Plant Defense
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Plant Defense

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Plant Defense Plant Defense Presentation Transcript

  •  
  • Types of Plant Defenses
    • Constitutive
      • The defense is always present in the plant
    • Inducible
      • The defense that are produced when a plant is injured or detects foreign pathogen
  • Constitutive Defenses
    • Cell walls
      • Prevents pathogens from entering the cell
    • Waxy epidermal cuticle
      • Prevents water loss and micro bacterial from entering epidermal
  • Constitutive Defenses
    • Bark
      • Keeps pathogens and insects from going to the living cells underneath the bark
    • Thorns
      • Reduce feeding by large herbivores by limiting the feeding rate.
  • Inducible Defenses
    • Toxic chemicals
    • Pathogen degrading enzymes
    • Deliberate cell suicide
  • Pathogen-specific Response
    • Vertebrate immune response and the Pathogen-specifc response are similar in the way they are activated
    • For the vertebrate immune response, the body detects the foreign pathogen and release cells to kill and destroy the pathogen
    • For the pathogen-specific response, the plant detects the pathogen and produces toxic chemicals to kill the pathogen
  • Secondary Compounds
    • Secondary compounds have negative impacts on herbivores and pathogens
    • They are toxic to herbivores and microbes
    • The production of the compounds is increased when plant is being attacked by a herbivore or a pathogen
  • Secondary Compounds
    • Examples
    • Methol Linalool- used as an anesthetic
    • Carotene- used as an antioxidant and for orange coloring
    • Altropine-used to treat motion sickness
    • Scopolamine- used to treat motion sickness
    • Sennoside- used as a laxative
  • Plants and Herbivores Co-evolution
    • Silica-rich grass
    • Toxic Chemicals
    • Secondary compounds
    • Mutualistics relationship of plants with insects
    • Different tooth structures and special enzymes to digest the plants
    • Let fungi and bacteria weaken the plant defenses
    • Enzymes to reduce toxins, eat clay and other minerals to reduce poison
    • Feeding patterns
  • References
    • Brian C. Freeman and Gwyn A. Beattie. 2011. An Overview of Plant Defenses against Pathogens and Herbivores. APSnet. http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/topics/Pages/OverviewOfPlantDiseases.aspx . 1/24/2011.
    • Campbell, Reece, Urry, Cain, Minorsky, Wasserman. 2008. Biology. 8 th Edition. Pearson. See pages 845-846.
    • Wise Geek. 2011. What are Some Herbivore Adaptations to Plant Defense. Wise Geek. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-some-herbivore-adaptation-to-plant-defense.htm . 1/24/2011
    • Molecular Expressions. 2010. Plant Cell Structure. Molecular Expressions. http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plantcell.html . 1/24/2011.
    • Campus Arboretum. 2080. Pinus Project. Campus Arboretum. http://arboretum.arizona.edu/id_halepensis.html . 1/24/2011.
    • The San Diego Zoo. 2010. Pandas. Solcomhouse. http://www.solcomhouse.com/pandas.htm . 1/27/2011.
    • Marie Iannotti. 2011. Hakonechloa macra. About. http://gardening.about.com/od/gardendesign/ig/Brighten-a-Shade-Garden/Hakonechloa-macra.html . 1/24/2011
    • Novel Guide. 2011. Medical Plants. Novel Guide. http://www.novelguide.com/a/discover/plsc_03/plsc_03_00202.html . 1/24/2011