SONET Overview•  SONET is a physical layer standard.•  A synchronous frame structure for multiplexing digital traffic.•  F...
STS-1 frame overheads
STS-1 frame: section overhead
Section overhead is recalculated for each SONET device                  (regenerators and multiplexers).17.4
STS-1 frame: line overhead
STS-1 frame: path overhead
Path overhead is only calculated for end-to-end (at STS multiplexers).17.7
SONET Structure
SONET ARCHITECTURE
• Path Layer: Mapping of DS0, DS1, DS3, FDDI to Payload• Line Layer: Frame synchronization and data multiplexing into a SO...
In a simple SONET linear network• PTE (path-terminating equipment) sits at each end, takes sub-rate signals  and multiplex...
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Lecture 3 sonet & sdh

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Lecture 3 sonet & sdh

  1. 1. SONET Overview• SONET is a physical layer standard.• A synchronous frame structure for multiplexing digital traffic.• Frame structure: 9 rows of 90 columns of 8-bit bytes.• Bytes are transmitted one row at a time, from left to right• First three columns of STS-1 frame are for section overhead and line overhead• Remaining 87 columns are for the Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE)
  2. 2. STS-1 frame overheads
  3. 3. STS-1 frame: section overhead
  4. 4. Section overhead is recalculated for each SONET device (regenerators and multiplexers).17.4
  5. 5. STS-1 frame: line overhead
  6. 6. STS-1 frame: path overhead
  7. 7. Path overhead is only calculated for end-to-end (at STS multiplexers).17.7
  8. 8. SONET Structure
  9. 9. SONET ARCHITECTURE
  10. 10. • Path Layer: Mapping of DS0, DS1, DS3, FDDI to Payload• Line Layer: Frame synchronization and data multiplexing into a SONET frame• Section Layer: Framing, error monitoring and bit-scrambling• Photonic Layer: Fiber characteristics, encoding, transmitter and receiver types
  11. 11. In a simple SONET linear network• PTE (path-terminating equipment) sits at each end, takes sub-rate signals and multiplexes them into a SONET frame• Between PTE devices are several LTE (line-terminating equipment) devices: an ADM (add/drop multiplexer) – Instead of de-multiplexing entire signal, as PTE does, it pulls out only sub-rate services it needs and inserts different signals• If network is long enough, STE (section-terminating equipment) will be in fiber. These repeaters take incoming signal from one side and rebroadcast it out on other side. – Placement of STE in the network depends on strength of signal beingtransmitted down the fiber
  12. 12. Thank You

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