Plant defense


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Plant defense

  1. 2. Types of Plant Defenses <ul><li>Constitutive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The defense is always present in the plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inducible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The defense that are produced when a plant is injured or detects foreign pathogen </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. Constitutive Defenses <ul><li>Cell walls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents pathogens from entering the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waxy epidermal cuticle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents water loss and micro bacterial from entering epidermal </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Constitutive Defenses <ul><li>Bark </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps pathogens and insects from going to the living cells underneath the bark </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thorns, Spine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce feeding by large herbivores by limiting the feeding rate. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Inducible Defenses <ul><li>Toxic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogen degrading enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate cell suicide </li></ul>
  5. 6. Pathogen-specific Response <ul><li>Vertebrate immune response and the Pathogen-specifc response are similar in the way they are activated </li></ul><ul><li>For the vertebrate immune response, the body detects the foreign pathogen and release cells to kill and destroy the pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>For the pathogen-specific response, the plant detects the pathogen and produces toxic chemicals to kill the pathogen </li></ul>
  6. 7. Secondary Compounds <ul><li>Secondary compounds have negative impacts on herbivores and pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>They are toxic to herbivores and microbes </li></ul><ul><li>The production of the compounds is increased when plant is being attacked by a herbivore or a pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The woodrats (N. Albigula) after consuming secondary compounds increased there water intake and urine output </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Secondary Compounds <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Methol Linalool- used as an anesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Carotene- used as an antioxidant and for orange coloring </li></ul><ul><li>Altropine-used to treat motion sickness </li></ul><ul><li>Scopolamine- used to treat motion sickness </li></ul><ul><li>Sennoside- used as a laxative </li></ul>
  8. 9. Plants and Herbivores Co-evolution <ul><li>Silica-rich grass </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualistics relationship of plants with insects </li></ul><ul><li>Different tooth structures and special enzymes to digest the plants </li></ul><ul><li>Let fungi and bacteria weaken the plant defenses </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes to reduce toxins, eat clay and other minerals to reduce poison </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding patterns </li></ul>
  9. 10. Mutualism between Plants and Insects <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acacia Trees and ants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ants live in the thorns of Acacia trees and they protect the tree by attacking the herbivores but not pollinators so the trees are able to produce. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. References <ul><li>Brian C. Freeman and Gwyn A. Beattie. 2011. An Overview of Plant Defenses against Pathogens and Herbivores. APSnet. . 1/24/2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Campbell, Reece, Urry, Cain, Minorsky, Wasserman. 2008. Biology. 8 th Edition. Pearson. See pages 845-846. </li></ul><ul><li>Wise Geek. 2011. What are Some Herbivore Adaptations to Plant Defense. Wise Geek. . 1/24/2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular Expressions. 2010. Plant Cell Structure. Molecular Expressions. . 1/24/2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Campus Arboretum. 2080. Pinus Project. Campus Arboretum. . 1/24/2011. </li></ul><ul><li>The San Diego Zoo. 2010. Pandas. Solcomhouse. . 1/27/2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Marie Iannotti. 2011. Hakonechloa macra. About. . 1/24/2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Novel Guide. 2011. Medical Plants. Novel Guide. . 1/24/2011 </li></ul>