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Plant Defense
 

Plant Defense

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    Plant Defense Plant Defense Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Types of Plant Defenses
      • Constitutive
        • The defense is always present in the plant
      • Inducible
        • The defense that are produced when a plant is injured or detects foreign pathogen
    • Constitutive Defenses
      • Cell walls
        • Prevents pathogens from entering the cell
      • Waxy epidermal cuticle
        • Prevents water loss and micro bacterial from entering epidermal
    • Constitutive Defenses
      • Bark
        • Keeps pathogens and insects from going to the living cells underneath the bark
      • Thorns
        • Reduce feeding by large herbivores by limiting the feeding rate.
    • Inducible Defenses
      • Toxic chemicals
      • Pathogen degrading enzymes
      • Deliberate cell suicide
    • Pathogen-specific Response
      • Vertebrate immune response and the Pathogen-specifc response are similar in the way they are activated
      • For the vertebrate immune response, the body detects the foreign pathogen and release cells to kill and destroy the pathogen
      • For the pathogen-specific response, the plant detects the pathogen and produces toxic chemicals to kill the pathogen
    • Secondary Compounds
      • Secondary compounds have negative impacts on herbivores and pathogens
      • They are toxic to herbivores and microbes
      • The production of the compounds is increased when plant is being attacked by a herbivore or a pathogen
    • Secondary Compounds
      • Examples
      • Methol Linalool- used as an anesthetic
      • Carotene- used as an antioxidant and for orange coloring
      • Altropine-used to treat motion sickness
      • Scopolamine- used to treat motion sickness
      • Sennoside- used as a laxative
    • Plants and Herbivores Co-evolution
      • Silica-rich grass
      • Toxic Chemicals
      • Secondary compounds
      • Mutualistics relationship of plants with insects
      • Different tooth structures and special enzymes to digest the plants
      • Let fungi and bacteria weaken the plant defenses
      • Enzymes to reduce toxins, eat clay and other minerals to reduce poison
      • Feeding patterns
    • References
      • Brian C. Freeman and Gwyn A. Beattie. 2011. An Overview of Plant Defenses against Pathogens and Herbivores. APSnet. http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/topics/Pages/OverviewOfPlantDiseases.aspx . 1/24/2011.
      • Campbell, Reece, Urry, Cain, Minorsky, Wasserman. 2008. Biology. 8 th Edition. Pearson. See pages 845-846.
      • Wise Geek. 2011. What are Some Herbivore Adaptations to Plant Defense. Wise Geek. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-some-herbivore-adaptation-to-plant-defense.htm . 1/24/2011
      • Molecular Expressions. 2010. Plant Cell Structure. Molecular Expressions. http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plantcell.html . 1/24/2011.
      • Campus Arboretum. 2080. Pinus Project. Campus Arboretum. http://arboretum.arizona.edu/id_halepensis.html . 1/24/2011.
      • The San Diego Zoo. 2010. Pandas. Solcomhouse. http://www.solcomhouse.com/pandas.htm . 1/27/2011.
      • Marie Iannotti. 2011. Hakonechloa macra. About. http://gardening.about.com/od/gardendesign/ig/Brighten-a-Shade-Garden/Hakonechloa-macra.html . 1/24/2011
      • Novel Guide. 2011. Medical Plants. Novel Guide. http://www.novelguide.com/a/discover/plsc_03/plsc_03_00202.html . 1/24/2011