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Brain and nerve


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  • 1. BRAIN & CRANIAL NERVE Prepared By: Dr.Hemal R. Brahmkshatriya MDS PartI
  • 2. Under guidance of:  Dr. Kiran Desai sir  Dr. Navin Shah sir  Dr. Rakesh Shah sir  Dr. Kruti Shah mam  Dr. Amit Mahajan sir  Dr. Dixit Shah sir  Dr. Rohit Tatu sir  Dr. Prachur Kumar sir  Dr. Rushit Patel sir
  • 3. CONTENTS  Introduction  Brain  Cranial nerve  Cranial nerve vs Spinal Nerve  Topography of nerves.  Functional Anatomy of Cranial nerves.  Examination of Cranial nerves.  Surgical Aspects of Nerves.
  • 4. Central Nervous System
  • 5. Parts of Brain: 1. Forebrain (prosencephalon) a) Telencephalon (cerebrum) b) Diencephalon (thalamecephalon) 2. Midbrain (mesencephalon) 3. Hindbrain (rhombencephalon) a) Metencephalon (pons+ cerebellum) b) Myelencephalon or medulla oblongata.
  • 6. Cerebrum  Anatomy  Frontal lobe  Parietal lobe  Occipital lobe  Precentral gyrus  Postcentral gyrus  Functions  Sensory cortex  Motor cortex  Emotion  Intellectual processes  Auditory  Visual  Speech
  • 7. Brain Stem  Anatomy:  Medulla oblongata  Pons  Midbrain Medulla: -Relays motor and sensory information. -Regulates heartbeat, breathing and blood vessel dilation.  Pons: Control breathing.  Mid Brain:  vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation
  • 8. Protective Coverings (Meninges)  Dura mater: Dense connective tissue.  Arachnoid: Nonvascular connective tissue.  Pia mater: Highly vascular. Covers surface of the brain and spinal cord and invaginates along cortical surface to form perivascular spaces.
  • 9. Cerebral Spinal Fluid  Formed in the choroid plexus of leteral ventricles and 3rd and 4th ventricles, capillaries of brain and spinal cord.  Total contain 150 ml formation rate 500ml/day.  Absorbed arachnoid villi layer to cranial venous sinus, spinal nerve.  Protects, nutritive and pathways for metabolisum.
  • 10.  Nerves that emerge directly from the brain (spinal nerves emerge from segments of the spinal cord).  12 pairs of cranial nerves.!!!!!?
  • 11.  Numbered Anterior to Posterior  Attach to Ventral surface of brain  Exit brain through foramina in skull  I + II attach to Forebrain  III-XII attach to Brainstem (midbrain, pons, medulla)  Only X goes beyond the head-neck
  • 12. Cranial nerve v/s spinal nerve  Contain inflow/outflow of brain; spinal nerves contain inflow/outflow of spinal cord.  Certain types of similar to those found in spinal nerves; ex. Sensory axons to skin.  Certain types of neurons not found in spinal nerves; ex. taste fibers.  Many cranial nerves contain more than one type of neuron.
  • 13. BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION 1) First letter: G = General = types of neurons found both in spinal nerves and cranial nerves. S = Special = types of neurons only found in cranial nerves not spinal nerves. 2) Second letter: S = Somatic = types of neurons innervating structures derived from somites. V = Visceral = types of neurons innervating gut, structures derived from or associated with gut and brachial arches; also vascular system, smooth muscle, internal organs and glands. 3) Third letter: A = Afferent = sensory neurons. E = Efferent = motor neurons to skeletal and smooth muscle; also secretomotor neurons to glands.
  • 14. A. General Innervation - like spinal cord 1. GSE (General Somatic Efferent) - motor to somatic voluntary skeletal muscles (derived from somites). 2. GSA (General Somatic Afferent) - sensory to skin, joints, muscle and tendon receptor endings, nasal and oral cavity. 3. GVE (General Visceral Efferent) = Autonomic Efferents - motor to smooth muscles in general and smooth muscles of skin (arrector pilae muscles) and blood vessels, secretomotor to glands. 4. GVA (General Visceral Afferent) - sensory to gut and its derivatives, pharynx, blood vessels, glands and internal organs.
  • 15. B. Special Innervation - only found in head. 1. SSA (Special Somatic Afferent) - special senses of vision, auditory sensation and vestibular apparatus. 2. SVA (Special Visceral Afferents) – chemical senses of taste and by analogy smell. 3. SVE (Special Visceral Efferents) - motor to voluntary skeletal muscles derived from branchial arches (these muscles develop in association with pharynx, which is rostral end of gut and therefore visceral).
  • 16. Oh! Oh! Oh! To Touch And Feel Very Good Velvet! At Heaven!  Ⅰ Olfactory nerve  Ⅱ Optic nerve  Ⅲ Oculomotor nerve  Ⅳ Trochlear nerve  Ⅴ Trigeminal nerve  Ⅵ Abducent nerve  Ⅶ Facial nerve  Ⅷ Vestibulocochlear nerve  Ⅸ Glossopharyngeal nerve  Ⅹ Vagus nerve  Ⅺ Accessory nerve  Ⅻ Hypoglossal nerve
  • 17. According to functions  Sensory cranial nerves: contain only afferent (sensory) fibers ⅠOlfactory nerve ⅡOptic nerve Ⅷ Vestibulocochlear nerve  Motor cranial nerves: contain only efferent (motor) fibers Ⅲ Oculomotor nerve Ⅳ Trochlear nerve Ⅵ Abducent nerve Ⅺ Accessory nerve Ⅻ Hypoglossal nerve
  • 18.  Mixed nerves: contain both sensory and motor fibers--- ⅤTrigeminal nerve Ⅶ Facial nerve ⅨGlossopharyngeal nerve ⅩVagus nerve
  • 19. Mnemonic for CN Function I. Some II. Say III. Marry IV. Money V. But VI. My VII. Brother VIII. Says IX. Big X. Brains XI. Matter XII. Most! S = Sensory function M = Motor function B = BOTH (Sensory and Motor function
  • 20. Cooks Out Spurt Some Spunk Right Over Silly Isabel's Incredible Jiggling Jizz Jet hole  Cribiform plate (Olfactory)  Optic canal (Optic)  Superior Orbital Fissure(Oculomotor)  Superior Orbital Fissure(Trochlear)  Superior Orbital Fissure(Trigeminal - Ophthalmic)  Foramen Rotundum (Trigeminal- Maxillary),  Foramen Ovale (Trigeminal - Mandibular), Superior Orbital Fissure (Abducens) • Internal Acoustic Meatus (Facial) • Internal Acoustic Meatus (Vestibulocochlear) • Jugular Foramen (Glossopharyngeal) • Jugular Foramen (Vagus) • Jugular Foramen (Accessory) • Hypoglossal Canal (Hypoglossal)