- In many places companies have reduced the work force due to changing economic situations, labourers or workers who are displaced face sever problems. It also leads to a negative atmosphere and attitude among the employees. There is fear and increasing resentment against the management. The challenge before the HR manager lies in implementing the retrenchment policy without hurting the sentiments of the workers, without antagonizing the labour union and by creating positive attitude in the existing employees. 6. Change in demand of government :- Most of the time government rules keep changing. While a lot of freedom is given to companies some strict rules and regulations have also been passed. The government has also undertaken the disinvestment in certain companies due to which there is fear among the employees regarding their job. The challenge before the HR manager lies in convincing employees that their interest will not be sacrificed. 7. Initiating the process of change :- Changing the method of working, changing the attitude of people and changing the perception and values of organization have become necessary today. Although the company may want to change it is actually very difficult to make the workers accept the change. The challenge before the HR manager is to make people accept change.Significance/importance/need of HRMProjectsformba.blogspot.com 13
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comHRM becomes significant for business organization due to the followingreasons. 1. Objective :- HRM helps a company to achieve its objective from time to time by creating a positive attitude among workers. Reducing wastage and making maximum use of resources etc. 2. Facilitates professional growth :- Due to proper HR policies employees are trained well and this makes them ready for future promotions. Their talent can be utilized not only in the company in which they are currently working but also in other companies which the employees may join in the future. 3. Better relations between union and management :- Healthy HRM practices can help the organization to maintain co-ordinal relationship with the unions. Union members start realizing that the company is also interested in the workers and will not go against them therefore chances of going on strike are greatly reduced. 4. Helps an individual to work in a team/group :- Effective HR practices teach individuals team work and adjustment. The individuals are now very comfortable while working in team thus team work improves. 5. Identifies person for the future :- Since employees are constantly trained, they are ready to meet the job requirements. The company is also able to identify potential employees who can be promoted in the future for the top level jobs. Thus one of the advantages of HRM is preparing people for the future. 6. Allocating the jobs to the right person :- If proper recruitment and selection methods are followed, the company will be able to select the right people for the right job. When this happens the number of people leaving the job will reduce as the will be satisfied with their job leading to decrease in labour turnover.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 14
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comProjectsformba.blogspot.com 15
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com DEFINITIONS OF JOB SATISFACTIONDifferent authors give various definitions of job satisfaction. Some of themare taken from the book of D.M. Pestonjee “Motivation and Job Satisfaction”which are given below:Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable, emotional, state resulting fromappraisal of one’s job. An effective reaction to one’s job. WeissProjectsformba.blogspot.com 16
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comJob satisfaction is general attitude, which is the result of many specificattitudes in three areas namely:Specific job factors.Individual characteristics.Group relationship outside the job Blum and NaylorJob satisfaction is defined, as it is result of various attitudes the person holdtowards the job, towards the related factors and towards the life in general. GlimmerJob satisfaction is defined as “any contribution, psychological, physical, andenvironmental circumstances that cause a person truthfully say, ‘I amsatisfied with my job.”Job satisfaction is defined, as employee’s judgment of how well his job on awhole is satisfying his various needs Mr. SmithJob satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable or positive state of mind resultingfrom appraisal of one’s job or job experiences. LockeHISTORY OF JOB SATISFACTIONProjectsformba.blogspot.com 17
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comThe term job satisfaction was brought to lime light by hoppock (1935). Herevived 35 studies on job satisfaction conducted prior to 1933 and observesthat Job satisfaction is combination of psychological, physiological andenvironmental circumstances. That causes a person to say. “I m satisfied withmy job”. Such a description indicate the variety of variables that influencethe satisfaction of the individual but tell us nothing about the nature of Jobsatisfaction.Job satisfaction has been most aptly defined by pestonjee (1973) as a job,management, personal adjustment & social requirement. Morse (1953)considers Job satisfaction as dependent upon job content, identification withthe co., financial & job status & priding group cohesivenessOne of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was theHawthorne study. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to EltonMayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of variousconditions (most notably illumination) on workers’ productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditionstemporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was laterfound that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from theknowledge of being observed.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 18
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comThis finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes otherthan pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors injob satisfaction.Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on thestudy of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book, Principlesof Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to performany given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrialproduction philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and pieceworktowards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages.The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increasedproductivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However,workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers withnew questions to answer regarding job satisfaction.It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, andHugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylor’s work.Some argue that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory,laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains thatpeople seek to satisfy five specific needs in life – physiological needs, safetyneeds, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This modelserved as a good basis from which early researchers could develop jobsatisfaction theories.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 19
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com IMPORTANCE OF JOB SATISFACTION  Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a predictor of work behavior such as organizational, citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover.  Job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behavior.  Common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life style. This correlation is reciprocal meaning the people who are satisfied with the life tends to be satisfied with their jobs and the people who are satisfied their jobs tends to satisfied with their life.  This is vital piece of information that is job satisfaction and job performance is directly related to one another. Thus it can be said that, “A happy worker is a productive worker.”  It gives clear evidence that dissatisfied employees skip work more often and more like to resign and satisfied worker likely to work longer with the organization.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 20
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comIMPORTANCE TO WORKER ANDORGANIZATIONJob satisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personalsatisfaction, self-respect, self-esteem, and self-development. To the worker,job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that can often leads to apositive work attitude. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative,flexible, innovative, and loyal. For the organization, job satisfaction of its workers means a workforce that is motivated and committed to high quality performance. Increasedproductivity- the quantity and quality of output per hour worked- seems to bea byproduct of improved quality of working life. It is important to note thatthe literature on the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity isneither conclusive nor consistent. However, studies dating back to Herzberg’s (1957) have shown atleast low correlation between high morale and high productivity and it doesseem logical that more satisfied workers will tend to add more value to anorganization. Unhappy employees, who are motivated by fear of loss of job, will notgive 100 percent of their effort for very long. Though fear is a powerfulmotivator, it is also a temporary one, and also as soon as the threat is liftedperformance will decline. Job satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction incomplaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as wellas improved punctuality and worker morale. Job satisfaction is also linkedProjectsformba.blogspot.com 21
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comwith a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator oflongevity. Although only little correlation has been found between jobsatisfaction and productivity, Brown (1996) notes that some employers havefound that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying ordelighting customers, thus protecting the “bottom line”.WORKERS ROLE IN JOB SATISFACTIONIf job satisfaction is a worker benefit, surely the worker must be able tocontribute to his or her own satisfaction and well being on the job. Thefollowing suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction: Seekopportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. This often leads to morechallenging work and greater responsibilities, with attendant increases in payand other recognition.Develop excellent communication skills. Employer’s value and rewardsexcellent reading, listening, writing and speaking skills.Know more. Acquire new job related knowledge that helps you to performtasks more efficiently and effectively. This will relive boredom and oftengets one noticed.Demonstrate creativity and initiative. Qualities like these are valued by mostorganizations and often results in recognition as well as in increasedresponsibilities and rewards.Develop teamwork and people skills. A large part of job success is the abilityto work well with others to get the job done.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 22
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comAccept the diversity in people. Accept people with their differences and theirimperfections and learn how to give and receive criticism constructively.See the value in your work. Appreciating the significance of what one doescan lead to satisfaction with the work itself. This help to give meaning toone’s existence, thus playing a vital role in job satisfaction.Learn to de-stress. Plan to avoid burn out by developing healthy stressmanagement techniques.FACTORS OF JOB SATISFACTIONHoppock, the earliest investigator in this field, in 1935 suggested that thereare six major components of job satisfaction. These are as under:  The way the individual reacts to unpleasant situations,  The facility with which he adjusted himself with other person  The relative status in the social and economic group with which he identifies himself  The nature of work in relation to abilities, interest and preparation of worker  Security  LoyaltyHerberg, mausaer, Peterson and capwell in 1957 reviewed more than 150studies and listed various job factors of job satisfaction. These are brieflydefined one by one as follows:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 23
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1. Intrinsic aspect of job It includes all of the many aspects of the work, which would tend to be constant for the work regardless of where the work was performed. 2. Supervision This aspect of job satisfaction pertains to relationship of worker with his immediate superiors. Supervision, as a factor, generally influences job satisfaction. 3. Working conditions This includes those physical aspects of environment which are not necessary a part of the work. Hours are included this factor because it is primarily a function of organization, affecting the individuals comfort and convenience in much the same way as other physical working conditions. 4. Wage and salaries This factor includes all aspect of job involving present monitory remuneration for work done. 5. Opportunities for advancement It includes all aspect of job which individual sees as potential sources of betterment of economic position, organizational status or professional experience. 6. Security It is defined to include that feature of job situation, which leads to assurance for continued employment, either within the same company or within same type of work profession.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 24
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com 7. Company & management It includes the aspect of worker’s immediate situation, which is a function of organizational administration and policy. It also involves the relationship of employee with all company superiors above level of immediate supervision. 8. Social aspect of job It includes relationship of worker with the employees specially those employees at same or nearly same level within the organization. 9. Communication It includes job situation, which involves spreading the information in any direction within the organization. Terms such as information of employee’s status, information on new developments, information on company line of authority, suggestion system, etc, are used in literature to represent this factor. 10.Benefits It includes those special phases of company policy, which attempts to prepare the worker for emergencies, illness, old age, also. Company allowances for holidays, leaves and vacations are included within this factor.REASONS OF LOW JOB SATISFACTIONReasons why employees may not be completely satisfied with their jobs:Projectsformba.blogspot.com 25
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1. Conflict between co-workers. 2. Conflict between supervisors. 3. Not being opportunity paid for what they do. 4. Have little or no say in decision making that affect employees. 5. Fear of loosing their job.EFFECTS OF LOW JOB SATISFACTION1. HIGH ABSENTEEISMAbsenteeism means it is a habitual pattern of absence from duty orobligation. If there will be low job satisfaction among the employees the rate ofabsenteeism will definitely increase and it also affects on productivity oforganization.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 26
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com J High B o b s a t i s f a c t low i A n low High Rate of turn over and absences Perceived personal job inputs Fig.no. 1 Curve showing relationship between job satisfaction and rate of turn over and absenteeism.In the above diagram line AB shows inverse relationship between jobsatisfaction and rate of turn over and rate of absenteesm.As th job satisfaction is high the rate of both turn over and absentiseesm islow and vise a versa.2.HIGH TURNOVERIn human resource refers to characteristics of a given company or industryrelative to the rate at which an employer gains and losses the staff.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 27
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com If the employer is said to be have a high turnover of employees of thatcompany have shorter tenure than those of other companies.3.TRAINING COST INCREASESAs employees leaves organization due to lack of job satisfaction. ThenHuman resource manager has to recruit new employees. So that the trainingexpenditure will increases.INFLUENCES ON JOB SATISFACTION There are no. of factors that influence job satisfaction. For example, onerecent study even found that if college students majors coinsided with theirjob , this relationship will predicted subsequent job satisfaction. However,the main influences can be summerised along with the dimentions identifiedabove.The work itselfThe concept of work itself is a major source of satisfaction. For example,research related to the job charactoristics approach to job design, shows thatfeedback from job itself and autonomy are two of the major job relatedmotivational factors. Some of the most important ingridents of a satisfyingjob uncovered by survey include intersting and challenging work, work thatis not boring, and the job that provides status.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 28
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comPayWages and salaries are recognised to be a significant, but complex,multidimentional factor in job satisfaction. Money not only helps peopleattain their basic needs butevel need satisfaction. Employees often see pay asa reflection of how managemnet view their conrtibution to the organization.Fringe benefits are also important.If the employees are allowed some flexibility in choosing the type of benefitsthey prefer within a total package, called a flexible benefit plan, there is asignificant increase in both benefit satisfaction and overall job satisfaction.PromotionsPromotional opportunities are seem to be have avarying effect on jobsatisfaction. This is because of promotion take number of different forms. WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION? Many managers subscribe to the belief that a satisfied worker is necessarily good worker. In other words, if management could keep the entire worker’s happy”, good performance would automatically fallow. There are two propositions concerning the satisfaction performance relation ship. The first proposition, which is based on traditional view, isProjectsformba.blogspot.com 29
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com that satisfaction is the effect rather than the cause of performance. This proposition says that efforts in a job leads to rewards, which results in a certain level of satisfaction .in another proposition, both satisfaction and performance are considered to be functions of rewards. Various research studies indicate that to a certain extent job satisfaction affects employee turn over, and consequently organization can gain from lower turn over in terms of lower hiring and training costs. Also research has shown an inverse relation between job satisfaction and absenteeism. When job satisfaction is high there would be low absenteeism, but when job satisfaction is low, it is more likely to lead a high absenteeism. What job satisfaction people need? Each employee wants: 1. Recognition as an individual 2. Meaningful task 3. An opportunity to do something worthwhile. 4. Job security for himself and his family 5. Good wages 6. Adequate benefits 7. Opportunity to advance 8. No arbitrary action- a voice a matters affecting him 9. Satisfactory working conditions 10.Competence leadership- bosses whom he can admire and respect as persons and as bosses.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 30
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comHowever, the two concepts are interrelated in that job satisfaction cancontribute to morale and morale can contribute to job satisfaction.It must be remembered that satisfaction and motivation are not synonyms.Motivation is a drive to perform, where as satisfaction reflects theindividual’s attitude towards the situation. The factors that determinewhether individual is adequately satisfied with the job differs from those thatdetermine whether he or she is motivated. the level of job satisfaction islargely determined by the comfits offered by the environment and thesituation . Motivation, on the other hand is largely determine by value ofreward and their dependence on performance. The result of high jobsatisfaction is increased commitment to the organization, which may or maynot result in better performance.A wide range of factors affects an individual’s level of satisfaction. Whileorganizational rewards can and do have an impact, job satisfaction isprimarily determine by factors that are usually not directly controlled by theorganization. a high level of job satisfaction lead to organizationalcommitment, while a low level, or dissatisfaction, result in a behaviordetrimental to the organization. For example, employee who like their jobs,supervisors, and the factors related to the job will probably be loyal anddevoted. People will work harder and derive satisfaction if they are given thefreedom to make their own decisions.MODELS OF JOB SATISFACTIONProjectsformba.blogspot.com 31
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comThere are various methods and theories of measuring job satisfaction level ofemployees in the orgnization given by different authers.List of all the theorise and methods measuring job satisfaction level is givenbelow:A MODEL OF FACET SATISFACTION  Affect theory(Edwin A. Locke 1976)  Dispositional Theory( Timothy A. Judge 1988)  Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) (Frederick Herzberg’s)  Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham)  Rating scale  Personal interviews  action tendencies  Job enlargement  Job rotation  Change of pace  Scheduled rest periodsProjectsformba.blogspot.com 32
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comMODEL OF FACET OF JOB SATISFACTION Skill Experience Training Perceived personal Efforts job inputs Age Fig.no. 1 Curve Seniority showing Perceived Education amount that Co loyalty should be Past received (a) performance Level Difficulty a=b Time span satisfaction Amount of Perceived job characteristics a>b responsibility dissatisfaction a<b guilt Inequity Discomfort Perceived outcome of referent others Perceived amount received Actual (b) outcome received Fig.no.2 Model of determinant of facet of job satisfactionEdward E.lawler in 1973 propoed a model of facet satisfaction. This model isapplicable to understand what determines a person’s satisfaction with anyfacet of job.According to this model actual outcome level plays a key role in a person’sperception of what rewards he recieves. His perception influenced by hisperception of what his referent others recieves.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 33
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comAFFECT THEORYEdwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the mostfamous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is thatsatisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a joband what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much onevalues a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position)moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectationsare/aren’t met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, hissatisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations aremet) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one whodoesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in theworkplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee Awould be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomyand less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared toEmployee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet willproduce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values thatfacet.DISPOSITIONAL THEORYAnother well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory it is avery general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions thatcause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction,regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of jobsatisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable overtime and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twinshave similar levels of job satisfaction.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 34
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comA significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory wasthe Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998.Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’sdisposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locusof control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his self) and general self-efficacy (the beliefin one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having aninternal locus of control (believing one has control over herhis own life, asopposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction.Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfactionTWO-FACTOR THEORY (MOTIVATOR-HYGIENETHEORY)Frederick Hertzberg’s Two-factor theory (also known as Motivator HygieneTheory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace.This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by differentfactors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors arethose aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and providepeople with satisfaction. These motivating factors are considered to beintrinsic to the job, or the work carried out.Motivating factors include aspectsof the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisorypractices, and other working conditions.While Hertzbergs model has stimulated much research, researchers havebeen unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman &Projectsformba.blogspot.com 35
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comOldham suggesting that Hertzbergs original formulation of the model mayhave been a methodological artifactFurthermore, the theory does notconsider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees willreact in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors..Finally, the model has been criticised in that it does not specify howmotivating/hygiene factors are to be measured]JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODELHackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which iswidely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristicsimpact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction.The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, taskidentity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact threecritical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experiencedresponsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turninfluencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation,etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivatingpotential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likelya job is to affect an employees attitudes and behaviors.A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model providessome support for the validity of the JCM.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 36
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com MODERN METHOD OF MEASURING JOB SATISFACTIONIn this method of measuring job satisfaction the comparision between variousorgnizational terms and conditions at managerial level and also theorgnization at a large.SATISFACTION WITH HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENTPOLICIES OF THE ORGANIZATION:1. Management has a clear path for employee’s advancement2. Decisions are made keeping in mind the good of the employees3. Management is extremely fair in personal policies4. Physical working conditions are supportive in attaining targets5. I nnovativeness is encouraged to meet business problems.SATISFACTION WITH SUPERVISION1. I feel I can trust what my supervisor tells me2. My supervisor treats me fairly and with respect3. My supervisor handles my work-related issues satisfactorily4. I get frequent appreciation of work done from supervisors5. I get enough support from the supervisor6.Individual initiative is encouragedProjectsformba.blogspot.com 37
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comSATISFACTION WITH COMPENSATION LEVELS1. Overall I am satisfied with the company’s compensation package2. I am satisfied with the medical benefits3. I am satisfied with the conveyance allowance4. I am satisfied with the retirement benefits5. I am satisfied with the reimbursement of the expenses as per the eligibility6. I am satisfied with the holiday (vacation) eligibilitiesSATISFACTION WITH TASK CLARITY1. Management decisions are Ad Hoc and lack professionalism (reversescaled)2. Rules and procedures are followed uncompromisingly3. My job responsibilities are well defined and clearSATISFACTION WITH CAREER DEVELOPMENT1. I have adequate opportunities to learn and grow2. I get opportunities to handle greater responsibilities3. My skills and abilities are adequately used at workFrom all above we can conclude level of job satisfaction of our employees.RATING SCALEProjectsformba.blogspot.com 38
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com It is one of the most common methods of measuring job satisfaction. The popular rating scale used to measure Job satisfaction is to include: Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaires: It helps to obtain a clear picture of pertinent satisfactions and dissatisfactions of employees. Job Description Index: it measures Job satisfaction on the dimension identified by Smith, Kendall, Hullin. Porter Need Identification Questionnaires: It is used only for management personnel and revolves around the problems and challenges faced by managers.CRITICAL INCIDENTS Fredrick Hertz berg and his Associates popularized this method ofmeasuring Job satisfaction. It involves asking employees to describedincidents on job when they were particularly satisfied or dissatisfied. Thenthe incidents are analyzed in terms of their contents and identifying thoserelated aspects responsible for the positive and negative attitudes.PERSONAL INTERVIEWS This method facilitates an in-depth exploration through interviewing of job attitudes. The main advantage in this method is that additional information or clarifications can be obtained promptly.ACTION TENDENCIESProjectsformba.blogspot.com 39
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com By this method, Job satisfaction can be measured by asking questions and gathering information on how they feel like behaving with respect to certain aspects of their jobs. This method provides employees more opportunity to express their in-depth feeling. In his study on American employees, hoppock identified six factors that contributed to job satisfaction among them. These are as follows: 1. The way individual reacts to unpleasant situations. 2. The facilities with which he adjust himself to other persons. 3. His relative’s status in the social & economic group with which he identifies himself. 4. The nature of work in relation to the abilities, interest & preparation of the workers. 5. Security. 6. Loyalty.Because human resource manager often serve as intermediaries betweenemployees & management in conflct.they are concern with Job satisfactionor general job attitudes with the employees.Philip apple white has listed the five major components of Job satisfaction.as 1. Attitude towards work group. 2. General working conditions. 3. Attitude towards company.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 40
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4. Monitory benefits & 5. Attitude towards supervisionOther components that should be added to this five are individual’s state ofmind about the work itself and about the life in general .the individual’shealth, age, level of aspiration. Social status and political & social activitiescan all contribute to the Job satisfaction. A person’s attitude toward his or herjob may be positive or negative.JOB ENLARGEMENTThe concept of job enlargement originated after World War II. It is simplythe organizing of the work so as to relate the contents of the job to thecapacity, actual and potential, of workers. Job enlargement is obliviousforerunner of the concept and philosophy of job design. Stephan offers threebasic assumptions behind the concept of job enlargement.Output will increase if 1. Workers abilities are fully utilized 2. Worker has more control over the work 3. Workers interest in work and workplace is stimulated. Job enlargement is a generic term that broadly means adding more anddifferent tasks to a specialized job. It may widen the number of task theemployee must do that is, add variety. When additional simple task are addedto a job, the process is called horizontal job enlargement. This alsopresumably adds interest to the work and reduces monotony and boredom.To check harmful effects of specialization, the engineering factors involvedin each individual job must be carefully analyzed. Perhaps, the assemblyProjectsformba.blogspot.com 41
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comlines can be shortened so that there will be more lines and fewer workers oneach line. Moreover, instead of assigning one man to each job and thenallowed to decide for himself how to organize the work. Such changes permitmore social contacts and greater control over the work process.JOB ROTATIONJob rotation involves periodic assignments of an employee to completelydifferent sets of job activities. One way to tackle work routine is to use thejob rotation. When an activity is no longer challenging, the employee isrotated to another job, at the same level that has similar skill requirements. Many companies are seeking a solution to on-the-job boredom throughsystematically moving workers from one job to another. This practiceprovides more varieties and gives employees a chance to learn additionalskills. The company also benefits since the workers are qualified to performa number of different jobs in the event of an emergency.CHANGE OF PACEAnything that will give the worker a chance to change his pace when hewishes will lend variety to his work. Further if workers are permitted tochange their pace that would give them a sense of accomplishment.SCHEDULED REST PERIODSProjectsformba.blogspot.com 42
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com Extensive research on the impact of rest periods indicates that they mayincrease both morale and productivity. Scheduled rest periods bring manyadvantages:They counteract physical fatigueThey provide variety and relieve monotonyThey are something to look forward to- getting a break gives a sense ofachievement.They provide opportunities for social contacts.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 43
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com OBJECTIVES OF STUDY • To find that whether the employees are satisfied or not.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 44
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com • To analyse the company’s working environment. • To check the Degree of satisfaction of employees. • To find that they are satisfied with their job profile or not. • To find that employees are working with their full capabilities or not.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 45
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com Research MethodologyProjectsformba.blogspot.com 46
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comRESEARCH METHODOLOGY4.1 INTRODUCTIONResearch refers to a search for knowledge. It is a systematic method ofcollecting and recording the facts in the form of numerical data relevant tothe formulated problem and arriving at certain conclusions over the problembased on collected data.Thus formulation of the problem is the first and foremost step in the researchprocess followed by the collection, recording, tabulation and analysis anddrawing the conclusions. The problem formulation starts with defining theproblem or number of problems in the functional area. To detect thefunctional area and locate the exact problem is most important part of anyresearch as the whole research is based on the problem.According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefiningproblems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions: collecting,organizing and evaluating data: making deductions and reaching conclusions:and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit theformulating hypothesis. Research can be defined as “the manipulation of things, concepts orsymbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verifyknowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in thepractice of an art” In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematicmethod of finding solution to a problem is research.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 47
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com4.2 DRAFTING QUESTIONNAIREThe questionnaire is considered as the most important thing in a surveyoperation. Hence it should be carefully constructed. Structured questionnaireconsist of only fixed alternative questions. Such type of questionnaire isinexpensive to analysis and easy to administer. All questions are closedended.4.3SAMPLINGIt was divided into following parts:Sampling universeAll the employees are the sampling universe for the research.Sampling techniqueJudgmental samplingSample was taken on judgmental basis. The advantage of sampling are that itis much less costly, quicker and analysis will become easier. Sample sizetaken was 100 employees.4.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVESThe research has been undertaken with following objectives.  To study the level of job satisfaction among the employees of SEVA Automotive Pvt. Ltd. if any.  To study the methods of measuring job satisfaction of SEVA Automotive Pvt. Ltd.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 48
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com4.5 DATA COLLECTION The task of data collection begins after the research problem has beendefined and research design chalked out. While deciding the method of datacollection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind twotypes of data viz. Primary and secondary data.Primary Data: - The primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for the firsttime and thus happen to be original in character. The primary data werecollected through well-designed and structured questionnaires based on theobjectives.Secondary Data: The secondary data are those, which have already been collected bysomeone else and passed through statistical process. The secondary datarequired of the research was collected through various newspapers, andInternet etc.4.6 RELEVANCE AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY The study was thoughtful for knowing the existing job satisfactionlevel of the employees of B.E.O.L., Rewa (m.p.). Limitation for the study,the study was restricted to B.E.O.L., Rewa only.4.7 CHAPTERISATION 1. IntroductionProjectsformba.blogspot.com 49
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2. Research methodology 3. Organizational profile 4. Data presentation, analysis and interpretation 5. Conclusions and suggestions1 COMPANY PROFILEProjectsformba.blogspot.com 50
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comBirla Ericsson Optical Limited (BEOL), an IS/ISO 9001:2000 andIS/ISO - 14001:2004 certified company under the M.P. Birla Group ofIndustries entered into the field of optical communication, by way ofmanufacturing optical fibre cables, in technical and financialcollaboration with Ericsson Cables AB, Sweden (now known asEricsson Network Technologies AB, Sweden).Ericsson is a leading name in telecommunications for the last 110years, with activities ranging from turnkey telecom networks toCellular Mobile Telephone Systems and Business Communications.M/s Ericsson Cables AB are the pioneers in S-Z stranding and RibbonCable technologies for optical fibre cables.BEOL has installed capacity of above more than 53,000 cable Kms.per annum to produce complete range of optical fibre cables includingribbon type optic fibre cable made to design and constructionconforming to national and international standards. BEOL has thecapability to produce speciality fibre optic cables for use in medicalequipment, computers and local area networks, cable TV network orany other type as per customized specification.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 51
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comBEOL also has installed capacity to produce 43.25 lac conductorKms. of jelly filled copper telephone cables complying to national andinternational standards ranging from 5 pair to 2400 Pair and also hascapability to produce switchboard cables for switching equipment.BEOL has fully computerized system for process monitoring andquality control to ensure consistency and reliability of its entire productrange. All production activities are carried out as per approved qualityassurance plan. BEOL, therefore, provides the best possible solutionswith latest state of the art technology.BEOL has an exclusive marketing agreement with M/s AFLTelecommunications for sale of hi-tech overhead fibre optic cables,specially OPGW and associated accessories which find applicationswith electric power utilities etc.BEOL has marketing arrangement with M/s ILSINTECH Co. Ltd. Quality policyBirla Ericsson Optical Limited (BEOL), an IS/ISO 9001:2000 and IS/ISO - 14001:2004certified company under the M.P. Birla Group of Industries entered into the field ofoptical communication, by way of manufacturing optical fibre cables, in technical andfinancial collaboration with Ericsson Cables AB, Sweden (now known as EricssonNetwork Technologies AB, Sweden).Ericsson is a leading name in telecommunications for the last 110 years, with activitiesranging from turnkey telecom networks to Cellular Mobile Telephone Systems andBusiness Communications. M/s Ericsson Cables AB are the pioneers in S-Z stranding andRibbon Cable technologies for Optical Fibre Cables.BEOL has installed capacity of above more than 53,000 cable Kms. per annum to producecomplete range of optical fibre cables including ribbon type optic fibre cable made todesign and construction conforming to national and international standards. BEOL has thecapability to produce speciality fibre optic cables for use in medical equipment, computersand local area networks, cable TV network or any other type as per customizedspecification.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 52
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comBEOL also has installed capacity to produce 43.25 lac conductor Kms. of jelly filledcopper telephone cables complying to national and international standards ranging from 5pair to 2400 Pair and also has capability to produce switchboard cables for switchingequipment.BEOL has fully computerized system for process monitoring and quality control to ensureconsistency and reliability of its entire product range. All production activities are carriedout as per approved quality assurance plan. BEOL, therefore, provides the best possiblesolutions with latest state of the art technology.BEOL has an exclusive marketing agreement with M/s AFL Telecommunications for saleof hi-tech overhead fibre optic cables, specially OPGW and associated accessories whichfind applications with electric power utilities etc. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICYBirla Ericsson Optical Ltd. is committed to : • Comply with Environmental legislations and prevention of pollution Make all efforts for continual improvement in theEnvironmental performanceWe shall conserve the resources and minimize theEnvironmental impact of our operations on Air, Water, and LandBy :Projectsformba.blogspot.com 53
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Implementing Environmental Management System to meet the objectives and targets • Bringing awareness amongst all employees PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT Brig. H I S Arora (President)Projectsformba.blogspot.com 54
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com Mr. I.M. SHEIKH (DGM) Mr. NARSINGH MURTI (PERSONNEL AND ADM. MANAGER) Mr. R.K. LAKHERA (PERSONNEL OFFICER) Mr. VINAY NIGAM (ASST. PERSONNEL MANAGER) Mr. Harsh V. Lodha ChairmanProjectsformba.blogspot.com 55
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com Mr. Janne Sjoden (Alternate Mr. S.K. Daga) Mr. Magnus Kreuger (Alternate Mr. Dinesh Chanda) Mr. A.P. Dadoo Dr. Aravind Srinivasan Mr. B.R. Nahar Mr. D.R. Bansal Managing Director Mr. Y. S. Lodha PresidentMarketing New Delhi Mr. Sandeep Chawla Sr. Vice President (Marketing) Mr. Roby Sood General Manager (Marketing) Mumbai Mr. R. Sridharan Sr.Vice President (Marketing) Mr. Devesh R. Dakwale General Manager (Sales)Rewa Mr. R.K. Shahi General Manager(sales) Mr. Ashish Mishra General Manager (Sales & Logistics)Projectsformba.blogspot.com 56
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com Kolkata Mr. Dipankar Chaterjee Manager(Marketing) Technical (Rewa) Mr. Raghu Nair Sr. Vice President (Works) Mr. J.K. Mahajan Asstt. Vice President(Prod.&QA) Asstt. Vice President (Devp. & Mr. Sanjeev Dubey Maintt.) Mr. B.S. Sisodia General Manager (Production) Dy.General Manager (QA & Product Mr. Shekhar Banerjee Devp.) Dy.General Manager (Design & Mr. Maneesh Nayak Devp.) Core strengthBirla Ericsson Optical Limited (BEOL), has been a major player inthe telecom industry and proven core strengths like –Projectsformba.blogspot.com 57
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Pioneer in the field of OFC & Copper Cables since 1992. • Experienced, Skilled Engineers and work force. • Diversified Product Range. • Excellent Financial Strength. • IS/ISO-9001:2000 and IS/ISO-14001:2004 certification. • Collaboration with Ericsson Network Technologies AB of Sweden, the world leader in Telecommunication Industries • State of the art Plant & Machinery. Fully computerized & Air- conditioned manufacturing facilitiesApproval with TSEC, Indian Railways (RDSO), Engineers India Ltd.,Director General of Quality Assurance (Ministry of Defence), DGS&D,Dun & Bradstreet. Certification detailBirla Ericsson Optical Ltd. Rewa is committed to achieve customersatisfaction by meeting the customers requirements as well as theapplicable product related statutory and regulatory requirements andhas also been awarded quality certifications from reputed agencies. COMPETITORS OF COMPANYProjectsformba.blogspot.com 58
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com STERLITE INDUSTRIES Telecommunication has become the buzzword today the entry ofprivate sectors into the basic services sector compiled with the government’sincreased allocation of resources and access to leasing/deferred credit isexpected to further accelerate the telecommunication drive in the country. The department of telecommunication (Dot) has decided to replace alltrunk lines with optical fiber cables and in tune with this the company hasalso commissioned to optical fiber cable plant. UNIFLEX CABLES UNIFLEX cables limited are an existing profit making companymanufacturing a variety of power cables, which are sold mainly togovernment org. The company is diversifying in to manufacturing telesales opticalfibers cables (OFC) with a capacity to produce 4,000 cable Km. and in tojelly filled telephone cables (JFTC) with a capacity to produce 12.5 lackscrores Km. per annum. Some others company of telecom sector is as Follows: I. Vindhya Telelinks Ltd. II. Paramount communication Ltd. III. M.P. Telelinks Ltd. IV. Finolex telecom Ltd.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 59
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com PRODUCT PROFILEPRODUCT OF B.E.O.L.- The main product of company is: -  fiber cables.  Optical Jelly filled cables (PIJFTC)  Fiber Ribbon Cable (FRC).1) OPTICAL FIBRE CABLES: - Birla Ericsson Optical Limited Manufactures all type of optical fibercables for use in communication type of optical fiber cables for use incommunication data transmission, Internet, E-commerce and multimedia.The company is fully equipped to manufacture all types of Duct/Armoredoptical fibro cables including ribbon type optical, custom made to shit theindividual requirement of any customer conforming to any national orinternational specification.COMCENTRIC LOOSE TUBE CABLE: - PRIMARY coated fibers are protected in loose tube ofPBTP/Polyamide filled with a special thyrotrophic gel in order to preventwater penetration. The loose tube containing fibers are standard around thecontrol strength member of fiber-reinforced plastic for better pullingstrength. A later of polyethylene sheath acts as a cushion for the cable core,the outer jacket is made of polyamide to offer a more resistance tomechanical and environmental efforts.CENTRAL LOOSE TUBE CABLE: -Projectsformba.blogspot.com 60
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com Primary coated fiber are protected in loose tube PBTP/Polyamidefilled with a special thyrotrophic gel in order to prevent water penetration. Toprovide cushioning, a circular layer of polyethylene is executed around the loose tube containing fibers. The strength members are embeddedthis layer of polythene to provide the required pulling strength.2) JELLY FILLED CABLES: - Birla Ericsson Optical limited manufactures polythene insulated (bothsolid and from skin) Jelly filled underground telephone cables for use in localdistribution network and for Junctions between exchanges; these cables forma vital link for telecommunication distribution system. These can be used forlarge capacity exchanges used by department of telecommunication, MTNL,on Major cities and also for small exchanges used in ruler areas and for localnetworks in industries. These are also use by railways defense departmentsand various others specials users. Cable is available in conductor size 0.4, 0.5, .63 and .9 mm diameterwith cables sizes varying from 10 pair to 2400 pairs. These cables are generally conforming to Indian P & T departmentspecification. These can also be custom made suitable to individualrequirement of any customer or to other national or internationalspecifications.3) OPTICAL FIBRE RIBBON: - After decreasing sales of Optical Fiber Cable Company diversify hisproduct in to fiber ribbon cable.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 61
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com PLANT TOUR OF B.E.O.L.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 62
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  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comQUALITY FEATURES-Quality Features are assured through systematically structured qualityplanning and its execution covering every stage of operation startingfrom Purchase and up to Packing and Dispatch. People at work areadequately trained and given elbow space to implement qualityinfusion and quality check at every stageAll the latest equipments and gadgets, required to observe, test,evaluate and check every feature of Optical Fibre are imported fromworlds best manufacturer and installed at our Test Centers.Proof Testing : Fibre is tested to stand certain specified strain level toconform strength, using an advance proof testing machine. In addition to above, other test facilities for various other tests are Environmental Chambers, Ovens, Hydrogen Ageing Equipment, System for Static Fatigue and Dynamic Fatigue Tests etc. We also take services from Outside Quality Agencies like IICT, CABS,CACT, RITES, ETDC, IIT, ERDA, Lloyds, Sameer, CSIO etcProjectsformba.blogspot.com 64
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com CERTIFICATE OF APPROVALS QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM to IS/ISO:9001-2000 ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM to IS/ISO:14001-2004 Registration/Approval with BSNL Engineers India Ltd. Indian Railways (RDSO) Director General of Quality Assurance (Ministry of Defence) DGS & D Dun & Bradstreet 2Projectsformba.blogspot.com 65
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com Scope Of The StudyThe scope of the study is very vital. Not only the Human Resourcedepartment can use the facts and figures of the study but also the marketingand sales department can take benefits from the findings of the study.Scope for the sales departmentThe sales department can have fairly good idea about their employees,tatthey are satisfied or not.Scope for the marketing departmentProjectsformba.blogspot.com 66
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comThe marketing department can use the figures indicating that they are puttingtheir efforts to plan their marketing strategies to achieve their targets or not.Scope for personnel departmentSome customers have the complaints or facing problems regarding the job.So the personnel department can use the information to make efforts to avoidsuch complaints.Sample Size :-Questionare is filled by 20 employees of Kotak life Insurance, Kaithal.The questionnaire was filled in the office and vital information was collectedwhich was then subjects to:-  A pilot survey was conducted before finalizing the questionnaire.  Data collection was also done with the help of personal observation.  After completion of survey the data was analysed and conclusion was drawn.  At the end all information was compiled to complete the project report.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 67
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONProjectsformba.blogspot.com 68
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I have been passed up at least once for a promotion in the past few years. 0% 20% 50% 30% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point ,20% of employees are agree on the point, 30% are neither agree nordisagree,50% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 69
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comProjectsformba.blogspot.com 70
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I spend parts of my day daydreaming about a better job. 10% 0% 15% 15% 60% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 60% of employees are strongly agree about the point ,15% of employees are agree on the point, 15% are neither agree nordisagree,10% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 71
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I find much of my job repetitive and boring. 10% 5% 0% 10% 75% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 75% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 10% ofemployees are agree on the point, 10% are neither agree nor disagree,5% are disagree andrest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 72
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I am mentally and/or physically exhausted at the end of a day at work. 10% 5% 0% 85% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 85% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 10% ofemployees are agree on the point, 5% are neither agree nor disagree,0% are disagree andrest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 73
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I feel that my job has little impact on the success of the company. 20% 0% 50% 30% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 50% of employees are strongly agree about the point ,30% of employees are agree on the point, 20% are neither agree nordisagree,0% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 74
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I have an increasingly bad attitude toward my job, boss, and employer 20% 0% 20% 60% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point ,0% of employees are agree on the point, 20% are neither agree nordisagree,60% are disagree and rest 20% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 75
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comProjectsformba.blogspot.com 76
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I am no longer given the resources I need to successfully do my job. 0% 10% 30% 60% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 10% of employees are strongly agree about the point , 30% ofemployees are agree on the point, 60% are neither agree nor disagree,0% aredisagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 77
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I am not being used to my full capabilities. 0% 40% 40% 20% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point ,40% of employees are agree on the point, 20% are neither agree nordisagree,40% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 78
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I have received no better than "fair" evaluations recently. 25% 0% 40% 35% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 40% of employees are strongly agree about the point ,35% of employees are agree on the point, 25% are neither agree nordisagree,0% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 79
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I feel as though my boss and employer have let me down. 0% 10% 35% 55% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point ,0% of employees are agree on the point, 10% are neither agree nordisagree,55% are disagree and rest 35% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 80
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I often feel overworked and overwhelmed. 0% 35% 45% 20% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 45% of employees are strongly agree about the point,20% of employees are agree on the point, 35% are neither agree nordisagree,0% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 81
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I am frequently stressed out at work. 0% 20% 50% 15% 15% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point,20% of employees are agree on the point, 15% are neither agree nordisagree,15% are disagree and rest 50% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 82
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I live for weekends and days away from the job. 0% 10% 30% 60% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point,0% of employees are agree on the point, 10% are neither agree nordisagree,30% are disagree and rest 60% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 83
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I find myself negatively comparing my situation to my peers. 20% 0% 15% 25% 40% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point,15% of employees are agree on the point, 25% are neither agree nordisagree,40% are disagree and rest 20% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 84
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I feel my bad days at work outweigh the good ones. 0% 25% 45% 30% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 25% of employees are strongly agree about the point,30% of employees are agree on the point, 45% are neither agree nordisagree,0% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 85
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I often experience a sensation of time standing still when I am at work. 20% 0% 15% 35% 30% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 15% of employees are strongly agree about the point,35% of employees are agree on the point, 30% are neither agree nordisagree,20% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 86
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I have been told that I am becoming a more cynical person. Strongly Agree 0% 10% Agree 35% 25% Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree 30% Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 10% of employees are strongly agree about the point,25% of employees are agree on the point, 30% are neither agree nordisagree,35% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 87
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I feel as though my employer has broken promises about my future with the organization. 0% 10% 40% 25% 25% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 0% of employees are strongly agree about the point, 10% ofemployees are agree on the point, 25% are neither agree nor disagree,25% are disagreeand rest 40% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 88
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I have lost sight of my career goals and aspirations. 15% 0% 15% 25% 45% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 15% of employees are strongly agree about the point,25% of employees are agree on the point, 45% are neither agree nordisagree,15% are disagree and rest 0% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 89
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com I no longer feel valued for my work. 10% 25% 20% 20% 25% Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly DisagreeThis graph shows that 25% of employees are strongly agree about the point,25% of employees are agree on the point, 20% are neither agree nordisagree,20% are disagree and rest 10% of employees are strongly disagree.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 90
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com Findings o Employees are not completely satisfied with their job although their salary is good enough. o Employes are not getting value to their work. o Most of employees think that they are nt on their actual path. o Most of the employees think that the organization haven’t fulfill their promises,what they do in beginning especially regarding Promotion. o There is negatively comparison between peers especially regarding targets. o They often feel overworked.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 91
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATIONProjectsformba.blogspot.com 92
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comTo increase the job satisfaction level of the employees the company shouldconcentrate mainly on the incentive and reward structure rather than themotivational session. • Ideal employees should concentrate on their job. • Educational qualification can be the factor of not an effective job. • Company should give promotion to those employees who deserves it.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 93
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com LIMITATIONS OF STUDYHowever I shall try my best in collecting the relevant information for myresearch report, yet there are always some problems faced by the researcher.The prime difficulties which I face in collection of information are discussedbelow:- 1. Short time period: The time period for carrying out the research was short as a result of which many facts have been left unexplored. 2. Lack of resources: Lack of time and other resources as it was not possible to conduct survey at large level.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 94
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3. Small no. of respondents: Only 20 employees have been chosen which is a small number, to represent whole of the population. 4. Unwillingness of respondents: While collection of the data many consumers were unwilling to fill the questionnaire. Respondents were having a feeling of wastage of time for them. 5. Small area for research: The area for study was Kaithal, which is quite a small area to judge job satisfaction level.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 95
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com BIBLIOGRAPHYBooks: -  Hitt, Miller, Colella “Organizational Behavior A Strategic Approach”, Wiley Student’s Edition.  Luthans Fred “Organizational Behavior”, McGraw Hill 7th Edition.  Newstrom John W., Davis Keith, “Organizational Behavior Human Resource At Work”, 9th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Edition.  Pestonjee D. M. “Motivation and Job Satisfaction”, 1st Edition. Macmillan India Limited.  Kothari C.R., Research Methodology, New Delhi; New Age International Publication, second edition.Websites: -www.hrcouncil.comwww.workforce.comwww.google.comProjectsformba.blogspot.com 96
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com ANNEXUREProjectsformba.blogspot.com 97
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com QUESTIONNAIRES FOR JOB SATISFACTIONNAME: ………………………………………….DESIGNATION: ……………………………….COMPANY: ……………………………………. 1. I have been passed up at least once for a promotion in the past few years. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 2. I spend parts of my day daydreaming about a better job. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 3. I find much of my job repetitive and boring.Projectsformba.blogspot.com 98
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 4. I am mentally and/or physically exhausted at the end of a day at work. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 5. I feel that my job has little impact on the success of the company. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 6. I have an increasingly bad attitude toward my job, boss, and employer . • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • DisagreeProjectsformba.blogspot.com 99
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Strongly Disagree 7. I am no longer given the resources I need to successfully do my job. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 8. I am not being used to my full capabilities. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 9. I have received no better than "fair" evaluations recently. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 10. I feel as though my boss and employer have let me down. • Strongly AgreeProjectsformba.blogspot.com 100
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 11. I often feel overworked and overwhelmed. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 12. I am frequently stressed out at work. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 13. I live for weekends and days away from the job. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly DisagreeProjectsformba.blogspot.com 101
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com 14. I find myself negatively comparing my situation to my peers. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 15. I feel my bad days at work outweigh the good ones. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 16. I often experience a sensation of time standing still when I am at work. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 17. I have been told that I am becoming a more cynical person. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor DisagreeProjectsformba.blogspot.com 102
  • Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 18. I feel as though my employer has broken promises about my future with the organization. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 19. I have lost sight of my career goals and aspirations. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree 20. I no longer feel valued for my work. • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly DisagreeProjectsformba.blogspot.com 103
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  • Projectsformba.blogspot.comfsProjectsformba.blogspot.com 105