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The World of Wine & Spirits


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A great utility specially for hospitality students as well as trainers.

A great utility specially for hospitality students as well as trainers.

  • Dear Mr. Hemanth, Its really very good slides and I appreciate if allow me to download it to learn from your knowledge and experience
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    Ethiopia is now joining the wine producing countries category as we start growing the wine grapes and very big winery in zeway (Oromia Region ) i found your presentation very use full to understand more about wine .kindly allow me to download your presentation .
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  • 2. FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICES - II FOOD: Anything edible having an ability to suppress or appease our appetite / hunger. BEVERAGE: Any liquid having thirst quenching, refreshing, nourishing or stimulating properties. Water is not a beverage rather all beverages are water based.
  • 3. CLASSIFICATION OF BEVERAGES Non Alcoholic Beverages Alcoholic Beverages Refreshing Stimulating Nourishing Juices Squashes Aerated Drinks Mineral Water Tea Coffee Milk Juices Chocolate Bournvita etc.
  • 4. CLASSIFICATION OF BEVERAGES Non Alcoholic Beverages Alcoholic Beverages Fermented Fermented & Distilled Fermented , Distilled & Compounded WINES CIDER PERRY BEER SAKE MEAD SPIRITS WHISKY GIN LIQUEURS COCKTAILS BRANDY RUM VODKA TEQUILLA
  • 5. CONSUMPTION TIME OF VARIOUS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES PRE-MEAL DRINKS: Known as “ Aperitifs” Cocktails Spirits Bitters Beer Wines POST MEAL DRINKS: Known as “ Digestifs” Brandy Liqueurs LBV or Vintage Port Special Single Malt Whiskies Liqueur / Spirit Coffee
  • 6. WINES Wine can be defined as the juice of freshly gathered grapes grown in open vineyards, suitably fermented according to the local customs and traditions without the addition of any foreign substance.
  • 7. WINE PRODUCING COUNTRIES  ITALY is the largest producer of Wines.  FRANCE is the second largest producer of Wines.  RUSSIA  ARGENTINA  SPAIN  U.S.A.  GERMANY
  • 12. A number of factors affect wine quality, the most important being the type of grape used. The best grapevine is the vitis vinifera, which has many different varieties. The grape yield per acre is also a factor. The higher the yield is the lower the wine quality will generally be, conversely, the lower the yield is the more concentrated the grape flavours and the better the wine quality will be normally, a ton of gushed grapes yield an average of 170 gallon of Table wine.
  • 13. Soil is also a factor, the best being one that offers good drainage, which is why gravel and sand are better than clay. Good drainage forces the wines root to seek deep moisture which cause their root to become longer. These longer root are able to reach deep mineral deposits and these mineral, in turn, add flavour to gapes and thus to wine. CROSS-SECTION OF SOIL TOP VIEW OF THE SOIL
  • 14. Another factor is climate. Grape vines like Cool nights and Sunny, warm days, as these help them maintain the right balance between acid and sugar in the grapes. However, too hot weather when the grapes are maturing, near harvest times, will decrease the acid and increase the sugar and will produce a wine that may not age well. On the other hand too little sunshine will reduces the amount of grape sugar and produce a wine low in alcohol and as a result, sugar may have to be added before fermentation to rise the alcohol level. Also rain at harvest time can dilute the grapes sugar and encourage rotting thereby lowering the quality of the wine. Mechanical grapes- picking equipment can give grapes growers more control over the grapes quality than hand picking can as all the grape can be picked quickly when they all at their peak of ripeness. But if rain has spoiled some of the grape bunches, hand picking will allow those to be by passed.
  • 15. Finally, the skills of the winemaker is extremely important as it can effect the personality and quality of the wine produced. The vintner's skill can also vary, because of local tradition and will dictate the type of wine made. The market for whom the wine is to be manufactured also calls upon different wine making skills. For examples, if the wine is to be made in a smaller quantity with a high quality or in a larger quantity with a lesser quality .
  • 16. VITIS VINIFERA The best wines are made from a type of vine known as Vitis Vinifera. Some of which are known to be three hundred years old. This wine grows best in this broad belts one north and the other south of the equator. Grapes can be grown outside these belts and be turned into wine, but its quality is not considered as high as that from vines grown within these belts. The northern belt includes knowledgeable wine making countries such as France, Italy, Germany and the United States. The Southern belt embraces Chile, Argentina, Australia and South Africa. Vines will yield more grapes when planted in fertile soil on flat land but the wine made from such grapes will seldom be comparable in quality to wine made from grapes grown on sunny slopes in soil that may not be fertile but is rich in the mineral that create a special characteristic, known as bouquet, that is present in all quality wines. As the grapes mature, their sugar content increases and their acid content decreases. Grape growers thus must know when the balance between sugar and acid is just right to produce the best wine.
  • 17. THE VINE
  • 18. Grafting
  • 19. Received wisdom is that pruning hard keeps yields low and quality high. However, many growers in Australia have found that they can produce good quality wine with minimal pruning or no pruning at all: yields, they say, find their own level. The debate continues, with European growers still firmly in the hard-pruning camp. This worker at Château Léoville-Barton in Bordeaux is leaving just two crop-bearing branches for the year to come. The answer (if there ever is one) may turn out to be that it is local conditions that matter most. Pruning
  • 22. Cabernet Sauvignon
  • 23. Pinot Noir
  • 24. MERLOT
  • 25. NEBBIOLO
  • 26. SYRAH / SHIRAZ
  • 28. Chardonnay
  • 30. SÉMILLON
  • 31. RIESLING
  • 35. MANUFACTURING OF WINE Various processes involved in the making of Wines are:  Harvesting  Grading  Weighing  Removal of stalks / destalking  Crushing  Sulphuring  Fermentation  Cellaring & second processing  Racking  Fining & Filtering  Refrigeration  Blending  Maturing of wine  Bottling of wines  Pasteurization  Ageing of wine
  • 36. WINE PRESSINGS Vin de Gouté: Known as running Wines. These are from the first pressing. Generally are of superior quality. Vin de pressé: Known as pressed Wines. These are from the second pressing.
  • 38. TABLE WINES These wines are popular at mealtime because of the low alcohol content and also because they have a stimulating effect on the taste buds. These are produced by the natural fermentation of the juice of freshly squeezed grapes. Table wines are generally either red or white containing 9-14% alcohol and may range from very dry to quite sweet . Table wines are considered to be the best with the food as they are great additions to the flavour of a meal. More table wines are produced than all other wines combined.
  • 39. SPARKLING WINES These are effervescent wines. These wines appear to be bubbling and sparkling. These are used for almost every occasion and could easily be termed as All purpose wines. They could be red or white like the table wines and generally have an alcohol content of 9-14% ranges from very dry to very sweet. All wines other than sparkling wines are called “Still Wines”. The most prominent of all sparkling wines is “CHAMPAGNE”.
  • 40. FORTIFIED WINES Dessert wines are generally fortified with brandy which halts their fermentation and makes them stronger and sweeter than table wines and sparkling wines. These are wines which are generally used after the meals with desserts or between meals with snacks. They have a filling effect because of their sweetness and also helps in relaxation and digestion after the meal. Fortified wines are very sweet and have an alcoholic content of about 22%. Basically, the fortification enables the wines to travel more as the increased alcohol content gives the strength to the wines. The time at which the brandy is added decides the degree of sweetness or dryness of the wine.
  • 41. AROMATISED WINES This category cannot really be accepted as wines due to the reason that they essentially may not be made from grapes. These are known as Appetizer wines and are used before the meals to stimulate the appetite. These are usually dry wines which are fortified after the fermentation is complete. They can be flavored too and the alcohol content generally ranges from 20-24%.
  • 42. WINE TERMS  OENOLOGY / ENOLOGY: Science of making Wines.  AMPELLOGRAPHY: Science of studying Grapes.  VATS: Fermenting Vessels.  LEES: Impurities.  BRUT: Very Dry  SEC: Medium dry  DEMI-SEC: Medium sweet  DOUX: Sweet
  • 43. WINE TERMS  MUST: Unfermented grape juice.  APERITIFS: Alcoholic drinks served or consumed before the meal, helps in increasing the appetite.  DIGESTIFS: Alcoholic drinks served or consumed after the meal, helps in digestion.  CASK : Barrels made up of Oak wood used to store & age wines.  CELLAR: A warehouse used to store wines.  CHAI: French term for cellar.
  • 44. WINE TERMS  MAITRE DE CHAI: Cellar master.  VINE: Creeper of Grape.  VINEYARDS: The place where vines are grown.  VIGNERON: The Vine grower.  VINTNERS: The Wine maker.
  • 45. Vintage Year Wine Type Wine Producer Area of Champagne Style of Champagne Capacity Alcohol level
  • 46. Shipper’s Name Vintage Year Year of Bottling Shipper’s Trademark e-European standard & cl-centiliter Alcohol level Type / Style
  • 47. TASTING OF WINE The quality of wine is analyzed by our senses. SIGHT: The colour & clarity of the wine can be judged. SMELL: Bouquet of the wine is analyzed. TASTE: The aroma can be determined. The tasting room should be well ventilated, with sufficient natural light and the temperature of the room should be around 20°C (68°F). Also there should be no noise to distract the wine taster.
  • 48. Winemakers and wine writers use a variety of descriptions to communicate the aromas, flavors and characteristics of wines. Many of the terms seem familiar and natural, yet others are less clear. Use this glossary of common wine terminology to help you better understand and describe the wines you enjoy. Acidity The presence of natural fruit acids that lend a tart, crisp taste to wine Aroma Smells in wine that originates from the grape Astringent Bitter; gives a drying sensation in the mouth Balanced All components of the wine are in harmony Barrel Fermented White wine that is fermented in an oak barrel instead of a stainless steel tank Body The weight and tactile impression of the wine on the palate that ranges from light to heavy/full Bouquet Smells from winemaking, aging and bottle age Buttery Rich, creamy flavor associated with barrel fermentation Character Describes distinct attributes of a wine Chewy Wine that has a very deep, textured and mouth-filling sensation Clean Wine without disagreeable aromas or tastes Closed Wine that needs to open up; aging and/or decanting can help Complex Layered aromas, flavors and textures Cooked Wine that has been exposed to excessively high temperatures; spoiled Corked Wine that has been tainted with moldy smells or other obvious flaws from a bad cork
  • 49. Delicate Light, soft and fresh wine Dry No sugar or sweetness remaining; a fruity wine can be dry Earthy Flavors and aromas of mushroom, soil and mineral Elegance A well balanced, full wine with pleasant, distinct character Finish The final impression of a wine on the palate; ranges from short to long Firm Texture and structure of a young, tannic red Flabby/ Flat Lacking in acidity, mouth-feel, structure and/or texture Fleshy A soft textured wine Flinty A mineral tone, aroma or flavor Floral Flower aromas such as rose petals, violets, gardenia or honeysuckle Fruity Obvious fruit aromas and flavors; not to be confused with sweet flavors such as berries, cherries and citrus Full- Bodied Rich, mouth filling, weighty-textured wine Grassy Aromas and flavors of fresh cut grass or fresh herbs Green Unripe, tart flavors
  • 50. Hard Texture and structure that hinders flavor Herbaceous Grassy, vegetable tones and aromas Lean Wine is thin and tastes more acidic than fruity Legs Teardrop impressions of alcohol weightiness that are visible on the inside edges of a wine glass Light- Bodied A wine with delicate flavors, texture and aromas Lively Young, fruity and vivacious flavor Malolactic Conversion of hard, malic acid (green apple flavors) in wine to soft, lactic acid (rich, butter flavors) Medium- Bodied A wine with solid, but not rich weight and texture Nose The smell of a wine; aroma Oak Aromas and flavors contributed during barrel fermentation and/or aging such as vanilla, caramel, chocolate, smoke, spice or toast Off-Dry (Semi-dry) Very low levels of residual sugar remaining in the wine Rich Weighty flavors and texture Round Smooth flavors and texture; well-balanced Smoky/ Toasty Aromas of smoke and toast imparted by fired barrels Sweet Wines that have a higher concentration of sugar after fermentation
  • 51. Tannin A drying, astringent sensation on the palate that is generally associated with heavier red wines Terroir French word reflecting the expression of soil, topography and climate in a wine Thin Wine is unpleasantly watery and lacks flavor and texture Vegetal Herbal, weedy aromas and flavors Velvety Smooth-textured with deep, rich aromas and flavors Vintage Year that grapes were harvested and fermented to make a wine
  • 52. MATCHING FOOD & WINE There are some general rules concerning which wines are best with which food. There are also some foods with which one should not serve wine. Chinese and Indian food are the best examples because these are strongly flavoured foods and the curries would make a wine useless as a compliment. For these foods, beer, cider, tea or even a fruit juice goes best. In other words, strong food with herbs & spices will overpower a good wine and cause it to taste bland or even sharp. For the same reason, a salad dressing containing vinegar or lemon juice, a dish with heavy garlic, tabasco, mustard, Worcestershire sauce etc. can ruin the taste of a good wine.
  • 53. Sauvignon Blanc Chardonnay Riesling Pinot Noir Syrah Merlot Cabernet Sauvigno n Zinfandel cheese/nut feta goat cheese pine nuts Asiago havarti almonds havarti Gouda candied walnuts goat cheese Brie walnuts sharp cheddar Roquefor t hazelnuts Parmesan Romano chestnuts cheddar Gorgonzo la walnuts Brie aged cheese meat/fowl chicken turkey veal chicken pork smoked sausage duck lamb sausage filet mignon chicken roast game pepperon i spicy sausage grilled meats steak venison rib eye beef stew pork spicy sausage beef duck seafood sole oysters scallops halibut shrimp crab sea bass trout orange roughy tuna salmon grilled swordfish tuna grilled tuna cioppino blackene d fish veggie/fruit citrus green apple asparagu s potato apple squash mango apricots chili peppers pears mushrooms dried fruit figs strawberr ies currants stewed tomatoes beets carmelized onions tomatoes plums black cherries broccoli tomatoes cranberries grilled peppers eggplant herb/spice chives tarragon cilantro tarragon sesame basil rosemary ginger nutmeg cinnamon clove oregano sage mint rosemary Juniper rosemary Juniper lavender pepper nutmeg sauces citrus light sauces cream sauce pesto sweet BBQ spicy chutney mushroom sauce light- medium red sauce heavy sauce red sauce Barbeque bolognese bearnaise brown sauce tomato sauce spicy Cajun salsa desserts sorbet key lime pie banana bread vanilla pudding apple pie carmel sauce creme brulee white chcolate Black Forest cake rhubarb pie dark chocolate berries fondue bittersweet chocolate espresso gelato spice cake gingerbre ad carrot cake
  • 54. GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR MATCHING FOOD & WINE  APPETIZERS: Champagne, dry & light white or rose wine or a dry sherry.  SOUPS: Dry sherry, full bodied dry white or light red wine.  SEAFOOD: Light, dry white wine.  FISH: Dry or medium dry white wine.  FISH IN RICH SAUCE: White wine with flavour & body.  ROAST BEEF OR LAMB: Full bodied red wine.  ROAST VEAL: Light red or full bodied white wine.  GRILLED MEATS: Light, delicate red wine.
  • 55. GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR MATCHING FOOD & WINE  ROAST HAM, PORK: Medium dry white, rose wine.  GAME: Full bodied red wine.  STEW: Full bodied red wine.  PASTA: Robust red or full bodied white wine.  POULTRY: Full bodied white or light red wine.  DESSERTS: Sweet white or sparkling wine.  STRONG CHEESE: Full bodied red.  BLUE CHEESE: Sweet white wine.  MILD CHEESE: Medium bodied red or fortified wine.  FRUITS: Sweet white, sparkling wine or port.
  • 56. STORAGE OF WINE Proper Wine storage is of prime importance. A good wine can be ruined before it reaches the table, if it is not properly stored. The very first essential of wine storage is an appropriate location. Wine must be kept in a place where it is not subject to temperature fluctuation and sunlight or fluorescent light. This location must also be such that the wine will be moved as little as possible. The bottles should rest quietly until they are ready to be opened as frequent movement can damage the wine.
  • 57. STORAGE OF WINE The wines must always be stored on their sides and the wine should be in constant contact with the cork so that it will not dry out and allow harmful air into the bottles. Wines with metal cap can be stored upright.
  • 58. SERVICE OF WINES Things required for service of Red wine:  The ordered wine bottle  Serviette  Wine opener  Ash tray  Quarter plate  Red wine glasses  Wine Salver
  • 59. SERVICE OF WINE Things required for service of White wine: The ordered wine bottle. Two serviettes Wine Opener Ash tray Quarter plate White wine glasses Wine salver Wine Cooler
  • 60. Things required for service of Sparkling wine: The ordered wine bottle Champagne chiller with stand Two serviettes Champagne glasses Quarter Plate Champagne stopper
  • 61. There are mainly six wine regions in France: 1. BORDEAUX 2. BURGUNDY 3. RHONE 4. CHAMPAGNE 5. ALSACE 6. LOIRE
  • 62. Largest wine producing region of France. This region is famous for the good quality red wines produced here which are known as “CLARET” in England and other English speaking countries. 1. MEDOC 2. GRAVES 3. ST. EMILLON 4. POMEROL 5. SAUTERNES
  • 63. This region is also known as “The heart of France” and is famous for the fine quality red, white & sparkling burgundies produced here. 1. CHABLIS 2. COTE D’OR 3. MACONNAISE 4. BEAUJOLAIS 5. CHALLONAISE
  • 64. This region is named after the river which flows through it. Rhone produces good white & red wines. 1. COTE ROTIE 2. HERMITAGE 3. CHATEAU NEUF-DU-PAPE
  • 65. This region produces the world’s best sparkling wine which is named after the region i.e. “CHAMPAGNE”. The word Champagne can only be associated to a sparkling wine, if a) It is produced within the region of Champagne and b) It is manufactured by using the “ Methode Champagnoise”. 1. MONTAGNE DE REIMS 2. VALLEE DE LA MARNE 3. CÔTE DE BLANCS 4. CÔTE DE SEZANNE 5. AUBE
  • 66. This region is located along the Rhine river which flows across Germany. This region produces some good quality white wines which are France’s answer to the German Rhine & Mosell wines. Riesling is the main grape variety used for making the wines.
  • 67. This region is located along the banks of Loire river which is the longest and one of the most beautiful rivers of France. Loire wines sometimes are collectively known as “ Vins de la loire” which includes red, white & rose wines , ranging in quality from poor to great.
  • 68. It is an island in the Mediterranean, the wines of which are primarily consumed on the island itself. It has nine AOC regions and and island wide vin de pays designation and is still developing its production methods as well as its regional style.
  • 69. It’s a small in the mountains close to Switzerland where some unique wine styles, notably Vin Jaune and Vin de Paille are produced. The region covers six appellations and is related to Burgundy through its extensive use of the Burgundian grapes Chardonnay and Pinot Noir. Though other varieties are also used. It also shares climatic conditions with Burgundy.
  • 70. It is by far the largest region in terms of vineyard area and the region in which much of France’s cheap bulk wines have been produced. While still the source of much of France’s and Europe’s overproduction, the so- called “wine lake”. This region is also the home of some of France’s most innovative producers. They try to combine traditional French wine and international styles and do not hesitate to take lessons from the New World. Most of the wine from this region is sold as Vin de pays.
  • 71. It is located in southeast and close to the Mediterranean. It is perhaps the warmest wine region of France and produces mainly rosé and red wine. It covers eight major appellations led by the Provence flagship, Bandol. Some Provence wine can be compared with the Southern Rhone wines as they share grapes, style and climate. Provence also has a classification of its most prestigious estates, much like Bordeaux.
  • 72. Savoy or savoie, primarily a white wine region in the Alps close to Switzerland, where many unique grape varities are cultivated.
  • 73. South West France or Sud-Quest, a somewhat heterogeneous collection Bordeaux. Some areas produce primarily red wines like Bordeaux, while others produce dry or sweet white wines. Area included in Sud-Quest are:  Bergerac & others of upstream Dordogne  Areas of upstream Garonne including Cahors  Areas in Gascony  Bearn, Jaracon  Basquecountry areas, such as Irouléguy
  • 74. FRENCH WINE CONTROL TERMS  TABLE VIN / VIN DE TABLE: These are the wines of medium quality which may be a blend of wines from more than one country of the EEC and are not less than 8.5% in alcoholic content.  VIN DE PAYS: These are the wines from the larger districts of France. AOC (Appellation d’origine contrôllée): Under AOC, strict regulations are there to govern & control the whole wine manufacturing process ( viticulture, fermentation & vinification ). Quality wines from different French regions whether small or large, if bears a label of AOC, ensures the guarantee of authenticity.  VDQS ( Vins délimités de qualité supérieure): VDQS wines are excellent second quality wines produced from specified vineyards or districts of France. These wines are also governed by strict laws.  MISE EN BOUTEILLE CHÂTEAU: Wines bottled at the Chateau.  ‘e’: This ‘e’ mark indicates that the bottler has complied with the EEC bottling capacity regulations.
  • 75.  QWPSR: Quality wines produces in a specific region  INAO: Institut des Appellations d’origine  TERROIR: It refers to the unique combination of factors like soil, underlying rocks. Altitude, slope of hill, orientation towards sun and other climatic conditions.
  • 78. The discovery of Champagne is frequently credited to “Dom Perignon”who was the Cellar Master at Abbey in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century. It is often said that he was the first to put the bubbles into the wine but the fact is that the nature puts them there. What Dom Perignon did do was apply to wine the process that puts fizz into beer. The bubbles are the same, CO2 which is a byproduct of fermentation. It is quite easy to make a fizzy or an effervescent wine. If the wine is bottled before the fermentation is complete and the bottle is tightly stoppered, the co2 will not escape until the bottle is opened. Dom Perignon actually discovered a process of tightly stoppering the bottle with a cork and he also learned how to improve a mediocre quality wine to a champagne by blending.
  • 79. Manufacturing of Champagne There are 4 methods of making Champagne:  Methodé Champénoise  Charmat or Tank or Cuve close method  Transfer or Transversage Method  Carbonation or Impregnation Method
  • 80. CHARMAT / TANK / CUVE CLOSE METHOD This was started by M. Charmat in France. In this method, the still wine is taken into a Vat and a measured quantity of sugar & yeast is added to start the secondary fermentation. This fermentation is carried out for 10 days and then is transferred through filters under pressure and bottled. This method is quicker and cheaper than Methode Champenoise.
  • 81. TRANSFER / TRANSVERSAGE METHOD This is very similar to Methode Champenoise but in this process, the expensive Remuage & Degorgement steps are not carried out. Instead , the wine is passed through a fine filter and Dosage is added to the filtered wine and then it is bottled. This is not a preferable method as the bouquet and body of the wine is lost.
  • 82. CARBONATION / IMPREGNATION METHOD This is also a cheaper method of producing sparkling wine. In this method, the CO2 is injected into the still, chilled wine and the wine is then bottled under pressure.
  • 83. METHODÉ CHAMPÉNOISE 1. Grape Varieties used: a) Chardonnay (White) b) Pinot Noir (Red) c) Pinot Meuniere (Red) 2. First Fermentation 3. Assemblage / Blending 4. Liqueur de tirage 5. Secondary Fermentation
  • 84. METHODÉ CHAMPÉNOISE 6. Sedimentation Process (REMUAGE) 7. Removal of Sediments (DEGORGEMENT) 8. DOSAGE OR LIQUEUR DE EXPEDITION
  • 87. VINTAGE CHAMPAGNE Non-Vintage champagne makes up about 80% of all champagne made. By law, these champagnes must age for one year in the bottle. Almost all champagnes are blended and often from the wines of more than one harvest. Vintage champagnes are produced occasionally in a particularly good grape growing year. When this happens, only the grapes from that year are used and the champagne becomes the vintage one. The year appears on the bottle label and the cork. The Vintage Champagne may be a blend but from the same year. However, in order to be declared a vintage Champagne by law, it must be matured for a minimum of one year and then be aged in the bottle for a minimum of five years.
  • 88. WINES OF GERMANY Germany does not produce much of wine. Its total wine production is only about 10% of either France’s or Italy’s and only about 1% of the world’s total production. Germany produces wines from the major vines of the world like Riesling, Sylvaner, Traminer etc. Although in earlier times most of the German wines used to be red but today it is almost entirely white. The wines of Germany are produced primarily in the valley of the Rhine & Moselle rivers. Some of the best German wines are produced from over ripened grapes, a condition that concentrates the grape sugar & natural flavour. It is the degree of ripeness that forms the basis of German wine laws. Because of their sweetness, German wines are best consumed on their own or with desserts but not with any strongly flavoured food.
  • 89. WINE REGIONS OF GERMANY Germany is divided into 13 wine producing regions (Anbaugebiete). Each region is having 2 or more districts. Each district has several villages or parishes and each village has several vineyards. In total, there are about 2600 vineyards in Germany. 1. Ahr 2. Baden 3. Hessiche Bergstrasse 4. Franken 5. Mittelrhein 6. Mosel-Saar-Ruwer 7. Nahe 8. Rheingau 9. Rheinhessen 10. Rheinpfalz 11.Württemberg 12. Saale Unstrut 13.Sachsen
  • 90. GERMAN WINE LAWS German wine laws came into existence in the year 1971. 1. Deutscher Tafelwein: This category is equivalent to the French Table Wines. The alcohol content must be at least 8.5% by volume. Sugar can be added to reach at this level. Acidity must be 4.5 g/lt. Tafelwein (without Deutscher) is a table wine blended with other European wines, also known as Euroblend.
  • 91. 2. Deutscher Landwien: This category is equivalent to French Vin de pays. There are 19 different areas from where the German Country wine can be produced. The wine must be dry or semi dry with 0.5% more alcohol that tablewines. These are also known as German Fruit wine.
  • 92. 3. Qualitatswein bestinnter Anbaugebiete (QbA): These wines must be produced exclusively from allowed varieties in one of the 13 wine-growing regions (Anbaugebiete), and the region must be shown on the label. The grapes must reach a must weight of 51°Oe to 72°Oe depending on region and grape variety. The alcohol content of the wine must be at least 7% by volume, and chaptalization is allowed. QbA range from dry to semi-sweet, and the style is often indicated on the label. There are some special wine types which are considered as special forms of QbA. Some top-level dry wines are officially QbA although they would qualify as Prädikatswein. It should be noted that only Qualitätswein plus the name of the region, rather than the full term Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete is found on the label.
  • 93. Prädikatswein, recently (August 1, 2007) renamed from Qualitätswein mit Prädikat (QmP) : The top level of the classification system. These prominently display a Prädikat from Kabinett to Trockenbeerenauslese on the label and may not be chaptalized. Prädikatswein range from dry to intensely sweet, but unless it is specifically indicated that the wine is dry or off-dry, these wines always contain a noticeable amount of residual sugar. Prädikatswein must be produced from allowed varieties in one of the 39 subregions (Bereich) of one of the 13 wine-growing regions, although it is the region rather than the subregion which is mandatory information on the label. (Some of the smaller regions, such as Rheingau, consist of only one subregion.) The required must weight is defined by the Prädikat, and the alcohol content of the wine must be at least 7% by volume for Kabinett to Auslese, and 5.5% by volume for Beerenauslese, Eiswein and Trockenbeerenauslese.
  • 94. Prädikat designations The Prädikatswein (formerly QmP) category of the classification contains most high-quality German wines, with the exception of some top-quality dry wines. The different Prädikat designations differ in terms of the required must weight, the sugar content of the grape juice, and the level required is dependent on grape variety and wine-growing region and is defined in terms of the Oechsle scale. In fact the must weight is seen as a rough indicator of quality (and price). The Prädikat system has its origin at Schloss Johannisberg in Rheingau, where the first Spätlese was produced in 1775 where wines received different colour seals based on their must weight. The different Prädikat designations used are as followed, in order of increasing sugar levels in the must:
  • 95. Kabinett fully ripened light wines from the main harvest, typically semi-sweet with crisp acidity, but can be dry if designated so. Spätlese - meaning "late harvest" typically semi-sweet, often (but not always) sweeter and fruitier than Kabinett. Spätlese can be a relatively full-bodied dry wine if designated so. While Spätlese means late harvest the wine is not as sweet as a dessert wine. Auslese - meaning "select harvest" made from selected very ripe bunches or grapes, typically semi-sweet or sweet, sometimes with some noble rot character. Sometimes Auslese is also made into a powerful dry wine, but the designation Auslese trocken has been discouraged after the introduction of Grosses Gewächs. Auslese is the Prädikat which covers the widest range of wine styles, and can be a dessert wine. Beerenauslese - meaning "select berry harvest" made from individually selected overripe grapes often affected by noble rot, making rich sweet dessert wine. Eiswein (ice wine) made from grapes that have been naturally frozen on the vine, making a very concentrated wine. Must reach at least the same level of sugar content in the must as a Beerenauslese. The most classic Eiswein style is to use only grapes that are not affected by noble rot. Until the 1980s, the Eiswein designation was used in conjunction with another Prädikat (which indicated the ripeness level of the grapes before they had frozen), but is now considered a Prädikat of its own. Trockenbeerenauslese - meaning "select dry berry harvest" or "dry berry selection" made from selected overripe shrivelled grapes often affected by noble rot making extremely rich sweet wines.
  • 96. WINE PRODUCING REGIONS 1. Ahr - a small region along the river Ahr, a tributary of Rhine, that despite its northernly location primarily produces red wine from Spätburgunder. 2. Baden - in Germany's southwestern corner, across river Rhine from Alsace, and the only German wine region situated in European Union wine growing zone B rather than A, which results in higher minimum required maturity of grapes and less chaptalisation allowed. Noted for its pinot wines - both red and white. Although the Kaiserstuhl region in the wine growing region of Baden is Germany's warmest location, the average temperature in the whole wine region is a little bit lower than in Palatinate (zone A). One of two wine regions in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg.
  • 97. 3. Franconia or Franken - around portions of Main river, and the only wine region situated in Bavaria. Noted for growing many varieties on chalky soil and for producing powerful dry Silvaner wines. 4. Hessische Bergstraße (Hessian Mountain Road) - a small region in the federal state Hesse dominated by Riesling. 5. Mittelrhein - along the middle portions of river Rhine, primarily between the regions Rheingau and Mosel, and dominated by Riesling.
  • 98. 6. Mosel - along the river Moselle (Mosel) and its tributaries, the rivers Saar and Ruwer, and was previously known as Mosel-Saar-Ruwer. The Mosel region is dominated by Riesling grapes and slate soils, and the best wines are grown in dramatic-looking steep vineyards directly overlooking the rivers. This region produces wine that is light in body, crisp, of high acidity and with pronounced mineral character. The only region to stick to Riesling wine with noticeable residual sweetness as the "standard" style, although dry wines are also produced. 7. Nahe - around the river Nahe where volcanic origins give very varied soils. Mixed grape varieties but the best known producers primarily grow Riesling, and some of them have achieved world reputation in recent years.
  • 99. 8. Palatinate or Pfalz - the second largest producing region in Germany, with production of very varied styles of wine (especially in the southern half), where red wine has been on the increase. The northern half of the region is home to many well known Riesling producers with a long history, which specialize in powerful Riesling wines in a dry style. Warmer than all other German wine regions. Until 1995, it was known in German as Rheinpfalz.
  • 100. 9. Rheingau - a small region situated at a bend in river Rhine which give excellent conditions for wine growing. The oldest documented references to Riesling come from the Rheingau region and it is the region where many German wine making practices have originated, such as the use of Prädikat designations, and where many high- profile producers are situated. Dominated by Riesling with some Spätburgunder. The Rheingau Riesling style is in- between Mosel and the Palatinate and other southern regions, and at its finest combines the best aspects of both.
  • 101. 10. Rheinhessen or Rhenish Hesse - the largest production area in Germany. Once known as Liebfraumilch land, but a quality revolution has taken place since the 1990s. Mixed wine styles and both red and white wines. The best Riesling wines are similar to Palatinate Riesling - dry and powerful. Despite its name, it lies in the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate, not in Hesse. 11. Saale-Unstrut - one of two regions in former East Germany, situated along the rivers Saale and Unstrut, and Germany's northernmost wine growing region.
  • 102. 12. Saxony or Sachsen - one of two regions in former East Germany, in the southeastern corner of the country, along the river Elbe in the federal state of Saxony. 13. Württemberg - a traditional red wine region, where grape varieties Trollinger (the region's signature variety), Schwarzriesling and Lemberger outnumber the varieties that dominate elsewhere. One of two wine regions in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg.
  • 103. FAMOUS WINES OF GERMANY 1. Spätburgunder: The forefather of the burgundy wines. Dark red colour with delicate aroma. Typical is a taste that reminds of blackcurrant or blackberry. These noble wines are good with game, poultry, paté de fois gras, pasta and pizza. The colour stays in the berry involucres and creates, therefore, a salmon- coloured fresh wine that is especially consumed in summer. 2. Trollinger: Southern Tyrol is the original homeland of the Trollinger from where the name is derived from. Today, it is almost exclusively cultivated in Wurttemberg. A light and fruity wine that varies in its colour between salmon-red and ruby-red. A good Trollinger tastes juicy and is served lightly cooled.
  • 104. 3. Muskattrollinger: Fruity, bright red wine with distinctive nutmeg aroma. Rare speciality, good with Hors d’oeuvres and desserts. 4. Lemberger (Blaufrankisch): a warm and aromatic wine. The colour is a glowing ruby-red with some brown reflections. Powerful red wine, one of the most noble types. 5. Dornfelder: Deep purple, dense colour. Noble red wine with a full body and full aroma and flavour. Excellent for the production in small wooden barrels (barrique). 6. Samtrot: A natural mutation of the black Riesling. Ruby-red to dark red colour. Velvety taste, warm and full bodied.
  • 105. A.P.Number Abbreviation for Amtliche Prüfungsnummer, the official testing number displayed on a German wine label that shows that the wine was tasted and passed government quality control standards.
  • 106. WINES OF ITALY Italian wine is wine produced in Italy, a country which is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world. Etruscans and Greek settlers produced wine in the country long before the Romans started developing their own vineyards in the 2nd century BC. Roman grape-growing and winemaking was prolific and well- organized, pioneering large-scale production and storage techniques like barrel-making and bottling. Two thousand years later, Italy remains one of the world's foremost producers, responsible for approximately one-fifth of world wine production in 2005. Wine is a popular drink in Italy. Grapes are grown in almost every part of Italy, with more than 1 million vineyards under cultivation. In some places the vines are trained along low supports. In others they climb as slender saplings. Most wine-making in Italy is done in modern wineries. However, villagers who make wine for their own use sometimes still tread the grapes with their bare feet, until the juice is squeezed out. They believe this ancient method still makes the best wine.
  • 107. Although wines had been elaborated from the wild Vitis vinifera grape for millennia, it wasn't until the Greek colonization that wine-making flourished. Viticulture was introduced into Sicily and southern Italy by the Mycenaean Greeks, and was well established when the extensive Greek colonization transpired around 800 BC. It was during the Roman defeat of the Carthaginians (acknowledged masters of wine-making) in the second century BC that Italian wine production began to further flourish. Large-scale, slave-run plantations sprang up in many coastal areas and spread to such an extent that, in AD92, emperor Domitian was forced to destroy a great number of vineyards in order to free up fertile land for food production. During this time, viticulture outside of Italy was prohibited under Roman law. Exports to the provinces were reciprocated in exchange for more slaves, especially from Gaul where trade was intense, according to Pliny, due to the inhabitants being besotted with Italian wine, drinking it unmixed and without restraint. Roman wines contained more alcohol and were generally more powerful than modern fine wines. It was customary to mix wine with a good proportion of water which may otherwise have been unpalatable, making wine drinking a fundamental part of early Italian life. As the laws on provincial viticulture were relaxed, vast vineyards began to flourish in the rest of Europe, especially Gaul (present day France) and Hispania. This coincided with the cultivation of new vines, like biturica (ancestor of the Cabernets). These vineyards became hugely successful, to the point that Italy ultimately became an import centre for provincial wines. Depending on the vintage, modern Italy is the world's largest or second largest wine producer. In 2005, production was about 20% of the global total, second only to France, which produced 26%. In the same year, Italy's share in dollar value of table wine imports into the U.S. was 32%, Australia's was 24%, and France's was 20%. Along with Australia, Italy's market share has rapidly increased in recent years.
  • 108. Vines and vineyards together with olive trees
  • 109. Vineyards around the town of Barolo.
  • 110. CLASSIFICATION OF ITALIAN WINES Italy's classification system is a modern one that reflects current realities. It has four classes of wine, with two falling under the EU category Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWPSR) and two falling under the category of 'table wine'. The four classes are: Table Wine: Vino da Tavola (VDT) - Denotes wine from Italy. NOTE: this is not always synonymous with other countries' legal definitions of 'table wine'. The appellation indicates either an inferior qualifying wine, or one that does not follow current wine law. Some quality wines do carry this appellation. Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) - Denotes wine from a more specific region within Italy. This appellation was created for the "new" wines of Italy, those that had broken the strict, old wine laws but were wines of great quality. Before the IGT was created, quality "Super Tuscan" wines such as Tignanello and Sassicaia were labeled Vino da Tavola.
  • 111. QWPSR: Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) Both DOC and DOCG wines refer to zones which are more specific than an IGT, and the permitted grapes are also more specifically defined. The main difference between a DOC and a DOCG is that the latter must pass a blind taste test for quality in addition to conforming to the strict legal requirements to be designated as a wine from the area in question. Presently, there are 120 IGT zones. In February 2006 there were 311 DOC plus 36 DOCG appellations.
  • 113. Italy's 20 wine regions correspond to the 20 political regions. Understanding of Italian wine becomes clearer with an understanding of the differences between each region; their cuisines reflect their indigenous wines, and vice-versa. The 36 DOCG wines are located in 13 different regions but most of them are concentrated in Piedmont and Tuscany. Among these are appellations appreciated and sought by wine lovers around the world: Barolo, Barbaresco, Brunello and Chianti Classico. Despite its high quality Amarone is not classified as a DOCG. The regions are, roughly from Northwest to Southeast:
  • 114. Aosta Valley (Valle D'Aosta) Piedmont (Piemonte) Liguria Lombardy (Lombardia) Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Friuli-Venezia Giulia Veneto Emilia-Romagna Tuscany (Toscana) Marche (Le Marche) Umbria Lazio (Latium) Abruzzo Molise Campania Basilicata Apulia (Puglia) Calabria Sicily (Sicilia) Sardinia (Sardegna)
  • 115. Rosso (Red)  Sangiovese - Italy's claim to fame, the pride of Tuscany. Its wines are full of cherry fruit, earth, and cedar. It produces Chianti Classico, Rosso di Montalcino, Brunello di Montalcino, Rosso di Montepulciano, Montefalco Rosso, and many others.  Nebbiolo - The most noble of Italy's varietals. The name (meaning "little fog") refers to the autumn fog that blankets most of Piedmont where it is grown, a condition the grape seems to enjoy. It is a somewhat difficult varietal to master, but produces the most renowned Barolo and Barbaresco, made in province of Cuneo, along with the lesser- known Sforzato, Inferno and Sassella made in Valtellina, Ghemme and Gattinara, made in Vercelli's province. The wines are known for their elegance and bouquet of wild mushroom, truffle, roses, and tar.  Montepulciano- The grape of this name is not to be confused with the Tuscan town of Montepulciano; it is most widely planted on the opposite coast in Abruzzo. Its wines develop silky plum-like fruit, friendly acidity, and light tannin.  Barbera - The most widely grown red wine grape of Piedmont and Southern Lombardy, most famously around the towns of Asti and Alba, and Pavia. The wines of Barbera were once simply "what you drank while waiting for the Barolo to be ready." With a new generation of wine makers, this is no longer the case. The wines are now meticulously vinified, aged Barbera gets the name "Barbera Superiore" (Superior Barbera), sometimes aged in French barrique becoming "Barbera Barricato", and intended for the international market. The wine has bright cherry fruit, a very dark color, and a food-friendly acidity.
  • 116.  Corvina - Along with the varietals rondinella and molinara, this is the principal grape which makes the famous wines of the Veneto: Valpolicella and Amarone. Valpolicella wine has dark cherry fruit and spice. After the grapes undergo passito (a drying process), the Amarone they yield is elegant, dark, and full of raisin like fruits. Some Amarones can age for 40+ years.  Nero d'Avola - Nearly unheard of in the international market until recent years, this native varietal of Sicily is gaining attention for its robust, inky wines, and has therefore been nicknamed "the Barolo of the South".  Dolcetto - A grape that grows alongside Barbera and Nebbiolo in Piedmont, its name means "little sweet one"", referring not to the taste of the wine, but the ease in which it grows and makes great wines, suitable for everyday drinking. Flavors of concord grape, wild blackberries and herbs permeate the wine.  Negroamaro - The name literally means "black and bitter". A widely planted grape with its concentration in the region of Puglia, it is the backbone of the acclaimed Salice Salentino: spicy, toasty, and full of dark red fruits.
  • 117. Aglianico - Considered the "noble varietal of the south," it is primarily grown in Campania and Basilicata. The name is derived from Hellenic, so it is considered a Greek transplant. Thick skinned and spicy, the wines are often both rustic and powerful.  Sagrantino - A native to Umbria, it is only planted on 250 hectares, but the wines produced from it (either blended with Sangiovese as Rosso di Montefalco or as a pure Sagrantino) are world-renowned. Inky purple, with rustic brooding fruit and heavy tannins, these wines can age for many years.  Malvasia Nera - Red Malvasia varietal from Piedmont. A sweet and perfumed wine, sometimes elaborated in the passito style
  • 118. Bianco (White) Trebbiano - Behind cataratto (which is made for industrial jug wine), this is the most widely planted white varietal in Italy. It is grown throughout the country, with a special focus on the wines from Abruzzo and from Lazio, including Frascati. Mostly, they are pale, easy drinking wines, but trebbiano from producers such as Valentini have been known to age for 15+ years. It is known as Ugni Blanc in France. Moscato - Grown mainly in Piedmont, it is mainly used in the slightly-sparkling (frizzante), semi-sweet Moscato d'Asti. Not to be confused with moscato giallo and moscato rosa, two Germanic varietals that are grown in Trentino Alto- Adige. Nuragus - An ancient Phoenician varietal found in southern Sardegna. Light and tart wines that are drunk as an apertif in their homeland. Pinot Grigio - A hugely successful commercial grape (known as Pinot Gris in France), its wines are characterized by crispness and cleanness. As a hugely mass- produced wine, it is usually delicate and mild, but in a good producers' hands, the wine can grow more full-bodied and complex. The main problem with the grape is that to satisfy the commercial demand, the grapes are harvested too early every year, leading to wines without character
  • 119.  Tocai Friulano - A varietal distantly related to Sauvignon Blanc, it yields the top wine of Friuli, full of peachiness and minerality. Currently, there is a bit of controversy regarding the name, as the EC has demanded it changed to avoid confusion with the Tokay dessert wine from Hungary.  Ribolla Gialla - A Slovenian grape that now makes its home in Friuli, these wines are decidedly old-world, with aromas of pineapple and mustiness.  Arneis - A crisp and floral varietal from Piedmont, which has been grown there since the 15th century.  Malvasia Bianca - Another white varietal that peeks up in all corners of Italy with a wide variety of clones and mutations. Can range from easy quaffers to funky, musty whites.  Pigato - A heavily acidic varietal from Liguria, the wines are vinified to pair with a cuisine rich in seafood. Fiano (wine) - Grown on the southwest coast of Italy, the wines from this grape can be described as dewy and herbal, often with notes of pinenut and pesto. Garganega - The main grape varietal for wines labeled Soave, this is a crisp, dry white wine from the Veneto wine region of Italy. It's a very popular wine that hails from northeast Italy around the city of Verona. Currently, there are over 3,500 distinct producers of Soave
  • 120. Super Tuscans The term "Super Tuscan" describes any Tuscan red wine that does not adhere to traditional blending laws for the region. For example, Chianti Classico wines are made from a blend of grapes with Sangiovese as the dominant varietal in the blend. Super Tuscans often use other grapes, especially cabernet sauvignon, making them ineligible for DOC(G) classification under the traditional rules.
  • 121. SOUTH AFRICA IS ONE FO THE WORLD’S MOST EXCITING WINE PRODUCING COUNTRIES. As of 2003, South Africa was 17th in terms of acreage planted with the country owning 1.5% of the world's grape vineyards with 270,600 acres (110,000 hectares). Yearly production among South Africa's wine regions is usually around 264 million gallons (10 million hl) which regularly puts the country among the top ten wine producing countries in the world. The majority of wine production in South Africa takes place in the Cape Province, particularly the southwest corner near the coastal region. South African wine has a history dating back to 1659, and at one time Constantia was considered one of the greatest wines in the world. Access to international markets has unleashed a burst of new energy and new investment. Production is concentrated around Cape Town, with major vineyard and production centres at Paarl, Stellenbosch and Worcester.
  • 122. There are about 60 appellations within the Wine of Origin (WO) system, which was implemented in 1973 with a hierarchy of designated production regions, districts and wards. WO wines must be made 100% from grapes from the designated area. "Single vineyard" wines must come from a defined area of less than 5 hectares. An "Estate Wine" can come from adjacent farms, as long as they are farmed together and wine is produced on site. A ward is an area with a distinctive soil type and/or climate, and is roughly equivalent to a European appellation.
  • 123. Grape varieties in South Africa are known as cultivar, with many common international varieties developing local synonyms that still have a strong tradition of use. These include Chenin blanc (Steen), Riesling (known locally as Weisser Riesling), Crouchen (known as Cape Riesling), Palomino (the grape of the Spanish wine Sherry known locally as "White French"), Trebbiano (Ugni Blanc), Sémillon (Groendruif) and Muscat of Alexandria (Hanepoot). However, wines that are often exported overseas will usually have the more internationally recognized name appear on the wine label. GRAPE VARIETIES
  • 124. In 2006, SAWIS (South African Wine Information and Systems) reported that the country had 100,146 hectares of vineyards, with about 55 percent planted to white varieties. Chenin blanc has long been the most widely planted variety, still accounting for at least one-fifth of all grape varieties planted in South Africa as of 2004 though that number is decreasing. In the 1980s and 1990s, interest in international varieties saw increase in plantings of Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc. Other white grape varieties with significant plantings include Colombard (spelled locally as Colombar), Cape Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Hannepoot, Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains, Riesling and Sémillon. Both red and white mutants of Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains as well as Chenel and Weldra, two Chenin blanc-Ugni blanc crossings, are used for brandy distillation and fortified wine production.
  • 125. Since the 1990s, interest and plantings of red grape varieties have been steadily on the rise. In the late 1990s, less than 18% of all the grapes grown in South Africa were red. By 2003 that number has risen to 40% and was still trending upwards. For most of the 21st century, the high yielding Cinsaut was the most widely planted red grape variety but the shift in focus to quality wine production has saw plantings of the grape steadily decline to where it represented just 3% of all South Africa vineyards in 2004. In its place Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz and Pinotage have risen to prominence with Cabernet Sauvignon being the most widely red grape variety covering 13% of all plantings in 2006. Other red grape varieties found in South Africa include Carignan, Gamay (often made in the style of Beaujolais wine with carbonic maceration, Grenache, Pontac, Ruby Cabernet, Tinta Barroca and Zinfandel. There is a wide range of lesser known groups that are used to feed the country's still robust distilled spirits and fortified wine industry. These grapes usually produce bland, neutral wine that lends itself well to blending and distillation but is rarely seen as varietal bottlings. These include Belies, False Pedro, Kanaän, Raisin blanc, Sultana and Servan.
  • 126. Grape Vineyards Chenin Blanc 18.7% Cabernet Sauvignon 13.1% Colombard 11.4% Shiraz 9.6% Sauvignon Blanc 8.2% Chardonnay 8.0% Merlot 6.7% Pinotage 6.2%
  • 127. Vineyard in the Paarl ward of Franschhoek
  • 128. A vineyard in Stellenbosch
  • 129. Some South African wines and cheeses
  • 130. SOUTH AFRICAN WINE REGIONS CONSTANTIA: It is the historic hub of Cape wine. Closest to Cape Town, it boasts some of the most famous estate names such as Groot and Klein Constantia, and Buitenverwachting. On premium terroir and in ideal climatic conditions, superb sauvignon blanc and semillon wines are produced DURBANVILLE: and its hills northeast of Cape Town have a winemaking history dating back 280 years. Some star performers are emerging, including brilliant sauvignon blancs with strong contemporary focus on shiraz and merlot. Durbanville Hills is a large, modern facility and Nitida a small boutique set-up.
  • 131. FRANSCHHOEK: lies in a contained valley, a pretty town founded by the French Huguenots in 1688. Today it is very much a boutique region with old buildings, restaurants and small producers. Stylish cellars include La Motte, Cabrière, Plaisir de Merle and Boekenhoutskloof. KLEIN KAROO: is a semi-desert region inland that has inspired some winemakers to take up the challenge. Fortified wines such as muscadels and Portuguese “port” styles do well in places such as Calitzdorp.
  • 132. OLIFANTS RIVER is a fast-growing region stretching a few hundred kilometres up the west coast from the Cape. Plenty of exported easy-drinking wines come from here. The Vredendal Winery is one of the largest in the world, employing some of the most modern techniques. ORANGE RIVER is one of Africa’s great rivers and along its Northern Cape bank lie large white-wine producing vineyards. Winemaking is sophisticated and reds are getting more attention with an eye to exports.
  • 133. PAARL is another of the Cape’s historic towns where wine has been made for centuries. Home to the original KWV head office and its impressive Cathedral Cellar, as well as the country’s best-known brand Nederburg, many cellars, small and large, from boutique to co- operative, produce wine from the ordinary to the sensational. Winemakers have been concentrating on shiraz, but some fine chenin blanc, pinotage, cabernet sauvignon, blends, and even unusual varieties such as viognier and mourvèdre are turned into prize-winning wines. Glen Carlou, Villiera and the value-for-money co- operative Boland Kelders are among the top performers here.
  • 134. ROBERTSON and a few other villages lie along a fertile, if warm, valley where white wines such as chardonnay (from De Wetshof Estate) and sparkling wine (from Graham Beck Winery) used to be the main stars. Today the move is to red varieties, especially shiraz (Zandvliet).
  • 135. STELLENBOSCH is, in the minds of many, the finest wine area in South Africa, claiming the crown for reds. With a list of more than 80 wineries and producers, it is also the most expensive wine farmland. Nearly all the most famous international names in South African wines are found here in an area reaching from sea-facing slopes to valley- hugging hills. This is the home of Kanonkop, Meerlust, Rustenberg, Thelema and Warwick. The list is endless. This is also where Distell, the country’s largest player in the drinks market, is seated. Designated wards within the district are Jonkershoek Valley, Simonsberg-Stellenbosch, Bottelary, Devon Valley and Papegaaiberg. Cabernet sauvignon, merlot, pinotage and chenin blanc are the stars here.
  • 136. SWARTLAND means “black country”, a traditional sunny wheat area north of Cape Town. These days, wineries are making modern, well-appreciated white wines here with top reds on the way. The Darling region especially is on the roll. WALKER BAY near the coastal town of Hermanus has become another of the Cape’s most fashionable regions. With Elgin to the west and Bot River inland, it falls under the Overberg appellation. It is the home of Cape pinot noir and good chardonnay and home to places like Hamilton-Russell. WORCESTER and surrounds comprise 20% of all South Africa’s vineyards. Brandy is produced, and wine for wholesalers. Small volumes are bottled under own labels. Value-for-money is a hallmark.
  • 137. California wine is wine made in the U.S. state of California. Nearly three-quarters the size of France, California accounts for nearly 90 percent of entire American wine production. The production in California alone is one third larger than that of Australia. If California were a separate country, it would be the world's fourth-largest wine producer. The state's viticultural history dates back to the 18th century when Spanish missionaries planted the first vineyards to produce wine for Mass. Following a wine renaissance in the mid-20th century, Californian wine entered the international stage at the 1976 Judgment of Paris wine competition when Californian wines beat out French wines in both red and white wine categories. Today there are more than 1,200 wineries in the state, ranging from small boutique wineries to large corporations like E & J Gallo Winery with distribution across the globe.
  • 138. GRAPES & WINES OF CALIFORNIA Over a hundred grape varieties are grown in California including French, Italian and Spanish wine varietals as well as hybrid grapes and new vitis vinifera varieties developed at the UC Davis Department of Viticulture and Enology. The seven leading grape varieties are:  Cabernet Sauvignon  Chardonnay  Merlot  Pinot noir  Sauvignon blanc  Syrah  Zinfandel Other important red wine grapes include Barbera, Cabernet franc, Carignane, Grenache, Malbec, Mouvedre, Petite Sirah, Petit Verdot and Sangiovese. Important white wine varietals include Chenin blanc, French Colombard, Gewürztraminer, Marsanne, Muscat Canelli, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Riesling, Roussane, Sémillon,Trousseau gris, and Viognier.
  • 139. New World wine styles While Californian winemakers increasingly craft wines in more "Old World" or European wine styles, most Californian wines (along with Australia, New Zealand, Chile and Argentina) favor simpler, more fruit dominant New World wines. The reliably warm weather allows many wineries to use very ripe fruit which brings up a more fruit forward rather than earthy or mineralic style of wine. It also creates the opportunity for higher alcohol levels with many Californian wines having over 13.5%. The style of Californian Chardonnay differs greatly from wines like Chablis with Californian winemakers frequently using malolactic fermentation and oak aging to make buttery, full bodied wines. Californian Sauvignon blancs are not as herbaceous as wines from the Loire Valley or New Zealand but do have racy acidity and fresh, floral notes. Some Sauvignon blanc are given time in oak which can dramatically change the profile of the wine. Robert Mondavi first pioneered this style as a Fume blanc which other Californian winemakers have adopted. However, that style is not strictly defined to mean an oak wine.
  • 140. SPARKLING & DESSERT WINES California sparkling wine traces its roots to Sonoma in the 1880s with the founding of Korbel Champagne Cellars. The Korbel brothers made sparkling wine according to the méthode champenoise from Riesling, Chasselas, Muscatel and Traminer. Today most California sparkling wine is largely made from the same grapes used in Champagne-Chardonnay, Pinot noir and some Pinot meunier. Some wineries will also use Pinot blanc, Chenin blanc and French Colombard. The premium quality producers still use the méthode champenoise (or traditional method) while some low cost producers, like Gallo's Andre brand or Constellation Brands' Cook's, will use the Charmat method
  • 141. WINE REGIONS OF CALIFORNIA California has over 427,000 acres (1,730 km2) planted under vines mostly located in a stretch of land covering over 700 miles (1,100 km) from Mendocino County to the southwestern tip of Riverside County. There are over 107 American Viticultural Areas (AVAs), including the well known Napa, Russian River Valley, Rutherford and Sonoma Valley AVAs. The Central Valley is California's largest wine region stretching for 300 miles (480 km) from the Sacramento Valley south to the San Joaquin Valley. This one region produces nearly 75% of all California wine grapes and includes many of California's bulk, box and jug wine producers like Gallo, Franzia and Bronco Wine Company. The wine regions of California are often divided into 4 main regions-
  • 142. North Coast - Includes most of North Coast, California, north of San Francisco Bay. The large North Coast AVA covers most of the region. Notable wine regions include Napa Valley and Sonoma County and the smaller sub AVAs within them. Mendocino and Lake County are also part of this region. Central Coast - Includes most of the Central Coast of California and the area south and west of San Francisco Bay down to Santa Barbara County. The large Central Coast AVA covers the region. Notable wine regions in this area include Santa Clara Valley AVA,Santa Cruz Mountains AVA, San Lucas AVA, Paso Robles AVA, Santa Maria Valley AVA, Santa Ynez Valley and Livermore Valley AVA. South Coast - Includes portion of Southern California, namely the coastal regions south of Los Angeles down to the border with Mexico. Notable wine regions in this area include Temecula Valley AVA, Antelope Valley/Leona Valley AVA, San Pasqual Valley AVA and Ramona Valley AVA. Central Valley - Includes California's Central Valley and the Sierra Foothills AVA. Notable wine regions in this area include the Lodi AVA.
  • 144. The Australian wine industry is the fourth-largest exporter in the world, exporting over 400 million litres a year to a large international export market that includes "old world" wine- producing countries such as France, Italy and Spain. There is also a significant domestic market for Australian wines, with Australians consuming over 400 million litres of wine per year. The wine industry is a significant contributor to the Australian economy through production, employment, export and tourism. McWilliams winery near Griffith in the Riverina wine region
  • 145. Major grape varieties are Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon, and Riesling. The country has no native grapes, and Vitis vinifera varieties were introduced from Europe and South Africa in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Some varieties have been bred by Australian viticulturalists, for example Cienna and Tarrango. Although Syrah was originally called Shiraz in Australia and Syrah elsewhere, its dramatic commercial success has led many Syrah producers around the world to label their wine "Shiraz". About 130 different grape varieties are used by commercial winemakers in Australia. Over recent years many winemakers have begun exploring so called "alternative varieties" other than those listed above. Many varieties from France, Italy and Spain for example Petit Verdot, Pinot Grigio, Sangiovese, Tempranillo and Viognier are becoming more common. Wines from many other varieties are being produced.
  • 147. Barossa Valley: The Barossa Valley is north east of Adelaide, South Australia, and has a hot climate. Penfolds is one of the more famous wineries in this region. Barossa is renowned for its Rieslings which is indicative of the Valley's German heritage, and for the reds such as Shiraz and Cabernets. Hunter Valley: The Hunter Valley is another hot area and is located north of Sydney, New South Wales. This area is within easy reach of Sydney for a day trip or you can stay overnight at one of the many bed and breakfasts. Some of the more notable vineyards include Rosemount, and Rothbury. A variety of wines are grown in the Hunter Valley, including Shiraz and Semillon. As well as visiting the larger vineyards, you will want to check out some of the smaller boutique wines.
  • 148. Clare Valley: The Clare Valley is a cooler growing area located in South Australia, north of Adelaide. This is an area of four interconnecting valleys, the Clare, Polish River, Watervale and Skillogallee. The main wines from the Clare Valley are the whites such as Riesling, Chardonnay and Semillon. Coonawarra: Coonawarra lies to the south east of Adelaide and is more noted for it's reds such as Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon. The area has a cooler climate and is also noted for is reddish coloured terra rossa soil. Penfolds grows some its grapes here for some of its Cabernets. One of the more popular wines from this region includes the Wynns Coonawarra Estate. Yarra Valley: The Yarra Valley is located in Victoria, north east of Melbourne. It has a temperate climate and is noted for making the cooler climate varietals. The Pinot Noir is popular here and one of the better wines that we have tried from this area is Coldsteam Hills.
  • 149. Eden Valley: is a small South Australian town in the Barossa Ranges. It was named by the surveyors of the area after they found the word "Eden" carved into a tree. Eden Valley has an elevation of 460 metres and an average annual rainfall of 716.2mm.Eden Valley gives its name to a wine growing region that shares its western boundary with the Barossa Valley. The region is of similar size to the Barossa Valley, and is well known for producing high quality riesling and shiraz wines. Englishman Joseph Gilbert planted the first Eden Valley vineyard, Pewsey Vale, in 1847. Within the Eden Valley region there is a sub-region called High Eden which is located higher in the Barossa Ranges, giving cooler temperatures. Pyrenees: The Pyrenees ranges are located in Victoria, Australia near the town of Avoca. It is a wine growing region. The altitude of the ranges is 220-375 m (722-1230 ft). Wines were first planted in the region in 1848. In recent years it is recognized as a significant producer of full-bodied red wines based on Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grape varieties.
  • 150. Grampians: The Grampians is an Australian wine region located in the state of Victoria, west of Melbourne. It is located near the Grampians National Park and the Pyrenees hills. The area is dominated by red wine production, particularly Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon. Henty is a town in south western Victoria, Australia. The town is located in the Shire of Glenelg Local Government Area, 373 kilometres (232 mi) west of the state capital, Melbourne. It is also an Australian wine region. It has one of the cooler climates of any Australian wine region and is known for its white wine production of Chardonnay, Riesling, Semillon and Sauvignon blanc as well as a small red wine production of Pinot noir. Henty Post Office opened on 16 April 1885 and closed in 1977.
  • 151. Portuguese wine is the result of traditions introduced to the region by ancient civilizations, such as the Phoenicians,Carthaginians, Greeks, and mostly the Romans. Portugal started to export its wines to Rome during the Roman Empire. Modern exports developed with trade to England after the Methuen Treaty in 1703. From this commerce a wide variety of wines started to be grown in Portugal. And, in 1758, the first wine-producing region of the world, the Região Demarcada do Douro was created under the orientation of Marquis of Pombal, in the Douro Valley. Portugal has two wine producing regions protected by UNESCO asWorld Heritage: the Douro Valley Wine Region (Douro Vinhateiro) and Pico Island Wine Region (Ilha do Pico Vinhateira). Portugal has a large variety of native breeds, producing a very wide variety of different wines with distinctive personality.
  • 152. Portugal possesses a large array of native varietals, producing an abundant variety of different wines. The wide array of Portuguese grape varietals contributes as significantly as the soil and climate to wine differentiation, producing distinctive wines from the Northern regions to Madeira Islands, and from Algarve to the Azores. In Portugal only some grape varietals or castas are authorized or endorsed in the Demarcated regions, such as:
  • 153. Vinhos Verdes - White castas Alvarinho, Arinto (Pedern),Avesso, Azal, Batoca, Loureiro, Trajadura; red castas Amaral,Borraçal, Alvarelhão, Espadeiro, Padeiro, Pedral, Rabo de Anho, Vinhão. Porto/Douro - Red castas Touriga Nacional, Tinta Amarela, Aragonez, Bastardo, Castelão, Cornifesto, Donzelinho Tinto,Malvasia Preta, Marufo, Rufete, Tinta Barroca, Tinta Francisca Tinto Cão, Touriga Franca; white castas Arinto, Cercial,Donzelinho Branco, Folgazão, Gouveio, Malvasia Fina, Moscatel Galego Branco, Rabigato, Samarrinho, Semillon, Sercial,Roupeiro, Verdelho, Viosinho, Vital. Dão - Red castas Touriga Nacional, Alfrocheiro, Aragonez, Jaen e Rufete; White castas Encruzado, Bical, Cercial, Malvasia Fina, Verdelho. Bairrada - Red casts Baga, Alfrocheiro, Camarate, Castelão, Jaen, Touriga Nacional, Aragonez; white castas Maria Gomes, Arinto, Bical, Cercial, Rabo de Ovelha, Verdelho. Bucelas - White castas Arinto, Sercial e Rabo de Ovelha. Colares - Red casta Ramisco; White casta Malvasia Carcavelos - Red castas Castelão and Preto Martinho; White castas Galego Dourado, Ratinho, Arinto. Setúbal - Red casta Moscatel Roxo; white casta Moscatel de Setúbal. Alentejo - Red castas Alfrocheiro, Aragonez, Periquita1, Tinta Caiada, Trincadeira, Alicante Bouschet, Moreto; White castas Antão Vaz, Arinto , Fernão Pires, Rabo de Ovelha,Roupeiro Algarve - Red castas Negra Mole, Trincadeira, Alicante Bouschet, Aragonez , Periquita; White castas Arinto, Roupeiro, Manteúdo, Moscatel Graúdo, Perrum, Rabo de Ovelha. Madeira - Red castas Bastardo, Tinta, Malvasia Cândida Roxa, Verdelho Tinto e Tinta Negra; white castas Sercial, Malvasia Fina (Boal), Malvasia Cândida, Folgasão (Terrantez), Verdelho
  • 154. The traditional rebelo boat, used to transport Port Wine from the Douro Valley to the cellars near the city of Porto.
  • 155. The appellation system of the Douro region was created nearly two hundred years before that of France, in order to protect its superior wines from inferior ones. The quality and great variety of wines in Portugal are due to noble castas, microclimates, soils and proper technology. Official designations: APPELLATION SYSTEM  Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWPSR) or VQPRD - Vinho de Qualidade Produzido em Região Demarcada  These are the most protected wine and indicates a specific vineyard, such as Port Wine, Vinhos Verdes, and Alentejo Wines. These wines are labeled D.O.C. (Denominação de Origem Controlada) which secures a superior quality.  Wines that have more regulations placed upon them but are not in a DOC region fall under the category of Indicação de Proveniência Regulamentada (IPR, Indication of Regulated Provenance)  Regional Wine - Vinho Regional Carries with it a specific region within Portugal.  Table Wines - Vinho de Mesa carries with it only the producer and the designation that it's from Portugal.
  • 156. Vineyards in Vinho Verde Demarcated Region in Minho, Portugal
  • 157. WINE REGIONS Vinho Verde is produced from grapes which do not reach great doses of sugar. Therefore, Vinho Verde does not require an aging process. Vinho Verde wines are now largely exported, and are the most exported Portuguese wines after the Port Wine. The most popular variety in Portugal and abroad are the white wines, but there are also red and more rarely rosé wines. A notable variety of Vinho Verde is Vinho Alvarinho which is a special variety of white Vinho Verde, the production of Alvarinho is restricted by EU law to a small sub-region of Monção, in the northern part of the Minho region in Portugal. It has more alcohol (11.5 to 13%) than the other varieties (8 to 11.5%). Douro wine (Vinho do Douro) originates from the same region as port wines. In the past they were considered to be a bitter tasting wine. In order to prevent spoilage during the voyage from Portugal to England, the English decided to add a Portuguese wine brandy known as aguardente. The first documented commercial transactions appearing in registries of export date as far back as 1679. Today's Douro table wines are enjoying growing favor in the world, maintaining many traits that are reminiscent of a port wine. Dão wine is from the Região Demarcada do Dão, a region demarcated in 1908, but already in 1390 there were taken some measures to protect this wine. The Dão Wine is produced in a mountainous region with temperate climate, in the area of the Mondego and Dão Rivers in the north region of central Portugal. These mountains protect the castas from maritime and continental influences
  • 158. Dão wine is from the Região Demarcada do Dão, a region demarcated in 1908, but already in 1390 there were taken some measures to protect this wine. The Dão Wine is produced in a mountainous region with temperate climate, in the area of the Mondego and Dão Rivers in the north region of central Portugal. These mountains protect the castas from maritime and continental influences . Bairrada wine, is produced in the Região Demarcada da Bairrada. The name "Bairrada" is from "barros" (clay) and due to the clayey soils of the region. Although the region was classified in 1979, it is an ancient vineyard region. The vines grow exposed to the sun, favouring the further maturity of the grapes. The Baga casta is intensely used in the wines of the region. The Bairrada region produces table, white and red wines. Yet, it is notable for its sparkling natural wine: the "Conde de Cantanhede" and "Marquês de Marialva" are the official brands for this wine. Alentejo wine is produced from grapes planted in vast vineyards extending over rolling plains under the sun which shines on the grapes and ripens them for the production. Colares wine is type of wine produced in sandy soils outside Lisbon between the foothills of Sintra and Roca Cape. Because of Lisbon's urban sprawl, the lands available for vineyards became so small, that the demands has always been higher than the production, making it one of the most expensive Portuguese wines
  • 159. PORTUGUESE WINE TERMS Adega: Winery Branco: White Casta: Grape variety Colheita: Vintage year Espumante: Sparkling wine Garrafeira: A reserva red wine aged at least two years in a barrel and one year in a bottle; a white wine aged at least six months in a barrel and six months in a bottle. Maduro: mature (in opposition to verde). Mature wines are Portuguese wines produced in all regions except the ones produced in Vinho Verde region, due to that, the term "maduro" rarely appears on bottles. Quinta: Vineyard Reserva: Superior quality wine of a single vintage Seco: Dry Tinto: Red Verde: green (in opposition to maduro). Wines produced in Vinho Verde region with a distinctive method. Vinho: Wine
  • 160. Spanish wines are wines produced in the southwestern European country of Spain. Located on the Iberian Peninsula, Spain has over 2.9 million acres (over 1.17 million hectares) planted—making it the most widely planted wine producing nation but it is only the third largest producer of wine in the world, the largest being Italy and France. This is due, in part, to the very low yields and wide spacing of the old vines planted on the dry, infertile soil found in many Spanish wine regions. The country is ninth in worldwide consumptions with Spaniards drinking, on average, 10.06 gallons (38 liters) a year. The country has an abundance of native grape varieties, with over 600 varieties planted throughout Spain though 80 percent of the country's wine production is from only 20 grapes— including Tempranillo, Albariño, Garnacha, Palomino, Airen, Macabeo, Pare llada, Xarel·lo, Cariñena and Monastrell. Major Spanish wine regions include the Rioja and Ribera del Duero which is known for their Tempranillo production; Jerez, the home of the fortified wine Sherry; Rías Baixas in the northwest region of Galicia that is known for its white wines made from Albariño and Catalonia which includes the Cava and still wine producing regions of the Penedès as well the Priorat region.
  • 161. CLASSIFICATION OF SPANISH WINES Vino de Mesa (VdM) - These are wines that are the equivalent of most country's table wines and are made from unclassified vineyards or grapes that have been declassified through "illegal" blending. Similar to the Italian Super Tuscans from the late 20th century, some Spanish winemakers will intentionally declassify their wines so that they have greater flexibility in blending and winemaking methods. Vinos de la Tierra (VdlT) - This level is similar to France's vin de pays system, normally corresponding to the larger comunidad autonóma geographical regions and will appear on the label with these broader geographical designations like Andalucia, Castilla La Mancha and Levante. Vino de Calidad Producido en Región Determinada (VCPRD) - This level is similar to France's Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (VDQS) system and is considered a stepping stone towards DO status. Denominación de Origen (Denominació d'Origen in Catalan - DO)- This level is for the mainstream quality-wine regions which are regulated by the Consejo Regulador who is also responsible for marketing the wines of that DO. In 2005, nearly two thirds of the total vineyard area in Spain was within the boundaries a DO region. Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOCa/DOQ - Denominació d'Origen Qualificada in Catalan)- This designation, which is similar to Italy's Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) designation, is for regions with a track record of consistent quality and is meant to be a step above DO level. Rioja was the first region afforded this designation in 1991 and was followed by Priorat in 2003, and Ribera del Duero in 2008. Additionally there is the Denominación de Pago (DO de Pago) designation for individual single-estates with an international reputation. As of 2009, there were 9 estates with this status.
  • 162. SPANISH WINE LABELLING LAWS Crianza red wines are aged for 2 years with at least 6 months in oak. Crianza whites and rosés must be aged for at least 1 year with at least 6 months in oak. Reserva red wines are aged for at least 3 years with at least 1 year in oak. Reserva whites and rosés must be aged for at least 2 years with at least 6 months in oak. Gran Reserva wines typically appear in above average vintages with the red wines requiring at least 5 years ageing, 18 months of which in oak.Gran Reserva whites and rosés must be aged for at least 4 years with at least 6 months in oak.
  • 163. Tempranillo is the second most widely planted grape in Spain and is an important grape in the Rioja, Ribera del Duero and Penedès regions.
  • 166.  NAVARRE  CIGALES
  • 168. • Andalusia • Aragon • Balearic Islands • Canary Islands • Castile and León • Castile-La Mancha • Catalonia • Estremadura • Galicia • Madrid • Valencia
  • 169. WINE PRODUCING REGIONS OF SPAIN Carinena Condado de Heulva Jerez-Xeres La Mancha Malaga Montilla Miriles Navarra Penedes Ribiero Valdepenas
  • 170. India has forever remained a land of dichotomies. It has always perceived a notion in almost two totally paradoxical perspectives. And wine or liquor is no exception to this rule. When on one hand it was a drink of festivities; it was also considered a forbidden affair for the society at large. Drink was considered as a ‘Taamasi’ food that is always subject to repudiation as it only results in bad thoughts and behaviour. But it was never shunned completely and pervaded every spatial and temporal dimension. Since the very inception Indians had the native familiarity with Wine. This becomes apparent with the artifacts found at the sites of Harappan Civilization. During the Vedic period wine was often referred to as Somarasa; it was believed to be associated with Indra, and was a part of religious festivals. Soma is mentioned in Vedic scriptures as well. Also the reference of Drakshasava is found in ayurvedic texts which was basically a delicious digestive preparation made from ripened red grapes, cinnamon, cardamom, nagkesara, vidanga, tejpatra, pippali, and black pepper and contained natural alcohol.
  • 171. Indian wine is wine made in the Asian country of India. Viticulture in India has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced from Persia. Winemaking has existed throughout most of India's history but was particularly encouraged during the time of the Portuguese and British colonization of the subcontinent. The end of the 19th century saw the phylloxera louse take its toll on the Indian wine industry followed by religious and public opinion moving towards the prohibition of alcohol. Following the country's independence from the British Empire, the Constitution of India declared that one of the government's aims was the total prohibition of alcohol. Several states went dry and the government encouraged vineyards to convert to table grape and raisin production. In the 1980s and 1990s, a revival in the Indian wine industry took place as international influences and the growing middle class increased started increasing demand for the beverage. By the turn of the 21st century, demand was increasing at a rate of 20-30% a year.
  • 172. WINE REGIONS Vineyards in India range from the more temperate climate of the northwestern state of Punjab down to the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Some of India's larger wine producing areas are located in Maharashtra, Karnataka near Bangalore and Andhra Pradesh near Hyderabad. Within the Maharashtra region, vineyards are found on the Deccan Plateau and around Baramati, Nashik, Pune, Sangli and Solapur. The high heat and humidity of the far eastern half of the country limits viticultural activity.
  • 173. Variety Area (ha) Production (t) Anab-e-Shahi (white, seeded) 3,000 135,000 Bangalore Blue Syn. Isabella (black, seeded) 4,500 180,000 Bhokri (white, seeded) 500 15,000 Flame Seedless (red, seedless) 500 10,000 Gulabi Syn. Muscat Hamburg (purple, seeded) 1,000 30,000 Perlette (white, seedless) 1,500 60,000 Sharad Seedless - A mutant of Kishmish Chorni (black, seedless) 1,000 20,000
  • 175. Fortified wine is wine to which a distilled beverage (usually brandy) has been added. When added to wine before the fermentation process is complete, the alcohol in the distilled beverage kills the yeast and leaves residual sugar behind. The end result is a wine that is both sweeter and stronger, normally containing about 20% alcohol by volume (ABV). The original reason for fortifying wine was to preserve it, since ethanol is a natural antiseptic. Even though other preservation methods exist, fortification continues to be used because the fortification process can add distinct flavors to the finished project. Fortified wine is distinguished from spirits made from wine in that spirits are produced by means of distillation, while fortified wine is simply wine that has had a spirit added to it. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including port, sherry, madeira, marsala, and vermouth.
  • 176. Although grape brandy is most commonly added to produce fortified wines, the additional alcohol may also be neutral spirit that has been distilled from grapes, grain, sugar beets, or sugarcane. Regional appellation laws may dictate the types of spirit that are permitted for fortification. The source of the additional alcohol and the method of its distillation can affect the flavor of the fortified wine. If neutral spirit is used, it will usually have been produced with a continuous still, rather than a pot still. During the fermentation process, yeast cells in the must continue to convert sugar into alcohol until the must reaches an alcohol level of 16%–18%. At this level, the alcohol becomes toxic to the yeast and kills it. If fermentation is allowed to run to completion, the resulting wine will (in most cases) be low in sugar and will be considered a dry wine. The earlier in the fermentation process that alcohol is added, the sweeter the resulting wine will be. For drier fortified wine styles, such as sherry, the alcohol is added shortly before or after the end of the fermentation. In the case of some fortified wine styles (such as late harvest and botrytized wine), a naturally high level of sugar will inhibit the yeast. This causes fermentation to stop before the wine can become dry.
  • 177. MISTELLE Mistelle (sifone in Italian, mistela in Spanish) is sometimes used as an ingredient in fortified wines, particularly Vermouth, Marsala and Sherry, though it is used mainly as a base for apéritifs such as the French Pineau des Charentes, It is produced by adding alcohol to non-fermented or partially fermented grape juice. The addition of alcohol stops the fermentation and, as a consequence Mistelle is sweeter than fully fermented grape juice in which the sugars turn to alcohol.
  • 178. Port wine (also known as Vinho do Porto, Porto, and often simply Port) is a Portuguese style of fortified wine originating from the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal. It is typically a sweet red wine, often served as a dessert wine, and also comes in dry, semi-dry and white varieties. Fortified wines in the style of port are also produced outside of Portugal, most notably in Australia, South Africa, Canada, India, Argentina and the United States. Under European Union guidelines, only the product from Portugal may be labeled as Port. Elsewhere, the situation is more complicated: wines labelled "Port" may come from anywhere in the world, while the names "Dao", "Oporto", "Porto", and "Vinho do Porto" have been recognized as foreign, non-generic names for wines originating in Portugal.
  • 179. Port is produced from grapes grown and processed in the demarcated Douro region. The wine produced is then fortified by the addition of a neutral grape spirit known as Aguardente in order to stop the fermentation, leaving residual sugar in the wine, and to boost the alcohol content. The fortification spirit is sometimes referred to as Brandy but it bears little resemblance to commercial Brandies. The wine is then stored and aged, often in barrels stored in "caves" (pronounced "ka-vess" and meaning "cellars" in Portuguese) as is the case in Vila Nova de Gaia, before being bottled. The wine received its name, "Port", in the latter half of the 17th century from the seaport city of Porto at the mouth of the Douro River, where much of the product was brought to market or for export to other countries in Europe. The Douro valley where Port wine is produced was defined and established as a protected region, or appellation in 1756 — making it the third oldest defined and protected wine region in the world after Chianti (1716) and Tokaji (1730).
  • 180. GRAPE VARIETIES Over a hundred varieties of grapes (castas) are sanctioned for Port production, although only five (Tinta Barroca, Tinta Cão, Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo), Touriga Francesa, and Touriga Nacional) are widely cultivated and used. Although Touriga Nacional is the most celebrated Port grape, the difficulty of growing it and its small yields result in Touriga Francesa being the most widely-planted variety within the Douro. White ports are produced the same way as red ports, except that they use white grapes—Esgana- Cão, Folgasão, Malvasia, Rabigato,Verdelho, and Viosinho.
  • 181. STYLES OF PORT Port from Portugal comes in several styles, which can be divided into two broad categories: Wines that have matured in sealed glass bottles, with no exposure to air, and experience what is known as "reductive" aging. This process leads to the wine losing its colour very slowly and produces a wine which is smoother on the palate and less tannic. Wines that have matured in wooden barrels, whose permeability allows a small amount of exposure to oxygen, and experience what is known as "oxidative" aging. They too lose colour, but at a faster pace. If red grapes are used, in time the red colour lightens to a tawny colour - these are known as Tawny (or sometimes Wood) ports. They also lose volume to evaporation (angel's share), leaving behind a wine that is slightly more viscous and intense. The IVDP (Instituto dos Vinhos do Douro e Porto) further divides Port into two categories: normal Ports (standard Rubies, Tawnies and White Ports) and Categorias Especiais, Special Categories, which includes everything else.
  • 183. Sherry is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the town of Jerez, Spain. In Spanish, it is called vino de Jerez. The word "sherry" is an anglicization of Jerez. In earlier times, Sherry was known as sack (from the Spanish saca, meaning "a removal from the solera"). "Sherry" is a protected designation of origin; therefore, all wine labeled as "Sherry" must legally come from the Sherry Triangle. After fermentation is complete, Sherry is fortified with brandy. Because the fortification takes place after fermentation, most sherries are initially dry, with any sweetness being added later. In contrast, port wine (for example) is fortified halfway through its fermentation, which stops the process so that not all of the sugar is turned into alcohol.
  • 184. The aging of sherry takes place in one of two ways:  BIOLOGICAL AGING: The sherry ages in contact with a film of yeast (Flor) that changes the characterstics of the wine be metabolising elements within the wine and controlling the rate of oxidation.  PHYSIO-CHEMICAL AGING: The sherry is in direct contact with air and its immediate oxidising effects.
  • 185. PRODUCTION OF SHERRY: 1. Pressing 2. Acidification 3. Settling (debourbage) 4. Fermentation 5. Classification (Fino/olorosso) 6. Fortification (fino-15% / olorosso-18%) 7. Aging Finos: Biological Aging Olorosso: Physio-chemical Aging 8. Solera 9. Working on the scales 10. Blending 11. Finishing: addition of sweetener
  • 186. # Fino ('fine' in Spanish) is the driest and palest of the traditional varieties of Sherry. The wine is aged in barrels under a cap of flor yeast to prevent contact with the air. # Manzanilla is an especially light variety of fino Sherry made around the port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda. # Amontillado is a variety of Sherry that is first aged under flor but which is then exposed to oxygen, producing a sherry that is darker than a fino but lighter than an oloroso. Naturally dry, they are sometimes sold lightly sweetened. # Oloroso ('scented' in Spanish) is a variety of Sherry aged oxidatively for a longer time than a fino or amontillado, producing a darker and richer wine. With alcohol levels between 18-20%, olorosos are the most alcoholic sherries in the bottle. Again naturally dry, they are often also sold in sweetened versions. # Palo Cortado is a rare variety of Sherry that is initially aged like an amontillado, but which subsequently develops a character closer to an oloroso. # Sweet Sherries (Jerez Dulce in Spanish) are made either by fermenting dried Pedro Ximénez or Moscatel grapes, which produces an intensely sweet dark brown or black wine, or by blending sweeter wines or grape must with a drier variety. Cream Sherry is a common type of sweet Sherry made by blending different wines
  • 187. Marsala is a wine produced in the region surrounding the Italian city of Marsala in Sicily. Marsala wine first received Denominazione di origine controllata, or DOC, status in 1969. While the city's natives sometimes drink "vintage" Marsala, the wine produced for export is universally a fortified wine similar to Port. Originally, Marsala wine was fortified with alcohol to ensure that it would last long ocean voyages, but now it is made that way because of its popularity in foreign markets.
  • 188. CHARACTERSTICS & TYPES: Marsala is produced using the Grillo, Inzolia, and Catarratto white grape varietals, among others. Marsala wine was traditionally served as an aperitif between the first and second courses of a meal. Contemporary diners will serve chilled with Parmesan (stravecchio), Gorgonzola, Roquefort, and other spicy cheeses, with fruits or pastries, or at room temperature as a dessert wine. Marsala is sometimes discussed with another Sicilian wine, Passito di Pantelleria (Pantelleria Island's raisin wine). Different Marsala wines are classified according to their color, sweetness and the duration of their aging. The three levels of sweetness are secco (with a maximum 40 grams of residual sugar per liter), semisecco' (41-100 g/l) and sweet (over 100 g/l). The color and aging classifications are as follows: Oro has a golden color. Ambra has an amber color. The coloring comes from the mosto cotto sweetener added to the wine. Rubino has a ruby color. Fine has minimal aging, typically less than a year. Superiore is aged at least two years. Superiore Riserva is aged at least four years. Vergine e/o Soleras is aged at least five years. Vergine e/o Soleras Stravecchio e Vergine e/o Soleras Riserva is aged at least ten years.
  • 189. MARSALA IN COOKING Marsala wine is frequently used in cooking, and is especially prevalent in Italian restaurants in the United States. A typical Marsala sauce, for example, involves reducing the wine almost to a syrup with onions or shallots, then adding mushrooms and herbs. One of the most popular Marsala recipes is Chicken Marsala, in which flour-coated pounded chicken breast halves are braised in a mixture of Marsala, butter, olive oil, mushrooms, and spices. Marsala is also used in some risotto recipes, and is used to produce rich Italian desserts such as zabaglione,tiramisu and shortcake.
  • 190. Madeira is a fortified Portuguese wine made in the Madeira Islands. The wine is produced in a variety of styles ranging from dry wines which can be consumed on their own as an aperitif, to sweet wines more usually consumed with dessert. Cheaper versions are often flavored with salt and pepper for use in cooking. The islands of Madeira have a long winemaking history dating back to the Age of Exploration when Madeira was a standard port of call for ships heading to the New World or East Indies. To prevent the wine from spoiling, neutral grape spirits were added. On the long sea voyages, the wines would be exposed to excessive heat and movement which transformed the flavor of the wine as the wine producers of Madeira found out when an unsold shipment of wine returned to the islands after a round trip. Today, Madeira is noted for its unique winemaking process which involves heating the wine up to temperatures as high as 60°C (140°F) for an extended period of time and deliberately exposing the wine to some levels of oxidation. Due to this unique process, Madeira is a very robust wine that can be quite long lived even after being opened.
  • 191. TYPES OF MADEIRA There are four major types of Madeira, named according to the grape variety used. Ranging from the sweetest to the driest style, they are:  Malvasia (also known as Malmsey or Malvazia)  Bual or Boal  Verdelho  Sercial
  • 192. STYLES OF MADEIRA: Reserve (5 years)- This is the minimum amount of aging that a wine labeled with one of the noble varieties is permitted to have. Special Reserve(10 years)-At this point the wines are often aged naturally without any artificial heat source. Extra Reserve (over 15 years)-This style is rare to produce with many producers extending the aging to 20 years for a vintage or producing a "colheita". It is richer in style than a Special Reserve Madeira. Colheita or Harvest-This style includes wines from a single vintage but aged for a shorter period than true Vintage Madeira. The wine can be labeled with a vintage date but include the word "colheita" on it. Vintage or Frasquiera-This style must be aged at least 20 years
  • 193. Vermouth is a fortified wine, flavored with aromatic herbs and spices ("aromatized" in the trade) such as cardamom, cinnamon, marjoram and chamomile. Some vermouth is sweetened; however, unsweetened, or dry, vermouth tends to be bitter. The person credited with the second vermouth recipe, Antonio Benedetto Carpano from Turin, Italy, chose to name his concoction "vermouth" in 1786 because he was inspired by a German wine flavoured with wormwood, an herb most famously used in distilling absinthe. The modern German word Wermut (also spelled Wermuth) means both wormwood and vermouth. The herbs in vermouth were originally used to mask raw flavours of cheaper wines, imparting a slightly medicinal "tonic" flavour.
  • 194. STYLES OF VERMOUTH: There are three general styles of vermouth, in order from driest to sweetest: extra dry, bianco/white, and sweet/red. Sweet red vermouth is drunk as an apéritif, often straight up, as well as in mixed drinks like the Manhattan. Dry white vermouth, along with gin, is a key ingredient in the mixing of martinis. Red vermouths are sometimes referred to as Italian vermouths and white vermouths as French vermouths, although not all Italian vermouths are red and not all French vermouths are white.
  • 195. Wine and food matching is the process of pairing food dishes with wine to enhance the dining experience. In many cultures, wine has had a long history of being a staple at the dinner table and in some ways both the winemaking and culinary traditions of a region will have evolved together over the years. Rather than following a set of rules, local cuisines were paired simply with local wines. The modern "art" of food pairings is a relatively recent phenomenon, fostering an industry of books and media with guidelines for pairings of particular foods and wine. In the restaurant industry, sommeliers are often present to make food pairing recommendations for the guest. The main concept behind pairings is that certain elements (such as texture and flavor) in both food and wine react differently to each other and finding the right combination of these elements will make the entire dining experience more enjoyable. However, taste and enjoyment are very subjective and what may be a "textbook perfect" pairing for one taster could be less enjoyable to another
  • 196. Foods and wines are matched in the exact same way as the way they are tasted: on the palate, where it comes together. In other words, you match wine the same way that you match anything that tastes good together. Take, for instance, a large scoop of icy cold, creamy sweet vanilla ice cream, which is made all the better with a generous scoop of hot chocolate syrup. The match works because both are soft and sweet, and the chocolate adds its own unique flavor ("chocolate!") plus a fun, contrasting sensation (hot vs. cold)
  • 197. PRINCIPLES OF MATCHING WINE & FOOD 1st Principle: Wine Is a Food All food and wine matching is more easily understood when the taste components of wines are thought of in the same way as ingredients in a dish. Just like good cooking involves a balancing of ingredients and technique, good wine/food matching involves focusing on how specific components in wines interact and achieve a sense of balance and harmony with specific components in dishes.
  • 198. 2nd Principle: The Five Basic Taste Sensations Sweetness: Related to amount of residual sugar in both foods and wines; sensed by taste buds located towards at the tip of the tongue Sour/tartness: Degree of acidity in both foods and wines (more so in whites than in reds); tasted at the center and sides of the tongue Saltiness: Not a significant component in wine, but important in how a wine relates to it in foods; tasted somewhere in the center of the tongue Bitterness: Tasted in many foods, and in the tannin content of red wines (to a lesser degree in whites); tasted towards the rear of the tongue Umami: The flattering, amino acid related sense of "deliciousness" found in many foods, and to a limited extent in wines (location of "umami taste buds" on palate indeterminate)
  • 199. 3rd Principle: Key Tactile Sensations Density, body or weight: The sense of light vs. heavy contributed by proteins, fats and/or carbs in foods, and primarily related to degree of alcohol content in wines (bolstered by tannin in reds) Soft/crisp textures: Tactile contrasts in foods; and in wines, smooth or easy vs. hard, sharp or angular Spicy/hot: Feel of heat when chiles, peppers or horseradishes are used in foods; not felt as a tactile sensation in wines, but suggested in aromas and flavors ("spice" notes)
  • 200. 4th Principle: Flavor Is Aroma Related Without the sense of smell, neither foods nor wines have "flavor." Example: the taste and tactile sensations in an apple, a pineapple, and an onion are similar in that they are all sweet, crisp yet juicy, with some degree of acidity, but they all give a distinctly different flavor perceived through the sense of smell. By the same token, both Cabernet Sauvignon and a Petite Sirah are two types of red wine that tend to be dark, full bodied, dry, and fairly hard in tannin; but the Cabernet gives aromas and flavors of herbal, minty, berry/cassis aromas and flavors, whereas the Petite Sirah gives ripe berry/blueberry and black peppercorn-like aromas and flavors.
  • 201. 5th Principle: The Two Ways Foods and Wines Are Successfully Matched Similarities When there are similar taste sensations in both a dish and a wine (example: the buttery sauce in a fish dish enhanced by the creamy or buttery texture of an oak barrel fermented white wine) Contrasts When sensations in a wine contrast with sensations in a dish to positive effect (example: the sweetness of a white wine balancing the saltiness of a dish like ham or cured sausage, and vice-versa)
  • 202. 6th Principle: Intrinsically Balanced Foods & Wines Make the Best Matches No matter what your personal taste, invariably you discover this natural occurrence: the easiest foods and the easiest wines to find a match for are the ones with their own intrinsic sense of harmony and balance. This is because taste buds and sensations of tactile qualities work for you collectively.
  • 203. Beaujolais Pinot Noir Merlot Cabernet Zinfandel Port Mild Cheese - - - - - - Strong Cheese Appetizers - - - - - All Seafood - - - - - - Pasta, cream sauce - - - - - - Pasta, red sauce - Asian food - - - - - - Poultry - - - - - Pork - - - - Beef - - Fruit/Dessert - - - - - - Chocolate - - -
  • 204. Chenin Blanc Gewurz traminer Dry Riesling Sauv. Blanc Chardonnay White Riesling Mild Cheese - Strong Cheese - - Appetizers - Oysters - - - - Shrimp, crab, lobster - - - Shellfish - - - - Seafood w/lite sauce - - - Seafood w/cream sauce - - - - - Grilled Fish - - - Pasta w/cream sauce - - - - - Pasta w/red sauce - - - - - - Asian food - - - Poultry - Pork - - - Beef - - - - - - Chocolate - - - - -
  • 205. Extra Dry Brut Blanc de Blanc Blanc de Noir Mild Cheese - Strong Cheese Appetizers Shrimp, crab, lobster - Shellfish - Seafood w/lite sauce - Seafood w/cream sauce - - - - Grilled fish - - - - Pasta w/cream sauce - - - - Pasta w/red sauce - - - - Asian food - Poultry Pork - - - - Beef - - - - Fruit/Dessert Chocolate - - - - CHAMPAGNE AND FOOD PAIRINGS
  • 206. The Five Rules for Matching Wine with Food Look for compatible weights and bodies. The essence of this rule embodies the age old 'red wine with red meat, white wine with fish and white meat". In its simplest form, make sure the weight and body of the dish is consistent with the weight and body of the wine. Look for compatible acidity levels. When pairing food with wine make sure that the acidity level in both are about the same. A good example is a dish like lemon chicken paired with a high acid Vernaccia from Italy. Look for complementary flavors and complexities. Food and wine shouldn't fight one another for your attention. Instead they should help one another achieve synergy, complimenting each other's best traits. NOTE - There is a corollary to this rule that suggests looking for contradictory, but balancing flavors and complexity. If done correctly, the wine and food match will work, but this approach is much more complex and demands that the chef really knows the dish and the wine very well. Approach the corollary with caution. When matching wine to a food with a pronounced sauce, pair to the flavors in the sauce. When pairing wine with food, make sure you match according to the strongest traits of each. In a fruit glacé-type sauce one would look for a wine with forward and overt fruitiness to pair best. When matching wine to a food without a pronounced sauce, pair to the flavors in the main ingredient. This is really a re-statement of rule four, except emphasizing that in the absence of a strong sauce, look to the flavor characteristics of the main ingredient instead
  • 207. TROUBLESOME PAIRINGS There are a number of foods that always pose the greatest challenge when paired with wine. Here are a few: Vinegar or vinegar-based sauces Vinegar is wine that has been acted on by a bacteria called acetobacter, which turns the alcohol in the wine into acetic acid and water. Another term for the process is called "souring". Because of this, most wines tend to taste spoiled in the presence of vinegar. Look for clean, bright, high acid wines to pair the best, whites being most favorable. Tomato or other similarly high acid foods Especially high acid levels in food make it tough to maintain balance. For this reason, look for high acid wines, like those made with Barbera or Vernaccia grapes to provide the greatest balance. Less acidic wines will be overpowered by highly acidic foods. Artichoke and asparagus The complexity and often-weedy flavors in both these vegetables make for tough wine pairing. Look for high acid, grassy wines, like Old World Sauvignon Blanc from the Loire to blend most favorably. Egg and egg-based dishes The sulfurous quality of the egg has a similar as vinegar, imparting an unpleasant flavor to softer wines. Look for clean, bright high acid wines to pair best, almost always white. Cranberry sauce and other similar relishes The cacophony of flavors that abound in cranberry sauce and pickle relish make them near impossible to pair with wine. As with vinegar and eggs, look for clean, bright and high acid wines. Chocolate The variability of chocolate in sweetness and texture can be difficult to pair well with wine. For sweeter chocolate, look for sweeter wines to make an effective pair, making sure to maintain balance in the weight and body of each. For semi-sweet or even bittersweet chocolate, look for drier wines to make an effective pair, again making sure to maintain balance in the weight and body of each.
  • 208. Foie Gras with Sauternes Like a marriage made in Heaven, foie gras finds its perfect complement in the company of the famed white dessert wine from Bordeaux. What probably makes this pair work best is the sweet, honeyed character of the wine combined with its naturally high acidity that cuts through the rich, fattiness of the duck liver. The often- gamey quality of the liver finds a welcome cushion in the nectar like quality of the wine. If you can't find true Sauternes, then you can often substitute a similar botrytis-affected, dessert wine. SOME IDEAL PAIRINGS
  • 209. Oysters with Chablis Chablis hails from Burgundy, France in a region where prehistoric, fossilized seashells make up most of the lower soil strata. Here the grapes are infused with the taste of chalk and the sea. What could be better to pair with the briny, chalky flavors found in fresh, raw oysters? Nothing, I think. If you can't find Chablis, then try to find a similarly weighted white wine that has seen little time in oak and comes from a region with plenty of mineral and limestone in the soil
  • 210. GRILLED BEEF WITH CLARET Claret, or more formally, red wine from Bordeaux is often tough, tannic and highly earthy and complex. These elements pair wonderfully with the gamey, robust intensity of the grilled beef. This is especially true in the case of dry aged beef and older Claret. The rich complexity of the beef blends beautifully with the subtle, unfolding complexity in the wine. If you can't find Claret, per se, then look for similarly bodied wines based on Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot or Cabernet Franc.
  • 211. BEEF BOURGOGNE WITH RED BURGUNDY Much of the synergy in this match is due to the fact that the stew is prepared with the wine being served with it. This is really true of any dish cooked with wine - the match will be best if the dish is prepared with the same wine being served. It is a fallacy that one should cook with inferior wines. When one does so, one produces inferior food
  • 212. There is also one important factor that one should always remember when matching wine with food - Cuisine from a particular country or region will inevitably pair best with the wines native in that country or region. This is largely due to the fact that wine and cuisine grow up together in a country. Where this is changing somewhat is in those areas where old wine making traditions are being replaced with more globally acceptable practices and styles. Generally, though, when all else fails - look to the native wines of a particular country to make the best dining partner.
  • 213. The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning "breath", but also "soul, courage, vigor“. Spirit is a high concentration potable alcoholic beverage that is obtained by the distillation of a low concentration liquid containing alcohol. The raw materials used could be wine, sugar solution or fermented grain mash. As alcohol is separated from the fermented liquid, certail other flavours remain with the alcohol known as “congeners” and give the spirit their distinct characteristics. Also ageing the spirits and the containers in which they are aged give unique characteristics to distilled spirits.
  • 214. The best known distilled beverages are:  Brandy  Rum  Whisky / Whiskey  Gin  Vodka  Tequilla
  • 215. CONTINUOUS STILL A column still, also called a continuous still, patent still or Coffey still, is a variety of still consisting of two columns invented in 1826 by Robert Stein, a Clackmannanshire distiller and first used at the Cameron Bridge Grain Distillery. The design was enhanced and patented in 1831 by an Irishman, Aeneas Coffey. The first column (called the analyzer) has steam rising and wash descending through several levels. The second column (called the rectifier) carries the alcohol from the wash where it circulates until it can condense at the required strength.
  • 217. Column stills behave like a series of single pot stills, formed in a long vertical tube. The tube is filled with either porous packing or bubble plates. The rising vapor, which is low in alcohol, starts to condense in the cooler, higher level of the column. The temperature of each successively higher stage is slightly lower than the previous stage, so the vapor in equilibrium with the liquid at each stage is progressively more enriched with alcohol. Whereas a single pot still charged with wine might yield a vapor enriched to 40-50% alcohol, a column still can achieve a vapor alcohol content of 96%. A continuous still can, as its name suggests, sustain a constant process of distillation. This, along with the higher concentration of alcohol in the final distillate, is its main advantage over a pot still, which can only work in batches. Continuous stills are charged with pre-heated feed liquor at some point in the column. Heat (usually in the form of steam) is supplied to the base of the column. Stripped (alcohol-free) liquid is drawn off at the base, while almost pure alcohol is condensed after migrating to the top of the column. Column stills are frequently used in the production of grain whisky.
  • 218. Brandy (from brandywine, derived from Dutch brandewijn— "burnt wine") is a spirit produced by distilling wine, the wine having first been produced by fermenting grapes. Brandy generally contains 36%–60% alcohol by volume and is typically taken as an after-dinner drink. While some brandies are aged in wooden casks, most are coloured with caramel coloring to imitate the effect of such aging. Brandy can also be made from fermented fruit (i.e., other than grapes) and from pomace.
  • 219. # The first step in making fine brandies is to allow the fruit juice (typically grape) to ferment. This usually means placing the juice, or must as it is known in the distilling trade, in a large vat at 68-77°F (20-25°C) and leaving it for five days. During this period, natural yeast present in the distillery environment will ferment the sugar present in the must into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The white wine grapes used for most fine brandy usually ferment to an alcohol content of around 10%. # Fine brandies are always made in small batches using pot stills. A pot still is simply a large pot, usually made out of copper, with a bulbous top. # The pot still is heated to the point where the fermented liquid reaches the boiling point of alcohol. The alcohol vapors, which contain a large amount of water vapor, rise in the still into the bulbous top. # The vapors are funneled from the pot still through a bent pipe to a condenser where the vapors are chilled, condensing the vapors back to a liquid with a much higher alcohol content. The purpose of the bulbous top and bent pipe is to allow undesirable compounds to condense and fall back into the still. Thus, these elements do not end up in the final product. PRODUCTION PROCESS OF BRANDY
  • 220. # Most fine brandy makers double distill their brandy, meaning they concentrate the alcohol twice. It takes about 9 gal (34 1) of wine to make I gal (3.8 1) of brandy. After the first distillation, which takes about eight hours, 3,500 gal (13,249 1) of wine have been converted to about 1,200 gal (4,542 1) of concentrated liquid (not yet brandy) with an alcohol content of 26-32%. The French limit the second distillation (la bonne chauffe) to batches of 660 gal (2,498 1). The product of the second distillation has an alcohol content of around 72%. The higher the alcohol content the more neutral (tasteless) the brandy will be. The lower the alcohol content, the more of the underlying flavors will remain in the brandy, but there is a much greater chance that off flavors will also make their way into the final product. # The brandy is not yet ready to drink after the second distillation. It must first be placed in oak casks and allowed to age, an important step in the production process. Most brandy consumed today, even fine brandy, is less than six years old. However, some fine brandies are more than 50 years old. As the brandy ages, it absorbs flavors from the oak while its own structure softens, becoming less astringent. Through evaporation, brandy will lose about 1% of its alcohol per year for the first 50 years or so it is "on oak."
  • 221. # Fine brandy can be ready for bottling after two years, some after six years, and some not for decades. Some French cognacs are alleged to be from the time of Napoleon. However, these claims are unlikely to be true. A ploy used by the cognac makers is to continually remove 90% of the cognac from an old barrel and then refill it with younger brandy. It does not take many repetitions of this tactic to dilute any trace of the Napoleonic-age brandy. # Fine brandies are usually blended from many different barrels over a number of vintages. Some cognacs can contain brandy from up to a 100 different barrels. Because most brandies have not spent 50 years in the barrel, which would naturally reduce their alcohol contents to the traditional 40%, the blends are diluted with distilled water until they reach the proper alcohol content. Sugar, to simulate age in young brandies, is added along with a little caramel to obtain a uniform color consistency across the entire production run
  • 223. TYPES OF BRANDY 1. Grape Brandy Grape brandy is produced by the distillation of fermented grapes. Grape brandy is best when it is drunk at room temperature from a tulip-shaped glass or a snifter. Often it is slightly warmed by holding the glass cupped in the palm or by gently heating it. However, heating it may cause the alcohol vapor to become too strong, so that the aromas are overpowered.
  • 224.  COGNAC: Cognac comes from the Cognac region in France, and is double distilled using pot stills. Popular brands include Hine, Martell, RémyMartin, Hennessy, Ragnaud- Sabourin, Delamain and Courvoisier. The brandy abbreviatios are as follows: VO: Very Old, 10-15 years VOP: Very Old Pale, 15-20 years VSO: Very Superior Old, 20 -25 years VSOP: Very Superior Old Pale, 25-40 years XO: Extra Old, 50-70 years
  • 225. Age of Cognac, according to stars: * * * * * 15-20 years * * * * 10-15 years * * * 7-10 years * * 5-6 years * 3-4 years
  • 226. Armagnac: Armagnac is made from grapes of the Armagnac region in Southwest of France. It is single-continuous distilled in a copper still and aged in oaken casks from Gascony or Limousin. Armagnac was the first distilled spirit in France. Armagnacs have a specificity: they offer vintage qualities. Popular brands are Darroze, Baron de Sigognac, Larressingle, Delord, Laubade, Gélas and Janneau. American Brandy: American grape brandy is almost always from California. Popular brands include Christian Brothers, Coronet, E&J, Korbel, Paul Masson and J. Bavet. Brandy de Jerez: Brandy de Jerez is a brandy that originates from vineyards around Jerez de la Frontera in southern Spain. It is used in some sherries and is also available as a separate product.
  • 227. 2. FRUIT BRANDY Fruit brandies are distilled from fruits other than grapes. Apples, plums, peaches, cherries, elderberries, raspberries, blackberries, and apricots are the most commonly used fruits. Fruit brandy usually contains 40% to 45% ABV. It is usually colorless and is customarily drunk chilled or over ice.
  • 228. # Applejack is an American apple brandy, made from the distillation of hard cider. It is often freeze distilled. # Buchu brandy is South African and flavoured with extracts from Agathosma species. # Calvados is an apple brandy from the French region of Lower Normandy. It is double distilled from fermented apples. # Damassine is a prune (the fruit of the Damassinier tree) brandy from the Jura Mountains of Switzerland # Coconut brandy is a brandy made from the sap of coconut flowers. # Eau-de-vie is a general French term for fruit brandy (or even grape brandy that is not qualified as Armagnac or Cognac, including pomace brandy). # German Schnaps is fruit brandy produced in Germany or Austria. # Kirschwasser is a fruit brandy made from cherries. # Kukumakranka brandy is South African and flavoured with the ripe fruit of the Kukumakranka. # Palinka is a traditional Hungarian fruit brandy. It can only be made of fruits from Hungary, such as plums, apricots, peaches, elderberries, pears, apples or cherries.
  • 229. # Poire Williams (Williamine) is made from Bartlett pears (also known as Williams pears). # Rakia is a type of fruit brandy produced in Albania, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia; it may be made from plums, apples, quinces, pears, apricots, cherries, mulberries, grapes, or walnuts. # Slivovice is a strong fruit brandy made from plums; by law, it must contain at least 52% ABV. It is produced in Serbia, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Poland. # Slivovitz is a fruit brandy made from plums. It is a traditional drink in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia. Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia. # Šlivka (pronounced: Shlyeewca) is plum fruit brandy made in Macedonia. # Šljivovica (pronounced: Shlyeewoweetza) is plum fruit brandy made in Serbia. # Tuica is a clear Romanian fruit brandy made from plums, apples, pears, apricots, mulberries, peaches, quinces, or mixtures of these. Romania and Moldova also produce a grape brandy called vin ars (burnt wine) or divin
  • 230. 3. POMACE BRANDY Pomace brandy is produced by fermentation and distillation of the grape skins, seeds, and stems that remain after grapes have been pressed to extract their juice (which is then used to make wine). Most of the pomace brandies are neither aged, nor coloured. Italian grappa, French marc, Portuguese aguardente Bagaceira, Serbian komovica, Bulgarian grozdova, Georgian chacha, Hungarian törkölypálinka, Cretan tsikoudia Cypriot Zivania and Spanish orujo, Macedonian komova.
  • 231. Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by- products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is then usually aged in oak and other barrels. The majority of the world's rum production occurs in and around the Caribbean and in several Central American and South American countries, such as Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Puerto Rico, and Brazil. There are also rum producers in places such asAustralia, Fiji, the Philippines, India, Reunion Island, Mauritius, and elsewhere around the world.
  • 232. PRODUCTION OF RUM FERMENTATION: Most rum produced is made from molasses. Within the Caribbean, much of this molasses is from Brazil. A notable exception is the French-speaking islands where sugarcane juice is the preferred base ingredient. Yeast and water are added to the base ingredient to start the fermentation process. While some rum producers allow wild yeast to perform the fermentation, most use specific strains of yeast to help provide a consistent taste and predictable fermentation time. Dunder, the yeast-rich foam from previous fermentations, is the traditional yeast source in Jamaica. "The yeast employed will determine the final taste and aroma profile," says Jamaican master blender Joy Spence. Distillers that make lighter rums, such as Bacardi, prefer to use faster-working yeasts. Use of slower- working yeasts causes more esters to accumulate during fermentation, allowing for a fuller-tasting rum.
  • 233. DISTILLATION: As with all other aspects of rum production, there is no standard method used for distillation. While some producers work in batches using pot stills, most rum production is done using column still distillation. Pot still output contains more congeners than the output from column stills and thus produces a fuller-tasting rum.
  • 234. AGEING & BLENDING: Many countries require that rum be aged for at least one year. This aging is commonly performed in used bourbon casks, but may also be performed in stainless steel tanks or other types of wooden casks. The aging process determines the coloring of the Rum. Rum that is aged in oak casks becomes dark, whereas Rum that is aged in stainless steel tanks remains virtually colorless. Due to the tropical climate common to most rum-producing areas, rum matures at a much faster rate than is typical for Scotch or Cognac. An indication of this faster rate is the angels' share, or amount of product lost to evaporation. While products aged in France or Scotland see about 2% loss each year, rum producers may see as much as 10%. After aging, rum is normally blended to ensure a consistent flavor. Blending is the final step in the Rum making process. As part of this blending process, light rums may be filtered to remove any color gained during aging. For darker rums, caramel may be added to the rum to adjust the color of the final product.
  • 235. STYLES OF RUM The grades and variations used to describe rum depend on the location that a rum was produced. Despite these variations the following terms are frequently used to describe various types of rum: # Light Rums, also referred to as silver rums and white rums. In general, light rum has very little flavor aside from a general sweetness, and serves accordingly as a base for cocktails. Light rums are sometimes filtered after aging to remove any color. The Brazilian Cachaça is generally this type, but some varieties are more akin to "gold rums". The majority of Light Rum comes out of Puerto Rico. Their milder flavor makes them popular for use in mixed-drinks, as opposed to drinking it straight. # Gold Rums, also called amber rums, are medium-bodied rums which are generally aged. These gain their dark color from aging in wooden barrels (usually the charred white oak barrels that are the byproduct of Bourbon Whiskey). They have more flavor, and are stronger tasting than Silver Rum, and can be considered a midway- point between Silver/Light Rum and the darker varieties
  • 236. # Spiced Rum: These rums obtain their flavor through addition of spices and, sometimes, caramel. Most are darker in color, and based on gold rums. Some are significantly darker, while many cheaper brands are made from inexpensive white rums and darkened with artificial caramel color. # Dark Rum, also known as black rum, classes as a grade darker than gold rum. It is generally aged longer, in heavily charred barrels. Dark rum has a much stronger flavor than either light or gold rum, and hints of spices can be detected, along with a strong molasses or caramel overtone. It is used to provide substance in rum drinks, as well as color. In addition to uses in mixed drinks, dark rum is the type of rum most commonly used in cooking. Most Dark Rum comes from areas such as Jamaica, Haiti, and Martinique, though two Central American countries, Nicaragua and Guatemala, produced two of the most award-winning dark rums in the world: Flor de Caña and Ron Zacapa Centenario, respectively.
  • 237. # Flavored Rum: Some manufacturers have begun to sell rums which they have infused with flavors of fruits such as mango, orange, citrus, coconut or lime. These serve to flavor similarly themed tropical drinks which generally comprise less than 40% alcohol, and are also often drank neat or on the rocks. # Overproof Rum is rum which is much higher than the standard 40% alcohol. Most of these rums bear greater than 75%, in fact, and preparations of 151 to 160 proof occur commonly. # Premium Rum: As with other sipping spirits, such as Cognac and Scotch, a market exists for premium and super- premium rums. These are generally boutique brands which sell very aged and carefully produced rums. They have more character and flavor than their "mixing" counterparts, and are generally consumed without the addition of other ingredients
  • 238. Whisky or whiskey is a type of alcoholic beverage distilled from fermented grain mash. Different grains are used for different varieties, including barley, malted barley, rye, malted rye, wheat, and maize (corn). Most whiskies are aged in wooden casks, made generally of oak, the exception being some corn liquors.
  • 239. WHISKY PRODUCTION PROCESS PREPARING THE GRAIN: Grains are shipped directly from farms to the whiskey manufacturer to be stored in silos until needed. The grain is inspected and cleaned to remove all dust and other foreign particles. All grains except barley are first ground into meal in a gristmill. The meal is then mixed with water and cooked to break down the cellulose walls that contain starch granules. This can be done in a closed pressure cooker at temperatures of up to 311°F (155°C) or more slowly in an open cooker at 212°F (100°C). Instead of being cooked, barley is malted. The first step in malting barley consists of soaking it in water until it is thoroughly saturated. It is then spread out and sprinkled with water for about three weeks, at which time it begins to sprout. During this germination the enzyme amylase is produced, which converts the starch in the barley into sugars. The sprouting is halted by drying the barley and heating it with hot air from a kiln. For Scotch whiskey, the fuel used in the kiln includes peat, a soft, carbon-rich substance formed when plant matter decomposes in water. The peat gives Scotch whiskey a characteristic smoky taste. The malted barley is then ground like other grains.
  • 240. MASHING: Mashing consists of mixing cooked grain with malted barley and warm water. The amylase in the malted barley converts the starch in the other grains into sugars. After several hours the mixture is converted into a turbid, sugar-rich liquid known as mash. (In making Scotch malt whiskey the mixture consists only of malted barley and water. After mashing the mixture is filtered to produce a sugar-rich liquid known as wort.)
  • 241. FERMENTATION: The mash or wort is transferred to a fermentation vessel, usually closed in Scotland and open in the United States. These vessels may be made of wood or stainless steel. Yeast is added to begin fermentation, in which the single-celled yeast organisms convert the sugars in the mash or wort to alcohol. The yeast may be added in the form of new, never-used yeast cells (the sweet mash process) or in the form of a portion of a previous batch of fermentation (the sour mash process.) The sour mash method is more often used because it is effective at room temperature and its low pH (high acidity) promotes yeast growth and inhibits the growth of bacteria. The sweet mash method is more difficult to control, and it must be used at temperatures above 80°F (27°C) to speed up the fermentation and to avoid bacterial contamination. After three or four days, the end product of fermentation is a liquid containing about 10% alcohol known as distiller's beer in the United States or wash in Scotland.
  • 242. DISTILLATION: Scottish whiskey makers often distill their wash in traditional copper pot stills. The wash is heated so that most of the alcohol (which boils at 172°F [78°C]) is transformed into vapor but most of the water (which boils at 212°F [100°C]) is not. This vapor is transferred back into liquid alcohol in a water-cooled condenser and collected. Most modern distilleries use a continuous still. This consists of a tall cylindrical column filled with a series of perforated plates. Steam enters the still from the bottom, and distiller's beer enters from the top. The beer is distilled as it slowly drips through the plates, and the alcohol is condensed back into a liquid. With either method, the product of the initial distillation— known as low wine—is distilled a second time to produce a product known as high wine or new whiskey, which contains about 70% alcohol.
  • 243. AGEING: Water is added to the high wine to reduce its alcohol content to about 50% or 60% for American whiskeys and about 65% or higher for Scotch whiskeys. Scotch whiskeys are aged in cool, wet conditions, so they absorb water and become less alcoholic. American whiskeys are aged in warmer, drier conditions so they lose water and become more alcoholic. Whiskey is aged in wooden barrels, usually made from charred white oak. White oak is used because it is one of the few woods that can hold a liquid without leaking but which also allows the water in the whiskey to move back and forth within the pores of the wood, which helps to add flavor. In the United States these barrels are usually new and are only used once. In most other countries it is common to reuse old barrels. New barrels add more flavor than used barrels, resulting in differences in the taste of American and foreign whiskeys. The aging process is a complex one, still not fully understood, but at least three factors are involved. First, the original mixture of water, alcohol, and congeners react with each other over time. Second, these ingredients react with oxygen in the outside air in oxidation reactions. Third, the water absorbs substances from the wood as it moves within it. (Charring the wood makes these substances more soluble in water.) All these factors change the flavor of the whiskey. Whiskey generally takes at least three or four years to mature, and many whiskeys are aged for ten or fifteen years.
  • 244. BLENDING: Straight whiskeys and single malt Scotch whiskeys are not blended; that is, they are produced from single batches and are ready to be bottled straight from the barrel. All other whiskeys are blended. Different batches of whiskey are mixed together to produce a better flavor. Often neutral grain spirit is added to lighten the flavor, caramel is added to standardize the color, and a small amount of sherry or port wine is added to help the flavors blend. Blended Scotch whiskey usually consists of several batches of strongly flavored malt whiskeys mixed with less strongly flavored grain whiskeys. A few blends contain only malt whiskeys. Blending is often considered the most difficult and critical process in producing premium Scotch whiskeys. A premium blended Scotch whiskey may contain more than 60 individual malt whiskeys which must be blended in the proper proportions.
  • 245. BOTTLING: Glass is always used to store mature whiskey because it does not react with it to change the flavor. Modern distilleries use automated machinery to produce as many as 400 bottles of whiskey per minute. The glass bottles move down a conveyor belt as they are cleaned, filled, capped, sealed, labeled, and placed in cardboard boxes. The whiskey is ready to be shipped to liquor stores, bars, and restaurants.
  • 247. SCOTCH WHISKY: Scotch whiskies are generally distilled twice, though some are distilled a third time. International laws require anything bearing the label "Scotch" to be distilled in Scotland and matured for a minimum of three years and one day in oak casks, among other, more specific criteria. If Scotch whisky is from more than one cask, and if it includes an age statement on the bottle, it must reflect the age of the youngest whisky in the blend. Many cask- strength single malts omit the age as they use younger elements in minute amounts for flavouring and mellowing. The basic types of Scotch are malt and grain, which are combined to create blends. Many, though not all, Scotch whiskies use peat smoke to treat their malt, giving Scotch its distinctive smoky flavour. While the market is dominated by blends, the most highly prized of Scotch whiskies are the single malts. Scotch whiskies are divided into five main regions: Highland, Lowland, Islay, Speyside and Campbeltown.
  • 248. IRISH WHISKEY: Most Irish whiskeys are distilled three times, although there are exceptions. Though traditionally distilled using the pot still method, in modern times a column still is used to produce the grain whiskey used in blends. By law, Irish whiskey must be produced in Ireland and aged in wooden casks for a period of no less than three years, although in practice it is usually three or four times that period. Unpeated malt is almost always used, the main exception being Connemara Peated Malt whiskey. There are several types of whiskey common to Ireland: single malt, single grain, blended whiskey and uniquely to Ireland, pure pot still whiskey. The designation "pure pot still" as used in Ireland generally refers to whiskey made of 100% barley, mixed malted and unmalted, and distilled in a pot still made of copper. The "green" unmalted barley gives the traditional pure pot still whiskey a spicy, uniquely Irish quality. Like single malt, pure pot still is sold as such or blended with grain whiskey. Usually no real distinction is made between whether a blended whiskey was made from single malt or pure pot still.
  • 249. JAPANESE WHISKY: The model for Japanese whiskies is the single malt Scotch, although there are also examples of Japanese blended whiskies. The base is a mash of malted barley, dried in kilns fired with a little peat (although considerably less than is the case in Scotland), and distilled using the pot still method. For some time Japanese whisky suffered from the commonly held belief that whisky made in the Scotch style, but not produced in Scotland, was inferior, and until fairly recently, the market for Japanese whiskies was almost entirely domestic. In recent years, Japanese whiskies have won prestigious international awards and now enjoys a deserved reputation for a quality product.
  • 250. CANADIAN WHISKY: Canadian whiskies are usually lighter and smoother than other whisky styles. Another common characteristic of many Canadian whiskies is their use of rye that has been malted, which provides a fuller flavour and smoothness. By Canadian law, Canadian whiskies must be produced in Canada, be distilled from a fermented mash of cereal grain, "be aged in small wood for not less than 3 years", and "possess the aroma, taste and character generally attributed to Canadian whisky". The terms "Canadian Whisky", "Canadian Rye Whisky" and "Rye Whisky" are legally indistinguishable in Canada and do not denote any particular proportion of rye or other grain used in production.
  • 251. AMERICAN WHISKEY: American whiskey is distilled from a fermented mash of cereal grain. It must have the taste, aroma, and other characteristics commonly attributed to whiskey. American blended whiskeys combine straight whiskey with un-aged whiskey, grain neutral spirits, flavorings and colorings.
  • 252. INDIAN WHISKY: Indian whisky is an alcoholic beverage that is labelled as "whisky" in India. Much Indian whisky is distilled from fermented molasses, and as such would be considered a sort of rum outside of the Indian subcontinent. 90% of the "whisky" consumed in India is molasses based, although India has begun to distill whisky from malt and other grains.
  • 253. Gin is a spirit flavoured with juniper berries. Distilled Gin is made by redistilling white grain spirit and raw cane sugar which has been flavoured with juniper berries. Compound Gin is made by flavouring neutral grain spirit with juniper berries without redistilling and can be considered as a flavoured Vodka. A well made Gin will be relatively dry compared to other spirits. Gin is often mixed in cocktails with sweeter ingredients like tonic water or vermouth to balance this dryness.
  • 254. PRODUCTION OF GIN: The most common style of Gin, typically used for mixed drinks, is London dry Gin. London dry gin is made by taking a neutral grain spirit and redistilled after botanicals are added. In addition to Juniper berries, it is usually made with a small amount of citrus botanicals like lemon and bitter orange peel. Other botanicals that may be used include anise, angelica root and seed, orris root, licorice root, cinnamon, coriander, cassia bark.
  • 255. TYPES OF GIN: # DUTCH GIN: also known as Holland’s, Genever and Schiedam Gin, is typically made from equal parts of malted barley, corn and rye. It has a slightly sweet, malty character and is generally full flavoured than dry Gin. There are two styles of Dutch Gin: Oudo: means “Old”. It has a strong flavour from a higher proportion of barley. Jonge: means “young”. It is light both in flavour and texture.
  • 256. # DRY GIN: the preferred choice for most gin drinkers- is made primarily from corn with a small percentage of malted barley and other grains. It’s typically dry, aromatic and moderately light in flavour and body. Dry Gins made in England (where this style originated) commonly have a slightly higher alcohol content and are more flavourful than American made Gins.
  • 257. VODKA
  • 259. Vodka, one of the world's most popular liquors, is composed solely of water and ethyl alcohol with possible traces of impurities and flavorings. Vodka is made from a fermented substance of either grain, rye, wheat, potatoes, or sugar beet molasses. Vodka’s alcoholic content usually ranges between 35 to 50 percent by volume; the standard Russian, Lithuanian, and Polish vodkas are 40 percent alcohol by volume (80 proof). Vodka is traditionally drunk neat in the vodka belt — Eastern Europe and the Nordic countries — and elsewhere. It is also commonly used in cocktails and mixed drinks, such as the bloody Mary, the screwdriver, the White Russian, the vodka tonic, and the vodka martini.
  • 260. PRODUCTION PROCESS OF VODKA: MASH PREPARATION: The grain or vegetables are loaded into an automatic mash tub. Much like a washing machine, the tub is fitted with agitators that break down the grain as the tub rotates. A ground malt meal is added to promote the conversion of starches to sugar. STERILIZATION & INOCULATION: Preventing the growth of bacteria is very important in the manufacture of distilled spirits. First, the mash is sterilized by heating it to the boiling point. Then, it is injected with lactic- acid bacteria to raise the acidity level needed for fermentation. When the desired acidity level is reached, the mash is inoculated once again. FERMENTATION: The mash is poured into large stainless-steel vats. Yeast is added and the vats are closed. Over the next two to four days, enzymes in the yeast convert the sugars in the mash to ethyl alcohol.
  • 261. DISTILLATION & RECTIFICATION: The liquid ethyl alcohol is pumped to stills, stainless steel columns made up of vaporization chambers stacked on top of each other. The alcohol is continuously cycled up and down, and heated with steam, until the vapors are released and condensed. This process also removes impurities. The vapors rise into the upper chambers (still heads) where they are concentrated. The extracted materials flow into the lower chambers and are discarded. Some of the grain residue may be sold as livestock feed. WATER: The concentrated vapors, or fine spirits, contain 95-100% alcohol. This translates to 190 proof. In order to make it drinkable, water is added to the spirits to decrease the alcohol percentage to 40, and the proof to 80. BOTTLING: Alcoholic beverages are stored in glass bottles because glass is non-reactive. Other receptacles, such as plastic, would cause a chemical change in the beverage. The bottling procedure is highly mechanized as the bottles are cleaned, filled, capped, sealed, labeled, and loaded into cartons. This can be done at rates as high as 400 bottles per minute.
  • 262. STYLES OF VODKA BOMBORA VODKA: Bombora Vodka is an Australian brand of vodka. Its name comes from the Aboriginal word for "reef," and surf talk for "massive wave." It is distilled 5x from grapes harvested in the Barossa Valley and natural spring water collected from the Great Artesian Basin.
  • 263. COORANBONG VODKA: Derived from the Aboriginal word for "water over rocks," CooranBong is the first super premium vodka distilled from Australian grapes in the world. Using select hand- picked Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from the Barossa Valley, CooranBong emphasizes a unique 10x distilling process.
  • 264. DOWNUNBER VODKA: Downunder Vodka is an 80 proof vodka distilled and bottled in Melbourne, Australia. The vodka is distilled from the molasses of Australian sugar cane. Downunder is priced below high-priced vodkas at about the same level as Smirnoff.
  • 265. ICEBERG VODKA: Iceberg Vodka is a vodka manufactured by the Newfoundland and Labrador Liquor Corporation. The vodka is produced using water from icebergs harvested off the coast of Newfoundland. Won the 2006- 2007 Golden Icon Award for Best Vodka; the Golden Icon Awards are presented annually by Travolta Family Entertainment. In 1998, the Beverage Tasting Institute gave Iceberg a 'superlative' score of 94 out of 100, ranking it second behind the acclaimed Grey Goose in a blind taste test of the world's best vodkas
  • 266. DRAGON BLEU VODKA: Dragon Bleu is a French brand of vodka. It is distilled and bottled in the Grande Champagne area of France from a blend of three grains:wheat, barley, and rye. Dragon Bleu is produced by French distiller Patrick Brisset, who is the former President of the International Centre for Spirits and Liqueurs (Centre International des eaux-de-vie) in Segonzac, France. Dragon Bleu is 40% alcohol by volume (80 proof). It is produced using the water of the Gensac Spring. This vodka fits into the high-priced category
  • 267. Tequila (Spanish pronunciation: [teˈkila]) is a Blue Agave- based spirit made primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila, 65 kilometres (40 mi) northwest of Guadalajara, and in the highlands (Los Altos) of the western Mexican state of Jalisco. The red volcanic soil in the region surrounding Tequila is particularly well suited to the growing of the blue agave, and more than 300 million of the plants are harvested there each year. Mexican laws state that tequila can be produced only in the state of Jalisco and limited regions in the states of Guanajuato, Michoacán,Nayarit, and Tamaulipas. Tequila is most often made at a 38–40% alcohol content (76–80 proof), but can be produced between 35–55% alcohol content (70–110 proof). Though most tequilas are 80 proof, many distillers will distill to 100 proof and then cut it down with water to reduce its harshness. Some of the more well respected brands distill the alcohol to 80 proof without using additional water as a diluter.
  • 268. PRODUCTION OF TEQUILA: Harvesting the agave plant remains a manual effort, unchanged by modern farming technologies, and stretching back hundreds of years. The agave is planted, tended, and harvested by hand. The men who harvest it, the "jimadores", possess generations of knowledge about the plants and the ways in which they need to be harvested. The jimadores must be able to work swiftly in the tight rows, pull out the hijuelos (Agave offspring) without damaging the mother plant, clear the piñas (Spanish for pineapples), and decide when each plant is ready to be harvested . Too soon and there are not enough sugars, too late and the plant will have used its sugars to grow a quiote (20–40 foot high stem), with seeds on the top that are then scattered by the wind. The piñas, weighing 40 to 70 pounds, are cut away with a special knife called a coa. They are then shredded, their juices pressed out and put into fermentation tanks and vats. Some tequila companies still use the traditional method (artisanal) in which the piñas are crushed with a Tahona (stone wheel). The musto, (Agave juice, and sometimes the fiber) is then allowed to ferment in either wood or stainless steel vats for several days to convert the sugars into alcohol. Each company keeps its own yeast a closely guarded secret
  • 269. TYPES OF TEQUILA: There are two basic categories of tequila: mixtos and 100% agave. Mixtos use up to 49% of other sugars in the fermentation process, with agave taking up the remainder. Mixtos use both glucose and fructose sugars. With 100% agave tequila, blanco or plata is harsher with the bold flavors of the distilled agave up front, while reposado and añejo are smoother, subtler, and more complex. As with other spirits that are aged in casks, tequila takes on the flavors of the wood, while the harshness of the alcohol mellows. The major flavor distinction with 100% agave tequila is the base ingredient, which is more vegetal than grain spirits (and often more complex). Tequila is usually bottled in one of five categories: Blanco ("white") or plata ("silver") – white spirit, un-aged and bottled or stored immediately after distillation, or aged less than two months in stainless steel or neutral oak barrels; Joven ("young") or oro ("gold") – is the result of blending Silver Tequila with Reposado and/or Añejo and/or extra Añejo Tequila; Reposado ("rested") – aged a minimum of two months, but less than a year in oak barrels; Añejo ("aged" or "vintage") – aged a minimum of one year, but less than 3 years in oak barrels; Extra Añejo ("extra aged" or "ultra aged") – aged a minimum of three years in oak barrels. This category was established in March 2006.
  • 270. Vermouth is a fortified wine, flavored with aromatic herbs and spices ("aromatized" in the trade) such as cardamom, cinnamon, marjoram and chamomile. Some vermouth is sweetened; however, unsweetened, or dry, vermouth tends to be bitter. The person credited with the second vermouth recipe, Antonio Benedetto Carpano from Turin, Italy, chose to name his concoction "vermouth" in 1786 because he was inspired by a German wine flavoured with wormwood, an herb most famously used in distilling absinthe. The modern German word Wermut (Wermuth in the spelling of Carpano's time) means both wormwood and vermouth. The herbs in vermouth were originally used to mask raw flavours of cheaper wines, imparting a slightly medicinal "tonic" flavour.
  • 271. WORM WOOD
  • 272. STYLES OF VERMOUTH There are three general styles of vermouth, in order from driest to sweetest: extra dry, bianco/white, and sweet/red. Sweet red vermouth is drunk as an apéritif, often straight up, as well as in mixed drinks like the Manhattan. Dry white vermouth, along with gin, is a key ingredient in the mixing of martinis. Red vermouths are sometimes referred to as Italian vermouths and white vermouths as French vermouths, although not all Italian vermouths are red and not all French vermouths are white.
  • 273. Cider (pronounced /ˈsaɪdər/) is a beverage made from apple juice. Non- alcoholic and alcoholic varieties are produced. Alcoholic beverages from cider are made from the fermented juice of apples and are known in the U.S. and Canada as hard cider, while non-alcoholic versions are known as apple cider. Alcoholic cider varies in alcohol content from less than 3% ABV in French cidre doux to 8.5% ABV or more in traditional English ciders. Perry is an alcoholic beverage made of fermented pear juice. It is similar to cider, in that it is made using a similar process and often has a similar alcoholic content, up to 8.5% alcohol by volume. The term Pear Cider is sometimes used, and is considered equivalent to Perry by some industry bodies. Perry has been common for centuries in Britain, particularly in the Three Counties of Gloucestershire, Herefordshire and Worcestershire, and in parts of south Wales; and France, especially Normandy and Anjou.
  • 274. CIDER PRODUCTIONScatting and pressing: Apples grown for consumption are suitable for cider making, though some regional cider-makers prefer to use a mix of eating and cider apples (as in Kent, England), or exclusively cider apples (as in the West Country, England). There are many hundreds of varieties of cultivars developed specifically for cider making. Once the apples are gathered from trees in orchards they are scatted (ground down) into what is called pomace or pommage. Historically this was done using pressing stones with circular troughs, or by a cider mill. Cider mills were traditionally driven by the hand, water-mill, or horse-power. In modern times they are likely to be powered by electricity. The pulp is then transferred to the cider press and built up in layers known as cheeses into a block. Traditionally the method for squeezing the juice from the cheese involves placing sweet straw or hair cloths between the layers of pomace. This will alternate with slatted ash-wood racks, until there is a pile of ten or twelve layers. It is important to minimize the time that the pomace is exposed to air in order to keep oxidation to a minimum. The set is then subjected to increasing degrees of pressure, until all the 'must' or juice is squeezed from the pomace. This juice, after being strained in a coarse hair-sieve, is then put into either open vats or closed casks. The pressed pulp is given to farm animals as winter feed, composted or discarded, or used to make liqueurs.
  • 275. Fermentation: Fermentation is carried out at a temperature of 4–16 °C (40–60 °F). This is low for most kinds of fermentation, but is beneficial for cider as it leads to slower fermentation with less loss of delicate aromas. Shortly before the fermentation consumes all the sugar, the liquor is racked (siphoned) into new vats. This leaves dead yeast cells and other undesirable material at the bottom of the old vat. At this point it becomes important to exclude airborne acetic bacteria, so vats are filled completely to exclude air. The fermenting of the remaining available sugar generates a small amount of carbon dioxide that forms a protective layer, reducing air contact. This final fermentation creates a small amount of carbonation. Extra sugar may be added specifically for this purpose. Racking is sometimes repeated if the liquor remains too cloudy. Apple based juices with cranberry also make fine ciders; and many other fruit purées or flavourings can be used, such as grape, cherry, and raspberry. The cider is ready to drink after a three month fermentation period, though more often it is matured in the vats for up to two or three years.
  • 276. Blending and bottling For larger-scale cider production, ciders from vats produced from different varieties of apple may be blended to accord with market taste. If the cider is to be bottled, usually some extra sugar is added for sparkle. Higher quality ciders can be made using the champagne method, but this is expensive in time and money and requires special corks, bottles, and other equipment. Some home brewers use beer bottles, which work perfectly well, and are inexpensive. This allows the cider to become naturally carbonated.
  • 277. POPULAR BRANDS OF CIDER 1. ARGENTINA: Real, Victoria, Del Valle, Rama Caida 2. AUSTRALIA: Strong bow, Mercury, Cold stream 3. AUSTRIA: Mostviertel 4. BELGIUM: Stassen, Strongbow Jacques, Konings 5. CANADA: John Molson. Ice Cider 6. BRITAIN: Biddenden, theobolds, strongbow, blackthorn. Bulmers, Frosty Jack, White Strike, Diamond White 7. USA: Martinelli’s, Woodchuck,
  • 278. APÉRITIF An apéritif (also spelled aperitif) is an alcoholic drink that is usually served to stimulate the appetite before a meal, contrasting with digestifs, which are served after meals. Apéritifs are commonly served with something small to eat, such as crackers, cheese, pâté, olives, and various kinds of finger food. This French word is derived from the Latin verb aperire, which means “to open.” There is no consensus about the origin of the apéritif. Some say that the concept of drinking a small amount of alcohol before a meal dates back to the ancien Egyptians. Main records, however, show that the apéritif first appeared in 1786 in Turin, Italy, when Antonio Benedetto Carpano invented vermouth in this city. In later years, vermouth was produced and sold by such well-known companies as Martini, Cinzano, and Gancia. Apéritifs were already widespread in the 19th century in Italy, where they were being served in fashionable cafes in Rome, Venice, Florence, Milan, Turin, and Naples. Apéritifs became very popular in Europe in the late 19th century. By 1900, they were also commonly served in the United States. In Spain and in some countries of Latin America, apéritifs have been a staple of tapas cuisine for centuries.
  • 279. DIGESTIF A digestif is an alcoholic beverage that is taken just after a meal, purportedly as an aid to digestion — hence the name, which is borrowed from French. If a digestif is a bitters, it will contain bitter or carminative herbs that some believe will aid digestion. In contrast to apéritifs (which are taken before a meal), digestifs usually contain more alcohol. Digestifs are usually taken straight (neat) and are most often spirits such as amari, bitters, brandy, grappa, tequila, or whisky. Some wines (usually fortified wines) are served as digestifs — for example, sherry, port and madeira.
  • 280. POPULAR APERITIFS & DIGESTIFS CALVADOS: Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Basse- Normandie or Lower Normandy. Calvados is distilled from specially grown and selected apples, of which there are over 200 named varieties. It is not uncommon for a Calvados producer to use over 100 specific varieties of apple to produce their Calvados. The apples used are either sweet (such as the Rouge Duret variety), tart (such as the Rambault variety), or bitter (such as the Mettais, Saint Martin, Frequin, and Binet Rouge varieties), with the latter category of apple being inedible. The fruit is picked (usually by hand) and pressed into a juice that is fermented into a dry cider. It is then distilled into eau de vie. After two years aging in oak casks, it can be sold as Calvados. The longer it is aged, the smoother the drink becomes. Usually the maturation goes on for several years. A half-bottle of twenty-year-old Calvados can easily command the same price as a full bottle of ten-year-old Calvados.
  • 282. APPLE BRANDY: It is a brandy made by distilling hard cider or fermented apple pomace. Applejack (American Brandy) is sometimes produced by a different method which is now rarely used. This method involves freezing the fermented cider and then removing the ice.
  • 283. POIRE WILLIAMS: Poire Williams is a colorless eau de vie made from the Williams pear. It is generally served chilled as an after-dinner drink. Many producers of Poire Williams include an entire pear inside each bottle. This is achieved by attaching the bottle to a budding pear tree so that the pear will grow inside it. The Williams pear is known as the Bartlett pear in the United States. Williamine is brand of Poire Williams; the trademark is owned by Distillerie Louis Morand & Cie, who distill the drink on their premises in Martigny, Canton of Valais, Switzerland from nearby orchards.
  • 284. KIRSCH: Kirschwasser (pronounced KIRSH -vahs-ər, German for “cherry water”, German pronunciation: [ˈkɪɐ̯ ʃvasɐ]) is a clear, colourless fruit brandy traditionally made from double- distillation of morello cherries, a dark-coloured cultivar of the sour cherry. However, the beverage is now also made from other kinds of cherries. The cherries are fermented complete (that is, including their stones). Kirschwasser is often simply called Kirsch in both German- and English-speaking countries.
  • 285. SLIVOVITZ: Slivovitz or Sliwowitz is a distilled beverage made from Damson plums. Slivovitz is primarily produced in Slavic regions of Central and Eastern Europe, both commercially as well as by many households on an informal, homemade basis. Primary producing nations include Serbia, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Bosnia, Poland, Hungary, Bulga ria, Romania and Croatia. It is most popularly consumed in those nations, as well as wherever communities of expatriate from these nations exist. Similar plum brandies are also produced in Switzerland, France, the United States, and Canada, but marketed under other names, such as brandy, Pflümli, or eau de vie.
  • 286. FRAMBOISE: Framboise (pronounced /fʀɑ̃bwaz/) (from the French for raspberry) or Frambozenbier (Dutch) is a Belgian lambic beer that is fermented using raspberries. It is one of many modern fruitbeer types that have been inspired by the more traditional kriek beer, made using sour cherries. Framboise is usually served in a small glass that resembles a champagne glass, only shorter (could also be a goblet). Most framboise beers are quite sweet, though the Cantillon brewery produces a tart version called Rosé de Gambrinus that is based on the traditional kriek style. The Liefmans brewery uses Oud bruin beer instead of lambic to make its high quality framboise beer, resulting in a very different taste. Recently, Framboise has become popular outside of Belgium, and can now be found in pubs and supermarkets all over the world.
  • 287. MARC: Marc is a spirit distilled from pomace wine or from the residue of grape skins and seeds after the grapes have been pressed for wine making. It is manufactured in similar styles in other countries like Italy (Grappa), Portugal (Bagaciera) and Spain (Aguardente).
  • 288. A liqueur is an alcoholic beverage that has been flavored with fruit, herbs, nuts, spices, flowers, or cream and bottled with added sugar. Liqueurs are typically quite sweet; they are usually not aged for long but may have resting periods during their production to allow flavors to marry. The word liqueur comes from the Latin liquifacere (“to liquefy”). A distinction can be made between liqueurs and the kind of cordials that are made with fruit juice. In some parts of the world, people use the words “cordial” and “liqueur” interchangeably. Liqueurs date back centuries and are historical descendants of herbal medicines, often those prepared by monks, as Chartreuse or Bénédictine. Liqueurs were made in Italy as early as the 13th century and their consumption was later required at all treaty signings during the Middle Ages.
  • 289. Nowadays, liqueurs are made worldwide and are served in many ways: by themselves, poured over ice, with coffee, mixed with cream or other mixers to create cocktails, etc. They are often served with or after a dessert. Liqueurs are also used in cooking. Some liqueurs are prepared by infusing certain woods, fruits, or flowers, in either water or alcohol, and adding sugar or other items. Others are distilled from aromatic or flavoring agents. The distinction between liqueur and spirits (sometimes liquors) is not simple, especially since many spirits are available in a flavored form today. Flavored spirits, however, are not prepared by infusion. Alcohol content is not a distinctive feature. At 15- 30%, most liqueurs have a lower alcohol content than spirits, but some liqueurs have an alcohol content as high as 55%. Dessert wine, on the other hand, may taste like a liqueur, but contains no additional flavoring.
  • 290. Anise liqueurs have the interesting property of turning from transparent to cloudy when added to water: the oil of anise remains in solution in the presence of a high concentration of alcohol, but crystallizes when the alcohol concentration is reduced. Layered drinks are made by floating different-coloured liqueurs in separate layers. Each liqueur is poured slowly into a glass over the back of a spoon or down a glass rod, so that the liquids of different densities remain unmixed, creating a striped effect.
  • 293. A cocktail is a style of mixed drink. Originally a mixture of distilled spirits, sugar, water, and bitters, the word has gradually come to mean almost any mixed drink containing alcohol. A cocktail today usually contains one or more types of liquor and one or more mixers, such as bitters, fruit juice, fruit, soda, ice, sugar, honey, milk,cream, or herbs.
  • 294. QUALITIES OF A GOOD COCKTAIL  It should be made from good-quality, high- proof liquors.  It should whet rather than dull the appetite. Thus, it should never be sweet or syrupy, or contain too much fruit juice, egg or cream.  It should be dry, with sufficient alcoholic flavor, yet smooth and pleasing to the palate.  It should be pleasing to the eye.  It should be well-iced
  • 295. COMPONENTS OF A COCKTAIL  The base is the principal ingredient of the cocktail. It is typically a single spirituous liquor, such as rum, gin or whiskey, and typically makes up 75 percent or more of the total volume of the cocktail before icing.  The modifying agent is the ingredient that gives the cocktail its character. Its function is to soften the raw alcohol taste of the base, while at the same time to enhance its natural flavor. Typical modifying agents are aromatic wines (such as vermouth) and spirits (such as Fernet Branca or Amer Picon), bitters, fruit juices and "smoothing agents" such as sugar, eggs, and cream.  Special flavoring and coloring agents include liqueurs (such as Grand Marnier or Chartreuse), Cordials, and non-alcoholic flavored syrups (such as Grenadine or Orgeat syrup). These are typically used in place of simple syrup, and are to be used sparingly.
  • 300. A cocktail shaker is a device used to mix beverages (usually alcoholic) by shaking. When ice is put in the shaker this allows for a quicker cooling of the drink before serving. A shaken cocktail is made by putting the desired ingredients (typically fruit juices, syrups, liqueurs and ice cubes) in the cocktail shaker. Then it is shaken vigorously for around 5 to 10 seconds, depending upon the mixability of the ingredients and desired temperature. There are at least three varieties of cocktail shakers:
  • 301.  The Boston Shaker: A two-piece shaker consisting of a metal bottom and glass or plastic mixing glass. The mixing container and bottom are inserted into each other for shaking or used separately for stirring or muddling. A separate strainer, such as a Hawthorn or Julep strainer, are required for this type shaker if crushed ice is used. Without such a strainer, some bartenders may instead strain by narrowly separating the two pieces after shaking and pouring the drink through the resulting gap.  The Cobbler Shaker: A three-piece cocktail shaker that has tapers at the top and ends with a built-in strainer and includes a cap. The cap can often be used as a measure for spirits or other liquids.  The French Shaker: A two-piece shaker consisting of a metal bottom and a metal cap. A strainer is always required for this type of shaker, barring the separation method mentioned above.