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A project report on effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of refrigerators

A project report on effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of refrigerators

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  • 1. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR Term Project (Phase – I,II,III,IV)“EFFECT OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ON THE PURCHASE OF REFRIGERATORS” Submitted by Group 1 Executive PGDM – 2008-2009
  • 2. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Table of Content Phase – I 1. Introduction 4 2.1 AProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 21
  • 3. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe are sincerely grateful to ………………………., IMI Delhi, under whose ableguidance this study is being undertaken.We would also like to thank ………………………., ……………………,…………………………………….who have all been very prompt in replying to allour queries and have been supportive to us in completing the Phase-I of this study. INTRODUCTIONProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 31
  • 4. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsCompany’s ability to maintain satisfying customer relationships requires an understanding ofconsumer buying behaviour. This refers to the buying behaviour of consumers who purchaseproducts or services for their personal or household use. Consumers have limited time, energyand financial resources. Within the available resources, they make purchase and consumptionchoices as they wish. Consumers purchasing decisions take place over a period of time. Theoverall goal during this decision process is to evaluate various alternatives and choose theproduct that satisfies the consumer in an optimal way. Consumers get influenced by severalmajor factors while they make their decisions. These factors can be grouped as: • social, • cultural, • psychological • personal factors etc.The consumer’s degree of interest in a product and the importance he/she places on this productdetermines the consumer’s level of involvement. High-involvement products are usuallyexpensive and are visible to other people such as a Diamond ring/jewellery or a Expensive car.Low-involvement products are less expensive and have less social risk associated with them suchas a cup of coffee or daily consumption items.When buying frequently purchased, low-cost mundane items that require very little search anddecision effort, they demonstrate routinized response behaviour. When buying productsoccasionally or when they need to get information about an unfamiliar brand in a familiarproduct category, they use limited problem solving. When they buy unfamiliar, expensiveproducts, they use extended problem solving. Phase – I FindingsProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 41
  • 5. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsObjective : The purpose of this study is to understand key external variables influencing thebuying behavior of a particular segment of customers towards the product category ofRefrigerator.Consumers get influenced by several major factors while they make their decisions. Thesefactors can be grouped as demographic, social, cultural factors etc. Consumers try to purchaseand maintain a variety of products that satisfy their current and future needs.Segment/Sample profile Chosen : The consumer segment chosen for this study is Malesin the age group of 30 to 40 years, working professional and married.External FactorsThe External factors that influence the purchase decision of consumer in the age group of 30 to40 for a Refrigerator. 1.) Demographic Details 2.) Media Habits 3.) Indian Culture 4.) Ethnic Subculture 5.) Occupational Subculture 6.) Family 7.) Social Class 8.) Reference Groups 9.) Celebrity and Opinion leader External factors and their influence on Refrigerator purchase 1.) Demographic Details:Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 51
  • 6. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Prefer Style as it fit to home décor • Maximum budget allocated for a refrigerator purchase is Rs. 15000. 2.) Media Habits • Use media to gather information (i.e. thru advertisements) • Prefer internet to compare features so more & more information should be available on internet. 3.) Indian culture • Bright colors preferred but no one wants Black Color. • People prefer to buy on auspicious occasions and festival like Diwali & Navratri. 4.) Ethnic subculture • Aggrawal: prefer low cost for same utility. • Saxena : Prefer more features. All consumers want value for money and after sales services is important for all. Vegetarians look for more vegetable box space where as non-vegetarians look for spacious deep freezers . 5.) Occupational subculture • Working Professional : Needs medium capacity range refrigerator. • Monthly income doesn’t play significant role in deciding the capacity of refrigerator. 6.) Family • Spouse is the major influencer (Advice of other family members like mother and family friends also plays an important role). 7.) Social Class • All social class – value for money & many even consider it as style as it fit to home décor.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 61
  • 7. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators 8.) Reference Group • Influenced by sites and brand ambassadors. • Neighbors also play a role of reference group 9.) Celebrity and opinion leader. • Purchase is influenced by Salesmen in showrooms • Celebrities was an important opinion leader and play role as influencers. Marketing Implications4 P approach 1.) Product • Aesthetics (looks, color) are major considerations while purchasing Refrigerators so wide range of color should be available to fulfill the demand of maximum customers. • After Sales Service is the main attributes being looked while purchasing the product. • More feature and maximum shelf space inside also looked while purchasing the product so more shelves to be provided in door side of the refrigerator so that more bottles can be kept inside it. 2.)Price • All customers look for Value For Money. Mostly people are price conscious while purchasing the product. • Low price also acts as a social barrier as people consider low price refrigerator as a low quality product. • Price is not the major constraint if we are providing additional feature needed by the customers. 3.) PlaceProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 71
  • 8. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Location of showrooms is not the most sought after criteria in the purchase decision because refrigerator is a high-involvement product and customers are ready to travel for purchasing refrigerators. But show room should be at such a place where other competitors are also available because people always want to make comparison. • Since India is very rich in its customs and traditions, a number of festivals are celebrated throughout the year. People prefer to do major purchases during festival and special occasions so marketer should take this as an opportunity and provide maximum range of the products. 4.) Promotion Focusing on the promotion element of the four Ps, good communication is the key to effective marketing. Potential customers go through a purchase cycle: pre- transactional (ie before a purchase), transactional (ie at the time of purchase) and post-transactional (ie after the purchase has been made). The AIDA model encapsulates this sequence and can assist in the planning of any communications campaign: A – awareness/attention - making the consumer aware of the product and getting their attention I – interest – generating interest in the product/service on offer D – desire – creating a desire for your product /service – on two levels: first, related to the target’s needs/wants; and, second, relative to your competitors A – action – stimulating the target to purchase the product/service • Advertisements should be focused on homemakers because they are the primary influencers, mostly joint decision is taken whereas the financers husbands. • Extended after Sales Service can be used as pull strategy of promotion to attract the customers as all customers consider it as main attribute while purchasing the product. • Internet is other sources of gathering information about refrigerators and hence the product should be heavily promoted there. • Advertisements should also highlight the style and aesthetic appearance of the product to position it as home décor.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 81
  • 9. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Salesmen should be properly trained to educate the customers as they are the major opinion leaders in this segment of the market. INTERVIEWSProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 91
  • 10. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsINERVIEW 1:Respondent : Mohit AggrawalDemographic Details: • Age: 31 • Gender: Male • Qualification: B.Tech, DY.Mgr. Reliance Energy • Income : 5-7 Lac p.a. • Religion: Hindu • Native Residence: Pilibhit U.P., Currently Living in Gzd.Media Habits: • Newspaper: Regular • Television: Frequently, News and Entertainment • Internet: Regularly used to checking mails, social networking sites, educational and informational sitesAttributes of the Culture: Indian • Patriotic • Believer of mythology • Respect for elders • Committed to friendship and relations • High involvement with familyAttributes of the SubcultureAggrawal • Value for money • Food-lover • Celebrates festival like Holi, Navratri, Diwali. • Follows Hindu ritualsWorking Executive • Strict scheduleProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 101
  • 11. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Monthly/bi monthly Watching movies in theaters • Dining out in food joints with family & friends • Weekly personal Shopping (Preferably sales)North Indian • Different food preferences like Dal-Rice, Rajma. • Mostly prefers homemade food • Celebrates main festivals as Holi and DiwaliFamily StructureSpouse, Daughter, Mother, Younger Brother (unmarried – pursuing graduation in Bareilly) andhimself • Initiator: Spouse and mother. • Information gatherer: Self • Influencer: Spouse, mother and friends • Decision maker: Joint decision (self and wife) • Purchaser: Self • User: Multiple usersGroup 1. Work Group, Family Group • Group plays an influential role in purchase • Watching movies Monthly/bi monthly • Dining out on weekends • Prefer Shopping through salesProduct: Refrigerator 275 Liters (Videocon)Influence of demographics on purchase of the productProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 111
  • 12. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsLooks for, 1.) Price (Discount offer thru promotion schemes) 2.) Brand and Quality 3.) More shelves in door to keep maximum water bottles/soft drinks 4.) After Sales Service 5.) Look for Moon Silver Color 6.) Maximum space for Vegetables and Dairy ProductsMedia Influence:Uses media to gather information about the productPrefers Internet to gather informationIndian Culture InfluencePreference to purchase on DiwaliSubculture Influences 1. Hindu/Aggrawal • Also look for low cost, but without sacrificing in the utility. • Deep freezer was not important as all members in family are vegetarian 2. Professional • Value for money • Style plays an important role as it fits in décor of the house 3. Northern India influence on his purchase • More shelf space in door to keep maximum water bottles/soft drinksInfluence from familySpouse and Mother gets involved in the purchase and acts like an influencer. • Decision maker is he and his wife.Brand preference: VideoconBrand Ambassador: Shah Rukh Khan (Actor) and MS Dhoni (Cricketer)Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 121
  • 13. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsINERVIEW 2:Respondent : SrinidhiDemographic Details: • Age: 31 • Gender: Male • Qualification: BE, PGDCM • Income : 4.5 - 6 Lac p.a. • Religion: Hindu • Native Residence: Bangalore.Media Habits: • Newspaper: Regular • Television: News and Entertainment • Internet: Regularly used for checking mails and information search on GoogleAttributes of the Culture: Indian • Theist • Respect for elders • Committed to friendship and relations • High involvement with familyAttributes of the SubcultureHindu / Brahmin • Value for moneyProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 131
  • 14. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Foody and pure vegetarian • Celebrates festival like Diwali, Sankranti etc • Strict follower of Brahminical rituals and practicesProfessional • Good disposable income • Watching latest movies • Ardent TravelerSouth Indian • Avid curd user • User of fresh food with lots of green vegetables • Frequent religious ceremonies and get together at homeFamily StructureHimself and his Wife • Initiator: Wife. • Information gatherer: Himself • Influencer: Wife and Cousin • Decision maker: Himself and his Wife • Purchaser: Himself • User: WifeGroup Family Group • Family Group is major influencer for purchaseProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 141
  • 15. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Traveling with family on weekendProduct: RefrigeratorInfluence of demographics on purchase of the productLooks for, 1.) Maximum space for Vegetables and Dairy Products 2.) Limited Deep freezer capacity mainly for Ice Creams 3.) Double Door 4.) Frost-free, 250 Ltr capacity 5.) Bright color, no blackMedia Influence:Uses media to gather information about the productPrefers Internet to gather informationIndian Culture InfluencePreference for a bright color, No Black colorSubculture Influences 1. Hindu/Brahmin and South Indian • Limited deep freezer space desired due to pure vegetarianism • Auspicious buying periods dictated by Brahminical norms 2. Professional • Value for Money • Fits into the décor of the houseBrand preference: VideoconBrand Ambassadors: Sharaukh Khan and MS DhoniProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 151
  • 16. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsINTERVIEW 3:Respondent : Jignesh PatelDemographic Details: • Age: 33 • Gender: Male • Qualification: BE, Chemical • Income : 5-7 Lac p.a. • Religion: Hindu • Native Residence: Vapi, GujaratMedia Habits: • Newspaper: Regular • Television: Less frequently, only for News and Entertainment • Internet: Regularly used for checking mails, social networking sites, and other informational sitesAttributes of the Culture: Indian • Patriotic • Believer of mythology • Respect for elders • Committed to friendship and relations • High involvement with familyAttributes of the SubcultureGujarati • Value for money • Celebrates festival like Navratri • Prefer to do major purchases in Navratri. • Follows Gujarati rituals for marriage etcProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 161
  • 17. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Window ShoppingWestren Indian • Different food preferences like Dal Dokhli, Gujarati kadi,Khaman etc. • Mostly prefer homemade food • Celebrates main festivals as Holi, Navratri (Dandia Nights) and DiwaliSocial Standing • Belongs to Upper Middle class • Works In an MNC CompanyFamily StructureParents, Wife, Kid and himself • Initiator: Wife and himself. • Information gatherer: Self (Print media, advertisement & visiting dealers) • Influencer: Wife and friends • Decision maker: Himself • Purchaser: Himself • User: Multiple usersGroup Work Group, Family Group • Group plays an influential role in purchase • Watching movies on weekends • Prefer Shopping through salesProduct: RefrigeratorInfluence of demographics on purchase of the productLooks for, 1.) Brand 2.) FeaturesProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 171
  • 18. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators 3.) Style 4.) After sales serviceMedia Influence:Uses media to gather information about the productRefers Television and print media advertisementIndian Culture InfluencePrefer to buy on Navratri or Diwali.Subculture Influences 1. Gujarati • Looks for Quality and Value for money. 2. Working Professional • Aesthetic and product features plays an important role 3. Social Status • The purchase of the Refrigerator must depict the social status of the family.Influence from familyWife gets involved in the purchase and acts like an influencer. • Decision maker is he, himselfBrand preference: SmasungBrand Ambassador : Aamir KhanINTERVIEW 4:Respondent : Vivek SaxenaDemographic Details: • Age: 34Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 181
  • 19. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Gender: Male • Qualification: B.Tech, Software Professional • Income : 5-7 Lac p.a. • Religion: Hindu • Native Residence: Lucknow U.P.Media Habits: • Newspaper: Regular • Television: Frequently, News and Entertainment • Internet: Regularly used for checking mails, social networking sites, for official purpose.Attributes of the Culture: Indian • Believer of mythology • Respect for elders • Committed to friendship and relations • High involvement with familyAttributes of the SubcultureSaxena • Value for money • Enjoy Cock Tail parties • Celebrates festival like Holi, Navratri, Diwali. • Follows Hindu ritualsWorking Executive • Strict schedule • Aesthetics • Watching Latest movies in theaters • Dining out in food joints with familyProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 191
  • 20. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsNorth Indian • Different food preferences like Rajma, Chole-Bhature, Chiken - Kabab. • Mostly prefer homemade food • Celebrates main festivals as Holi and DiwaliFamily StructureSpouse and himself • Initiator: Spouse • Information gatherer: Self and spouse • Influencer: Spouse and friends • Decision maker: Joint decision (self and wife) • Purchaser: Self • User: Both (Self and spouse)GroupFamily Group, Masti Group • Group plays an influential role in purchase • Watching movies in the first week of release • Dining out on weekends • Prefer Shopping through salesProduct: Refrigerator 310 Liters (LG)Influence of demographics on purchase of the productLooks for, 1.) Brand and Quality 2.) More Space (Deep Freezer) 3.) PriceProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 201
  • 21. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators 4.) Good After Sales ServiceMedia Influence:Uses media to gather information about the productPrefers Internet to gather informationIndian Culture InfluencePrefer to do major purchases on auspicious occasionsSubculture Influences 1. Hindu/Saxena • Also look for Aesthetics , but without sacrificing in the utility. • Deep freezer was preferred for non-vegetarian eatable 2. Professional • Value for money • Style plays an important role as it fits in décor of the house 3. Northern India influence on his purchase • More shelf space in door to keep maximum water bottles/soft drinks Its too hot in summers and there is power cutout is major problem .Influence from familySpouse gets involved in the purchase and acts like an influencer. • Decision maker is he and his wife.Brand preference: LGBrand Ambassador : Abhishek BacchanProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 211
  • 22. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsINTERVIEW 5:Respondent : Randheer Singh AhluwaliaDemographic Details: • Age: 38 • Gender: Male • Qualification: B.A, • Income : 3-5 Lac p.a. • Religion: Sikh • Native Residence: Jullander,Punjab.(Presently residing in Delhi)Media Habits: • Newspaper: Regular (Nav Bharat Times) • Television: Sometimes, ETV(Punjabi) and Entertainment • Internet: Never used.Attributes of the Culture: Indian • Devout Sikh • Respect for elders • Committed to friendship and relations • High involvement with familyAttributes of the SubcultureSikh/Khatri • Wants the best product available in the market • Always wants something flashy • Celebrates festival like Baisakhi, Lohiri, Guruperb. • Follows Sikh normsWorking Professional • Love Folk songs • Occasionally throw parties for friends at home.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 221
  • 23. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Went to native place in summers • Have a like for latest electronic gadgets.North Indian • Likes the north Indian food “PARATHA” and “MAKKE KI ROTI AUR SARSO KA SAAG” • He also likes the non veg food like chicken biryani and chicken tandoori. • Mostly prefer homemade food • Also enjoy another religions festival like HOLI ,DIWALI, and CHRISTMASSocial Standing • Belongs to Upper Middle class • Family business of General Store (Munirka).Family StructureWife ,Mother, Two children • Initiator: Spouse • Information gatherer: Self • Influencer : Mother, Spouse & friends • Decision maker: Himself • Purchaser: Himself • User: Multiple users.Group Family Group, Masti Group • Both Group plays an influential role in purchase • Party with friends • SALES doesn’t have much impact to plan for shoppingProduct: Refrigerator 310 Liters (Whirlpool)Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 231
  • 24. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsInfluence of demographics on purchase of the productLooks for, 1.) Deep freezer and spacious 2.) Price (Ranging b/w 12~15K) 3.) Brand and Quality 4.) After Sales ServiceMedia Influence:Advertisements on TV.(influenced by Ajay Devgan & Kajol)Subculture Influences 1. Sikh/Khatri • Prefer for bright colors. • Deep freezer was required for non-vegetarian & dairy eatable 2. Professional • Value for money 3. Northern India influence on his purchase • More shelf space in door to keep maximum water bottles/soft drinksInfluence from familySpouse gets involved in the purchase and acts like an influencer. • Decision maker - himself.Brand preference: WhirlpoolBrand Ambassador: Ajay Devgan and KajolProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 241
  • 25. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators PHASE - IIProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 251
  • 26. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators INTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF REFRIGERATORSThe consumer segment chosen for this study is Males in the age group of 30 to 40 years, workingprofessional and married.The internal factors that influence the purchase decision of these consumers for a Refrigerator: 1. Need for the Refrigerator (whether need is physiological or esteem) 2. Personality of the buyer: whether he is extrovert or introvert, open to experiment, etc. 3. Level of Involvement of the buyer with the Refrigerator. 4. Motivation towards the Refrigerator whether it is latent or manifest. 5. Emotions towards the Refrigerator: which dimension will it satisfy amongst the pleasure, dominance and arousal? 6. Brand personality as perceived by the buyer and how he relates it to his own personality. 7. Attitude of the buyer towards the Refrigerator or the brand. 8. Self-concept of the buyer: his thoughts and feelings towards the refrigerators/brands having reference to himself as an object. 9. Loyalty towards a particular brand of Refrigerator. 10. Positioning of a particular brand in the mind of the buyer.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 261
  • 27. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators MARKETING IMPLICATIONS BASED ON INTERNAL INFLUENCES ON PRODUCT PURCHASE1. Need for the refrigerator • The need for refrigerator is mostly just a physiological need and a refrigerator is a utilitarian product for all the consumers. • In cases where a high end refrigerator is bought it is also to satisfy the esteem need of the consumer. By buying a high end product at a premium price the consumer would like to impress his friends or relatives after being seen using a stylish and high technology product. Marketing Implications: In the case of high quality product the marketer should try to promote its products in a way such that the consumer feels that owning the product will enhance his esteem. In case of a utilitarian product the marketer should promote its product as a product which fulfills physiological needs of the product.2. Personality of the buyer • Personality of the buyer influences his purchase behaviour. An extrovert person will buy a stylish product and a person who is not afraid of taking risks is more likely to buy an innovative product.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 271
  • 28. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Marketing Implications: Marketer should try to have a product which appeals to all its customers irrespective of the personality of the customer i.e. it should have such attributes which appeals to the masses.3. Level of involvement with the purchase • Refrigerator is a high involvement product for all the respondents and the buyer generally consults with others and compares the features of different brands before deciding to buy. Marketing Implications: As refrigerator is a high involvement product for which the customer searches and evaluates it the marketer should make sure that his brand is in the evoked set of the customer and try to influence the evaluation criteria of the consumer so that his brand has a top of the mind recall while buying refrigerator.4. Motive of buying refrigerator • Both the manifest & the latent motives play important part in the purchase behavior of the refrigerators. Marketing Implications: Marketer should promote and position its products in such a way that the consumer believes that buying his brand will fulfill all his motives of owning the product.5. Emotions towards purchase of refrigerator • Refrigerator is a utilitarian product which is used in homes so the consumer has a positive emotion towards it. Marketing Implications:Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 281
  • 29. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Marketers should make sure that purchase of refrigerator is accompanied with positive emotion arousal for the refrigerator as well as for the brand.6. Brand-personality of the refrigerator as perceived by the buyer • Every brand is perceived differently by a consumer while buying the product consumer buys a product which is in sink with his personality. So the perception of a consumer towards brand also influences his purchase behaviour. Marketing Implications: Marketer should make sure that his brand is seen as a successful and vibrant brand by the consumer . It should also be seen that all the promises made to the consumer is met so that it is seen as a trustworthy brand by the consumers only then will the consumers buy the brand.7. Attitude of the buyer towards the Refrigerators • Double door Refrigerators are considered more useful than single door refrigerators. • Frost Free refrigerators are considered hassle free. • High priced goods have better quality • If a buyer has got positive emotional reaction towards a particular brand, he will always prefer this brand and it is very difficult for the competitors to attract him towards their products. Marketing Implications: Marketer should build the positive image in the minds of the consumer and should work hard to maintain that image.This positive image will then result in a positive attitude towards the brand.Comparative advertising can be used here by the marketer to generate attention, message andbrand awareness in the minds of the customer.8. Self-concept of the buyerProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 291
  • 30. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • The consumer buys a product which helps him to achieve his ideal private self and ideal social self concept. Marketing Implications: The marketer should market its products in such a way that the consumer is able to identify with the product and thinks that buying the product will help in achieving ideal self.9. Lifestyle of the buyer • A buyer with lavish lifestyle will prefer expensive refrigerators with new features and will be ready as a innovator to try new models with latest trends and technology. • A buyer leading a simple lifestyle will opt for economic refrigerators and will be much more price-sensitive. Marketing Implications: The marketer should try to create a product mix which caters to different segment of consumers based on different lifestyles of the consumer. There should be such a product mix that there is at least one product for each type of consumer.10. Brand-loyalty • Consumers who are brand loyal will always prefer the products of their brand due to the trust & faith that their brand is best in the business. • Brand-loyal buyers are repeat purchasers and acts as opinion leaders for the brand. Marketing Implications: The marketer should try to inculcate the feeling of loyalty in the mind of the consumer because when a consumer is loyal towards a brandProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 301
  • 31. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • He will buy only the products of that brand. • Act as an advocate for the brand The company can do so by customer delight i.e. exceeding the expectations of the consumer. It is not so easy for a company to do so but a company who manages to do so will surely be highly successful in the market and emerge as market leader.11. Positioning of a particular brand in the minds of the buyer • Videocon is considered as economical brand. • Samsung is a market leader in electronics and electrical products and hence worth buying. • LG is positioned having very wide network of service center all over the country so can provide better after sales service then others. Marketing Implications: The marketer should position the product according to the target Market for the brand and also according to the segment of society it wants to cater to. Eg. If the brand wants to be seen as a premium product it should position itself as a product with high quality and technologically advanced product. MARKETING MIX STRATEGY4 Ps approach 1) Product • Refrigerator’s fulfill the physiological need of the consumer and considered as utilitarian product. Company should insure that whatever product they market it should be durable enough which last quite many years and give trouble free service to their customers. Customer expects good after sales service and prompt response to his complaints in case of any problem with the product. Extended warranty can be used as an attribute attached with the product. 2) PriceProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 311
  • 32. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • For high quality refrigerators the company can charge a premium price as consumers. For this target segment, focus should be more on the features, technology & the style quotient of the refrigerators. • For middle class a consumer who is wants value for money product marketer should emphasize on attributes of the product by which consumer is aware of the value of his investment. 3) Place • Customer prefers to visit authorized dealers of the particular brand and has a attitude to visit big dealers or supermarket to buy the product. Customer also have tendency of comparing various attributes of different brands before buying the product. So Shoppe should be in such a location where competitor brands also exist. Hence clustering of showrooms is something which has to be kept in mind while deciding on the showroom location. • Consumers also prefer showrooms where they have experienced some pleasant experience, so it’s also important to appoint friendly staff in the showrooms with knowledge of the product so that customers visiting showroom can get sufficient information regarding features and other attributes of the product.4) Promotion • Emotion in advertising: Repeated exposure to positive-emotion-eliciting ads may increase the brand preference of refrigerators due to classical conditioning. Print ad should contain information of features and attributes that consumer wants, it can be useful when customer is thinking rationally before buying the product. It may also show strength of attributes with compared to other competitors in the market. Where as electronic ad should look to create positive emotion for the product through classical conditioning. • Change the cognitive component-Change beliefs:Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 321
  • 33. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Exposure: The companies need to do more of exhibitions as trade fair etc. in order to expose the consumers towards the new launches. • Emotional appeals: Companies like Videocon which have strong emotional connect with the Indian consumers should also concentrate on emotional appeals in order to exploit the manifest motives of the consumers. • Emotion arousal as a product benefit: Refrigerators can be positioned as emotion- arousing products by the companies like “don’t let smells mix”, “one call does the all” or “Wow factor” of the refrigerators can be used by the marketers to promote their refrigerators • Comparative ads: Companies which have got superior models this will help in generating attention, changing brand attitudes & increased purchase intentions.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 331
  • 34. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators INTERVIEWSINTERVIEW #1Respondent name: Mohit AggrawalPersonality • Likes to mingle with others • Down to earth & humble • Friendly • Polite & sympathetic towards others • Less open to experiencePURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF REFRIGERATOR:Model/Capacity: 275 Liters (Videocon- Refrigerator)Need: • Wanted a new refrigerator for family use • Wanted to replace old refrigerator as old refrigerator didn’t provide sufficient cooling (more than 10yrs old -Kelvinator)Classification of need as per Maslow’s hierarchy • Respondent’s need for refrigerator was physiological as he wanted it for daily use of his family.Motives for purchase of refrigerator i) Manifest motives • A Videocon refrigerator was more economical and value for money • It’s a decent simple and will fulfill the necessity of my house hold ii) Latent motivesProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 341
  • 35. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Didn’t want to spend too much on buying of refrigerator • Now I can boast of being a proud-owner of latest technology refrigerator i.e. Frost Free.Emotions of Respondent while buying refrigerator • Respondent is a family oriented guy who believes that refrigerator would help him in fulfilling his family’s need to keep perishable eatables safe and fresh.Attitude of Respondent towards refrigerators i) Cognitive component • Double door refrigerators perform better as they have separate compartments, ice formation is faster as freezer compartment is not opened frequently. • Moon silver color has less effect of dust on it. ii) Affective component • Respondent feels that 275 liter refrigerator will be more convenient for his family. • Feel good factor that respondent has purchased latest technology refrigerator. iii) Behavioral component • Respondent was getting good deal of discount after bargain on Videocon refrigerator from the dealerSelf-concept i) Actual private • Respondent feels that sometimes he goes overboard while shopping.ii) Ideal private • Respondent would like to be more rational while purchasing.iii) Actual Social • Respondent is seen in the society as a person who indulges in showoff of wealth a lot.iv) Ideal SocialProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 351
  • 36. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • He likes to be seen as someone who knows the value of money.Brand personality of Videocon as perceived by the respondent • Videocon is a well established Indian brand. It is economical than other brands. • It has got competence. It is reliable & durable. • It is a typical middle class brand and is not a sophisticated one.Respondent’s attitude towards Videocon • Videocon is a well established Indian brand so has a soft corner towards it. • Videocon provides value for money products. • Videocon understands the Indian conditions as it is an Indian brand.Positioning of Videocon in the mind of the respondent • Videocon is an economical brand for middle segment people. • Its products are reliable and require less maintenance • Videocon refrigerator provides anti bacterial liner by completely preventing the entry of germs so it keeps protection and freshness of the food stored in it. (Respondent had read about it from some article some where).INTERVIEW #2Respondent name: SrinidhiPersonality • Extrovert • Moody • Polite & sympathetic towards others • Less open to experienceProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 361
  • 37. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsPURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF Refrigerator:Model: Videocon Double Door Frost-Free 250 Ltr RefrigeratorNeed: • Wanted the Refrigerator for family use (to be used by himself & his wife) • Consumption of fresh green vegetables everydayClassification of need as per Maslow’s hierarchy • Respondent’s need for Refrigerator was physiological as he wanted it for storing the required consumables for daily use • This also manifested as an esteem need in terms of the size and design of the refrigerator as most of his friends and colleagues at his level had a double door refrigerator and he had to buy a product which was atleast as good as theirs.Motives for purchase of refrigerator i) Manifest motives • A 250 ltr double door refrigerator is a product made for families • A number of my friends and colleagues have preference for the same design. ii) Latent motives • He believes that the Videocon Refrigerator is a product that will demonstrate his logical decision making ability and rationality • It will also put him in the same group as his friends and colleagues are.Emotions of Respondent while buying refrigeratorProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 371
  • 38. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Respondent is a traditional person who believes that a Refrigerator is one of the basic necessities in family to keep the some of the daily use consumables fresh.Attitude of Respondent towards refrigerators i) Cognitive component • Frost-free Refrigerators are easy to use and hassle free • Double door design is the best design for medium to large size refrigerators ii) Affective component • Respondent feels that Videocon refrigerators are best in business and thus has a positive emotions towards them iii) Behavioral component • If Videocon comes up with an exchange offer for the old refrigerators, respondent would be happy to exchange his old refrigerator with a new Videocon one.Self-concept i) Actual Private • Respondent feels that he is abreast with the latest technology.ii) Ideal Private • Respondent would like to be in touch with technological advances.iii) Actual Social • Respondent thinks that he does not use high tech products.iv) Ideal Social • Respondent would like to be seen as someone who is aware of latest high technology available products.LOYALTY TOWARDS A BRAND: VideoconProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 381
  • 39. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsRespondent is loyal towards the Videocon and would anytime prefer the products of thiscompany only. In the future also, if he wants to buy another refrigerator he will go for Videoconbrand only.Brand personality of Videocon as perceived by the respondent • It has got competence. It is reliable & successful • It is highly utilitarian and value for money brand • Provides high technology products at a reasonable price.Respondent’s attitude towards Videocon • Videocon has a strong market share in Refrigerator category hence worth buying • Videocon always provides good quality products and excellent after sales service • Videocon Refrigerators always perform on par with the Refrigerators from some of the other top companies • Since Videocon is recognized as a very good brand and everyone appreciates its products, it is definitely betterPositioning of Videocon in the mind of the respondent • Videocon is an economical brand and provides highly utilitarian refrigerators • Its products require less maintenance • Videocon Refrigerators last longINTERVIEW # 3Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 391
  • 40. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsRespondent name: Jignesh PatelPersonality • Down to earth & humble. • Polite & sympathetic towards others. • Less open to experimentation.PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF REFRIGERATOR:Model: RefrigeratorNeed: • Wanted a refrigerator as old refrigerator was not working properly. • His old refrigerator was not cooling properly.Classification of need as per Maslow’s hierarchy • Respondent’s need for refrigerator was physiological as he wanted it for daily usage to keep daily food fresh.Motives for purchase of refrigerator i) Manifest motives • He wanted a large size refrigerator as he recently got married and also his parents are now living with him. ii) Latent motives • He is also looking for stylish and large refrigerator as his relatives and friend are having the 250 liters refrigerator.Emotions of Respondent while buying refrigeratorProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 401
  • 41. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Respondent is a pleasure-seeking guy who believes that Samsung refrigerator helps him in needs of his family without much hassle of after sales service along with the style statementAttitude of Respondent towards refrigerators i) Cognitive component • Samsung provides quality and stylish products. • They are having a very good after sales service. ii) Affective component • Respondent feels that Samsung products are good looking and thus has a positive emotions towards it. iii) Behavioral component • Respondent enquires about after sales service while buying the product.Self-concept i) Actual Private • Respondent feels that he is humble & down-to-earth guyii) Ideal Private • Respondent would like to be more sincere.iii) Actual Social • Seen using value for money products.iv) Ideal Social • Wants to go for stylish products.LOYALTY TOWARDS A BRAND:Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 411
  • 42. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsRespondent is loyal towards the Samsung and would anytime prefer the refrigerator of thiscompany only. In the future also, if the company comes out with any exchange offer, he wouldlike to exchange his old refrigerator with a new refrigerator of same brand only.Brand personality of Samsung as perceived by the respondent • Samsung is stylish, innovative and quality oriented brand. • It is reliable & successful • It is a rugged and tough brandRespondent’s attitude towards Samsung • Samsung is a market leader in electronics and electrical products and hence worth buying. • Samsung always provides good quality products with latest features.Positioning of Samsung in the mind of the respondent • Samsung is a stylish brand and it provides quality products at reasonable Price. • Its products are reliable and require less maintenanceINTERVIEW # 4Respondent name: Vivek SaxenaPersonality 1Extrovert and flashy 2Stable with less mood swings 3Polite & sympathetic towards others 4Likes to experience new thingsProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 421
  • 43. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsPURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF REFRIGERATOR:Model: LGNeed: • He bought the refrigerator just before marriage because of the need of refrigerator in the house after marriage • He Bought LG because of the brand image and its image in the market as a high quality product.Classification of need as per Maslow’s hierarchy • Respondent’s need for the refrigerator was physiological as he wanted it for daily household needs. • His need was that of a esteem need too as he bought LG brand because of the brand image and being perceived by his relatives and friends as a high quality product and he wanted others to perceive him as a user of high quality goods.Motives for purchase of refrigerator i) Manifest motives • He does not own a refrigerator so he wants to buy one. • Need of a two door model as use of ice in summers is quite high. ii) Latent motives • Wanted to impress his relatives and friends by purchasing a product which is a market leader in its class. • Went for a large size as he wanted him and others to see him as someone who looks forward for the future needs too.Emotions of Respondent while buying refrigeratorProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 431
  • 44. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsRespondent is a pleasure-seeking guy who believes that usage of high price goods is goodbecause he perceives high priced goods as a mark of high quality.Attitude of Respondent towards refrigerators i) Cognitive component • High priced goods have better quality • As LG is a market leader it must be a high quality product. ii) Affective component • Respondent feels that LG refrigerators are best in quality and thus has a positive emotional reaction towards them • Wants to impress others by purchasing a large size refrigerator of a market leader brand. iii) Behavioral component • While purchasing the product he enquired about package deal on the product • He also bargained for the price and got discount on the product.Self-concept i) Actual PrivateRespondent feels that he is a sincere and humble guyii) Ideal PrivateRespondent would like to be more participative in daily household chores and would like to helphis wife in household chores which he is not able to do due to lack of time.iii) Actual SocialRespondent thinks that he is a level headed guy with control on his emotions.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 441
  • 45. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigeratorsiv)Ideal SocialHe would like to be seen in the society as a successful guy who has achieved his success due tohis own hard work.LOYALTY TOWARDS A BRAND: LGRespondent is loyal towards the brand LG and has bought Television and refrigerator of thisbrand only.Brand of LG as perceived by the respondent • It is a foreign brand but understands the Indian market. • Offers good after sales service. • Technologically advanced product being offered by LGRespondent’s attitude towards LG • It is costly but value for money in the long run. • LG offers high quality products. • Since word of mouth of LG is very good and everyone appreciates its products, it is definitely betterPositioning of LG in the mind of the respondent • Its products are reliable and require less maintenance • LG has a very wide network of service center all over the country so can provide better after sales service then others. • High quality products being offered • Market leader in refrigerators.INTERVIEW # 5Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 451
  • 46. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsRespondent name: Randheer Singh AhluwaliaPersonality • Extrovert, friendly in nature • Moody & spendthrift • Polite & sympathetic towards others • Innovative and open to experimentPURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF Refrigerator:Model: 310 Liters (Whirlpool)Need: • Wanted the refrigerator for family use. • Also wants to use it for his business purpose.Classification of need as per Maslow’s hierarchy • Respondent’s need for refrigerator was physiological as he wanted it for daily use. • His need was esteem because he often had party with his friends or peer group so he wants to make impression on his friends.Motives for purchase of refrigerator i) Manifest motives • 310 Ltrs refrigerator will be most suitable for his business purpose. • Deep freezer is needed to store non veg and dairy products as paneer etc.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 461
  • 47. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • All his friends of business community have such refrigerator for their business. ii) Latent motives • It’s a large storing capacity refrigerator suitable for both business and home use. • Now I can boast of being a proud-owner of large branded refrigerator.Emotions of Respondent while buying refrigerator • Respondent is a social guy with responsibility of family on his shoulders who wants such a refrigerator that will also beneficial for his family use.Attitude of Respondent towards refrigerators i) Cognitive component • Larger refrigerators are more useful than smaller refrigerator. ii) Affective component • Respondent feels that his choice of refrigerator will be beneficial for his family and thus has a positive emotion towards it. iii) Behavioral component • He enquired about extended warranty on the product. • Also bargains about the price of product.Self-concept i) Actual Private • Due to lack of time he can’t spend more time with his family.ii) Ideal Private • Respondent would like to spend more quality time with his family.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 471
  • 48. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigeratorsiii) Actual Social • He is seen in his society as someone who give more importance to money than his family.iv)Ideal Social • Respondent would like to be seen as who is very close to his family.Brand personality of Whirlpool as perceived by the respondent • Whirlpool is a reliable brand. • Brand is trustworthy. • It is well accepted and well known brand.Respondent’s attitude towards Whirlpool • Whirlpool always provides good quality products at reasonable price. • Whirlpool is a durable brand with Sleek designs and contemporary styling • Believed to be low energy consuming refrigerators. • Since the brand reorganization and brand acceptability is good and belief is that it is trustworthy brand so respondent has feeling that it has worth to buy.Positioning of Whirlpool in the mind of the respondent • Whirlpool always provides good quality products at reasonable price. • Its products are reliable and require less maintenance • Whirlpool refrigerators are having latest technology and new designs. • Its products maintenance free and less energy consuming. • Whirlpool refrigerators are better looking and more spacious from inside.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 481
  • 49. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators PHASE # 3Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 491
  • 50. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators RESPONDENT1# Mohit AgrawalCONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESSIt was a high involvement purchase for the respondent but his decision making was limited. Heunderwent through following steps of decision making: Problem recognition Generic Information Search Internal search External: Personal contacts, marketer information Alternative evaluation Attribute based choice Lexicographic decision rule Purchase Post purchaseProjectsformba.blogspot.com dissonance No Group 501
  • 51. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsProblem RecognitionRespondent found that his old refrigerator was not working properly and not giving sufficientcooling. Secondly after marriage he needs a new refrigerator for the house.Information search for RefrigeratorInternal Search: The respondent is aware of some of the refrigerator brands and has someknowledge of the attributes each brand has to offer.External Search: The respondent does an external search about the product being offered by thebrands which are in his evoked set.Sources of informationi) Personal sources: Respondent’s cousin whom he believed too much. He advised therespondent to opt for Videocon 250 ltr frost free double door refrigerator as he was already usingthe same one.ii) Experiential sources: Respondent along with his wife visited a local showroom and had alook at the options in their evoked set viz Videocon and whirlpool before finalizing Videocon.Thus the information source was limited external and was actively acquired.Evaluating alternativesAlthough the respondent was aware of many brands but he was looking for the refrigerator thatwas most economical to him. So economical refrigerator was most important parameter for himand evaluated refrigerators from different brands on that basis, Whirlpool and Videocon was inhis evoked set but never interested to go of Haier as he didn’t knew much about that brand.Finally he decided to buy Videocon as it felt most appropriate one to fulfill his need ateconomical price.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 511
  • 52. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Awareness Set Evoked Set • Videocon • Videocon • LG • Whirlpool • Godrej • Kelvinator Inert Set • Voltas • LG • Whirlpool • Samsung • Samsung • Haier Inept set • Voltas • KelvinetorEvaluation criteriaAttribute basedRespondent considered the following attributes before finalizing his choice for Videocon: • Price - Discount from dealer • Brand and Quality • More shelves in door to keep maximum water bottles/soft drinks • After Sales Service • Moon Silver Color • Maximum space for Vegetables and Dairy ProductsDecision rulesLexicographic decision rule: The attributes ranked according to importance by the respondentare: • Price was the most important attributes for the respondent. • Next most important attribute was brand name. Reliability of the brand • Requires less maintenance. • Understanding of the Indian conditionsProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 521
  • 53. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsThus, the decision rule chosen by the respondent was lexicographic.Purchase behavior • The respondent browsed in near by mall to check out the market price and also visited multi brand outlets located near his house to compare the prices and other value added services offered by both the outlets. Finally he purchased the refrigerator from the mall as it offered him better deal in term of price discount. • The respondent preferred cash purchase and paid the full amount of money at the time of purchase.Post purchase evaluationPost purchase dissonance • Respondent feels that his decision to buy Videocon best that he had made as he feels that he is deriving full value of money paid for the same. • He is fully satisfied with the performance of this Refrigerator.Customer satisfactionBrand loyal customer: The respondent is a committed customer of Videocon. He is a brand-loyalto the company and is emotionally attached to the firm.Repeat purchase: Respondent acknowledges that he is a fully satisfied customer and if he has tobuy other home appliance in the future, it will definitely purchase Videocon products if he getsgood deal and value for money. RESPONDENT2# SrinidhiProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 531
  • 54. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsCONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESSIt was a high involvement purchase for the respondent but his decision making was limited. Heunderwent through following steps of decision making:Problem recognitionRespondent found that he would need a refrigerator among other home appliances while settingup his home post marriageThus problem recognition was generic for the respondent and sensing the need for therefrigerator, he straightway decided to purchase it.Information search for Refrigerator :External Search:Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 541
  • 55. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsSources of informationi) Personal sources: Respondent’s cousin whom he believed too much. He advised therespondent to opt for Videocon 250 ltr frost free double door refrigerator as he was already usingthe same one.ii) Experiential sources: Respondent along with his wife visited a local showroom and had alook at the options in their evoked set viz Videocon and Godrej before finalizing Videocon.Thus the information source was limited external and was actively acquired.Evaluating alternativesAlthough the respondent evaluated refrigerators from different brands, he was more or less surethat he would buy a 250 ltr frost free double door refrigerator from the stable of Videocon. Awareness Set Evoked Set • Videocon • Videocon • LG • Godrej • Samsung • Bajaj Boxer • Godrej Inert Set • LG • Whirlpool • Samsung • Haier • Whirlpool Inept set • HaierEvaluation criteriaAttribute basedRespondent considered the following attributes before finalizing his choice for Videocon: • Videocon brand nameProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 551
  • 56. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Design • Ruggedness • Simple looks • Maximum space for Vegetables and Dairy Products • Deep freezer capacity mainly for Ice Creams • Frost-free, 250 Ltr capacityDecision rulesLexicographic decision rule: The attributes ranked according to importance by the respondentare: • Brand name • reliability. • ruggedness • simple looksThus, the decision rule chosen by the respondent was lexicographic.Purchase behavior • The respondent visited two of the closest multi brand outlets located near his house to compare the prices and other value added services offered by both the outlets. • The respondent preferred the cash purchase and paid the full amount of money at the time of purchase.Post purchase evaluationPost purchase dissonance • Respondent feels that his decision to buy Videocon was one of the best that he had made until now as he feels that he is deriving full value of money paid for the same • He is fully satisfied with the performance of this Refrigerator.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 561
  • 57. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsCustomer satisfactionCommitted customer: The respondent is a fully committed customer of Videocon.Repeat purchase: Respondent acknowledges that he is a fully satisfied customer and if he has tobuy any other home appliance in the future, it will definitely be from the Videocon family. RESPONDENT 3# Jignesh PatelCONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESSIt was a high involvement purchase for the respondent but his decision making was limited. Heunderwent through following steps of decision making: Problem recognition Generic Information Search External: Personal contacts, marketer information Alternative evaluation Attribute based choice Lexicographic decision rule Purchase Post purchase No dissonanceProblem recognitionRespondent found that he was facing problems with his old refrigerator cooling system.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 571
  • 58. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsRespondent desired for a Refrigerator which could do away this problem and also provide himwith a sense of superiority.Thus problem recognition was generic for the respondent and sensing the need for therefrigerator, he straightway decided to purchase it.Information search for refrigeratorInternal Search: Because he owned a refrigerator he had some basic idea about the brands andthe attributes brands have to offer.External Search: Ongoing search was made as respondent was thinking to replace his oldrefrigerator for last 8~9 months.Sources of informationi) Personal sources: Respondent had a friend whom he believed too much. He only advisedthem to opt for Samsung as he was already using the same refrigerator.ii) External sources: Respondent had visited Samsung and LG website which were in hisevoked set i.e. Samsung& LG before finalizing Samsung.Thus the information source was external and was actively acquired.Evaluating alternativesRespondent kept on visiting store/outlets, comparing features and price so he was aware of manybrand from which he considered to purchase refrigerator from Samsung or LG. Haier & Godrejwas in his inept set as he didn’t consider Godrej was having latest features and he had also notseen anyone known to him using Haier. So he was not confirmed whether Haier would be able toprovide good after sales service in India or not.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 581
  • 59. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Awareness Set Evoked Set • Samsung • Samsung • LG • LG • Godrej • Whirlpool Inert Set • Videocon • Videocon • Haier • Whirlpool Inept set • Godrej • HaierEvaluation criteriaAttribute basedRespondent considered the following attributes before finalizing his choice for Samsung • Samsung brand name • Quality and Looks • Ruggedness • Product Features • After sales serviceDecision rulesLexicographic decision rule: The attributes ranked according to importance by the respondentare: • Brand nameProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 591
  • 60. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Quality • LooksPurchase behavior • Respondent went to the “NEXT” Electronics showroom from where he bought his television six month back. He looked at various offerings by different companies before zeroing on the Samsung and LG. He found no difference with the two products but because of his good experience with the Samsung products he went for the Samsung 250 liters refrigerator. • The respondent preferred the Credit Card purchase.Post purchase evaluationPost purchase dissonance • Respondent feels that Samsung, the one he bought was the good deal. • There is no other dissonance as such from the part of the respondent and he is fully satisfied with the performance of this Refrigerator. RESPONDENT 4# Vikas SaxenaCONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESSIt was a high involvement purchase for the respondent but his decision making was limited. Heunderwent through following steps of decision making:Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 601
  • 61. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators Extended Decision Making Problem Recognition Generic Information Search Internal / Extensive External Alternative Evaluation Lexicographic decision rule Many alternative Purchase Post Purchase Dissonance Complex evaluationProblem recognitionRespondent found that he is going to face problems after marriage of he doesn’t own arefrigerator.Respondent desired for a refrigerator which could do away this problem and also provide himwith a sense of owning a high quality product.Thus problem recognition was generic for the respondent and sensing the need for therefrigerator, he straightway decided to purchase it.Information search for RefrigeratorsInternal search: respondent was aware of the four major brands available in the marketExternal search:Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 611
  • 62. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsSources of informationi) Personal sources: One of his friends owned a LG refrigerator. He had a talk with himregarding his experience with the brand.ii) Market sources: Respondent took a tour of the market and evaluated all the options in hisevoked and inert set i.e. LG and Samsung brand.Iii) Media Sources: Went through the advertisement in both print and electronic media to beaware of the deals being offered by the two brands.Evaluating alternativesAlthough the respondent was aware of the five major brands available in the market andevaluated both LG and Samsung refrigerators, he was more or less sure that he would buy LGbrand. Awareness Set Evoked Set • LG • LG • Kelvinator • Samsung • Voltas • Whirlpool Inert Set • Samsung • Whirlpool Inept set • Voltas • KelvinetorProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 621
  • 63. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsEvaluation criteriaAttribute basedRespondent considered the following attributes before finalizing his choice for LGRefrigerator :- • Size of the refrigerator • Price of the product • Ruggedness of the product • Exterior looks • No of shelves inside the refrigerators and its interiors on the wholeDecision rulesLexicographic decision rule: The attributes of the refrigerator were ranked according to itsimportance. Below given are the attributes arranged in a descending order as perceived by therespondent: • Quality of the product • Brand image • Price • Ruggedness • LooksPurchase behavior • The respondent preferred the cash purchase and paid the full amount of money at the time of purchase. • Bargained for the price while paying for the product. • Evaluated alternative brands available before choosing the brand he purchased. • Brand image played a important role in choosing the brandProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 631
  • 64. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Evaluated different attributes of the product once again even though he had made up his mind to go for a particular product • Went for a silver color as according to him it gets less dirty • Looks also played a important role while purchasing decision was made.Post purchase evaluationPost purchase dissonanceThere is no dissonance as such from the part of the respondent and he is fully satisfied with theperformance of the refrigerator.Customer satisfactionThe respondent is a fully satisfied customer of LG. Due to his good experience with the productsof LG he is brand-loyal to the company and is emotionally attached to the firm.He is satisfied with the after sales service of LG. RESPONDENT5# Randheer Singh AhluwaliaCONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESSIt was a high involvement purchase because he is considering number of things for his decisionmaking He underwent through following steps of decision making:Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 641
  • 65. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsProblem recognitionRespondent found that he was facing problems of storing of daily consumables and storing offamily usable products so he wanted a refrigerator which have enough storing capacity so that hecan use it for storing of business and home use consumables..Information search for RefrigeratorsInternal Search: He had awareness about different brands of refrigerator available in the marketand had somewhat made up his mind to go for the whirlpool brandExternal Search:Sources of informationi) Personal sources: Respondent’s wife had a friend whom he believed too much. He onlyadvised them to opt for whirlpool refrigerator.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 651
  • 66. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigeratorsii) External sources: Respondent went to a dealer of the electronic goods and had a look on thevarious brands of the various refrigerators and according to the features for his need and theadvice of the dealer he selected whirlpool brand for his use.Thus the information source was limited external.Evaluating alternativesAlthough the respondent evaluated various size of the refrigerator he was more or less sure thathe would buy a refrigerator form the stable of whirlpool. Awareness Set Evoked Set • Godrej • Whirlpool 250 Ltrs • Kelvinator • Whirlpool 310 Ltrs • Voltas • Whirlpool Inert Set • Samsung • Godrej • Samsung Inept set • Voltas • KelvinetorEvaluation criteriaAttribute basedRespondent considered the following attributes before finalizing his choice for Whirlpool: • Brand name • Storing capacity. • Color of the refrigerator.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 661
  • 67. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Looks of the refrigerator.Decision rulesLexicographic decision rule: The attributes ranked according to importance by the respondentare: • Brand name • Quality • Storage Capacity • LooksPurchase behavior • Although there were many showrooms in New Delhi, respondent preferred a particular shop because it is nearest from his home and believed that this particular shop has wide range of products. • The respondent preferred cash purchase and paid the full amount of money at the time of purchase.Post purchase evaluationPost purchase dissonance • There is no dissonance as such from the part of the respondent and he is fully satisfied with the performance of this Refrigerator.Customer satisfactionRespondent agrees that he is a fully satisfied customer and if he has to buy or giving advice toany other person for the purchase of the refrigerator he will suggest for the purchase of thewhirlpool brand.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 671
  • 68. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators CONSUMER DECISION MAKING MODEL (Engel-Blackwell Model) Information Decision Variable influencing processing process decision process Need recognition Exposure Environmental influences ∩ Culture Social class Search Personal influence Internal search ∩ Family Attention SituationStimuli:MarketerDominated BeliefsOthers Comprehension Memory Alternative Attitude Evaluation Acceptance Intention Individual differences Consumer resources Purchase ∩∩ Motivation and involvement Retention Knowledge Attitudes External Outcomes ∩∩ Personality Lifestyle search Demographics Dissatisfaction SatisfactionThe Engel-Blackwell model is a conscious problem solving and learning model of buyingbehavior attempts to explain the complexity of the consumer decision making process:The decision making process according to Engel-Blackwell model consists of five componentsnamely "the input stimuli, information processing, decision – making process, decision makingprocess variables and outside influences. The decision making process goes through five stages.These are problem awareness, information search, alternative evaluation, choice and thepurchase results.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 681
  • 69. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsStage 1:Problem Awareness:Consumer becomes aware of the difference between his present state and the ideal state. Theawareness may be created by internal motives or external stimuli.Stage 2:Information Search:The consumer may make use of information stored in his memory or of his experiences whichtake the form of ideas and attitudes which influence his preferences. The consumer may alsomake use of stimuli, that is, market dominated sources of information. The external informationsearch can be done in the following ways:i) Personal sourcesii) External sourcesStage 3:Alternative evaluation:The consumer stores the acquired information in his short term memory for further processingin evaluation of alternatives. In the alternative evaluation stage, the consumer compares theacquired information with the product standards or evaluation criteria. The strengthening orweakening of existing evaluation criteria in the long-term memory by information gathered leadsto acceptance or yielding of the product.Acceptance/yield information gets stored in the permanent memory; while lack ofacceptance/yield results deletes related information from the memory awareness occursStage 4:A strong positive intention or acceptance of an alternative leads to the choice of the product instage four. In the absence of any constraint, the purchase takes place.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 691
  • 70. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsStage 5:The result of the purchase is seen in stage five. The consumer may experience satisfaction of aneed from the use of the product, in which case his evaluation criteria are consolidated. In caseof dissatisfaction, a reconsideration of such criteria takes place. Another post-purchase resultcould be dissonance, which refers to post-purchase doubt as regards a product. Dissonance maylead to further information search with a view to justifying the choice of a product after itspurchase.The Engel-Blackwell (1982) model includes various external factors which influence thedecision-making process. Among these factors are the cultural norms and values which definitelyinfluence the consumers value judgement of a product. At the same time, social groups,reference groups and family members may influence the decision-making process and thepurchase intention.The Engel-Blackwell (1982) model depicts a series of activities which a consumer undertakes insituations of high involvement. The decision-making processes vary with the consumer, thesocial environment, the environmental factors and the products. The model identifies the variousfactors and inter-relationships between them which influence the decision-making process MARKETING STRATEGYThe segment under consideration has demonstrated the emphasis on two of the needs –Physiological and Esteem.Hence the Refrigerator design should concentrate on the above two aspects. In terms of fulfillingthe utilitarian/physiological needs, the internal design of the refrigerator should be highlyefficient in terms of maximum availability of space and ease of retrieval of food stuffs. Therefrigerator should be a frost free and double door design. Company should insure that whateverproduct they market it should be durable enough which last quite many years and give troublefree service to their customers. Customer expects good after sales service and prompt response toProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 701
  • 71. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigeratorshis complaints in case of any problem with the product. Extended warranty can be used as anattribute attached with the product.External appearance of the refrigerator connotes one’s status hence the refrigerator should lookaesthetically good with glossy finish and wide range of colors for the customer to choose from.Brand chosen: We have assumed that Eva (Hypothetical Brand) will launch a new 280 literrefrigerator. We have based our marketing strategy on this assumption.Element of marketing mix chosen: PromotionNEED:The segment under consideration has demonstrated the emphasis on two of the needs –Physiological and Esteem.Utilitarian need i.e. physiologicalConsumer wants this refrigerator to use for his daily household purpose.Need for expression i.e. Esteem.This product is targeted to those consumers who can use this refrigerator to express their identityto others i.e. they want others to notice of their self-esteem through this refrigerator.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 711
  • 72. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsPERCEPTION Exposure – Exhibition etc. Stimulus: High Attention - Medium Individual: More Perception to High passion high attention Situation: More sales in festive seasons Interpretation – High InvolvementExposure:Exposure of the consumer towards this model can be through pamphlet distribution throughnews paper, television advertisement etc.Learning TheoryIconic Rote LearningIconic learning will be used because as the advertisement of the refrigerator will be encounteredby the consumer a number of times while he scans his external environment. This will result inthe essence of message being learned.Vicarious Learning/ ModelingConsumers usually consult their family, friends (some times opinion leader) before making thefinal decision. They influence his decision on the product. Thus this situation will correspond tovicarious learning because it is a high involvement learning situation because the consumer ismotivated to process or learn the use of this refrigerator.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 721
  • 73. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of RefrigeratorsAttitude Components Cognitive Component – It will be multi attribute model. The consumer considers variousattitudes like • Double door • Frost free • Cabinet rolling feature (easy to clean) • Style • Brand personalityConsumer assigns different weights to different attributes; hence it will be a weighted averageattitude model. We are not using ideal point weighted average model because the consumer isclearly not able to differentiate the extra benefits he will derive between attributes.Message AppealWe will use the message appeal “enjoy the natural freshness” while promoting this model.Brand personality • It will be portrayed as a stylish brand. • It will be positioned as a brand with innovative technology.EXTERNAL INFLUENCES WHICH WILL PLAY A STRONG ROLE 1. Demographic details • Colors Available & looks of the refrigerator demanded by the customer will depend on the demographic factors. 2. Media habits • Since our target segment -25-50 age group of above middle class, • TV & newspaper ads will also be the major factors due to their wide reach & penetration and internet will be also be an important medium to gather information.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 731
  • 74. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators 3. Occupational subculture A large number of working professional and upto middle class businessman will be attracted towards this model due to the as it is fulfilling all utilitarian need and external look, having glossy finish and wide range of colors, handles etc. It will also attract individuals through word of mouth publicity & peer pressure to own something special. 4. Reference group • Reference groups will play an important part as online communities, friends, peer groups may influence the consumer in his decision to purchase the refrigerator. 5. Family • Any influencer in the family (like father, brother or relatives) or purchaser (anyone other than himself) will play an important role. 6. Social class • This refrigerator will satisfy the asprational need of the middle class people along with their core need i.e. for his daily household purpose. • Upper middle class will purchase this refrigerator as the refrigerator will depict their social status. 7. Opinion leader • Salesmen in the showroom may prove an important opinion leader in motivating the consumer to purchase this refrigerator through giving educating the customer about its latest features comparing its strength with respect to competitive models in the market.In this Internet era also there is rising popularity of the brochure designs in propelling thebusiness and market. A brochure is a pamphlet that is uses for marketing your service orproducts or provides information about it. It is paper material distributed for the purposes ofadvertising. Brochures may advertise events, hotels, products etc. or In this way we assume thatthe brochure will be representing you, thats why it needs to be an eye-catching in design and toProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 741
  • 75. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigeratorsthe point in language because it will speak to readers you have never met and will try andconvince them to come to you. ADVERTISEMENTWe have made the following advertisement for our refrigerator “Eva Brand”. It will be a print ad.Tagline: “enjoy the natural freshness”.Theme of the ad:The ad emphasis on two of the needs of the customer – Physiological and Esteem.Eva intends to create its marketing position around the tagline, ‘Enjoy the natural freshness’.This tag line corresponds to the basic need of the consumer to consume fresh food at all time. Due tolifestyle pressures today there is not much time in households to cook fresh food every time someonefeels hungry. In all these situations any consumable being stored in refrigerator is picked and eaten by theconsumer. This food is not fresh and due to its storage has lost some of the taste also. If consumers aremade to believe that the food stored in our refrigerator is as good as fresh it can act as a major boost tothe brand and the brand can connect with the consumer. This will have a positive effect on the brand andin turn will boost the sales of the product. PROMOTIONApart from regular advertising on TV and Internet we will also take further step to promote ourbrand and create brand awareness.Our target customer is 20-40 years.Target cities are metro tier II cities initially. • We can give extended warranty • Festive season pack – by doing bundling with other white goods. • We will also distribute pamphlets through news paper to create more awareness. • Road shows will also be conducted in various cities to create awareness.Projectsformba.blogspot.com Group 751
  • 76. Effect of consumer behaviour on the purchase of Refrigerators • Camps in Exhibitions like trade fair, Electronic Fair etcWe believe that this will help us in addressing the promotion issue of the marketing mix for ourrefrigerator. THANKSProjectsformba.blogspot.com Group 761