Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Lecture 3  sonet & sdh
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Lecture 3 sonet & sdh

2,199
views

Published on

Published in: Education

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,199
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
112
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. SONET Overview• SONET is a physical layer standard.• A synchronous frame structure for multiplexing digital traffic.• Frame structure: 9 rows of 90 columns of 8-bit bytes.• Bytes are transmitted one row at a time, from left to right• First three columns of STS-1 frame are for section overhead and line overhead• Remaining 87 columns are for the Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE)
  • 2. STS-1 frame overheads
  • 3. STS-1 frame: section overhead
  • 4. Section overhead is recalculated for each SONET device (regenerators and multiplexers).17.4
  • 5. STS-1 frame: line overhead
  • 6. STS-1 frame: path overhead
  • 7. Path overhead is only calculated for end-to-end (at STS multiplexers).17.7
  • 8. SONET Structure
  • 9. SONET ARCHITECTURE
  • 10. • Path Layer: Mapping of DS0, DS1, DS3, FDDI to Payload• Line Layer: Frame synchronization and data multiplexing into a SONET frame• Section Layer: Framing, error monitoring and bit-scrambling• Photonic Layer: Fiber characteristics, encoding, transmitter and receiver types
  • 11. In a simple SONET linear network• PTE (path-terminating equipment) sits at each end, takes sub-rate signals and multiplexes them into a SONET frame• Between PTE devices are several LTE (line-terminating equipment) devices: an ADM (add/drop multiplexer) – Instead of de-multiplexing entire signal, as PTE does, it pulls out only sub-rate services it needs and inserts different signals• If network is long enough, STE (section-terminating equipment) will be in fiber. These repeaters take incoming signal from one side and rebroadcast it out on other side. – Placement of STE in the network depends on strength of signal beingtransmitted down the fiber
  • 12. Thank You