Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Brain and nerve
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Brain and nerve


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. BRAIN & CRANIAL NERVE Prepared By: Dr.Hemal R. Brahmkshatriya MDS PartI
  • 2. Under guidance of:  Dr. Kiran Desai sir  Dr. Navin Shah sir  Dr. Rakesh Shah sir  Dr. Kruti Shah mam  Dr. Amit Mahajan sir  Dr. Dixit Shah sir  Dr. Rohit Tatu sir  Dr. Prachur Kumar sir  Dr. Rushit Patel sir
  • 3. CONTENTS  Introduction  Brain  Cranial nerve  Cranial nerve vs Spinal Nerve  Topography of nerves.  Functional Anatomy of Cranial nerves.  Examination of Cranial nerves.  Surgical Aspects of Nerves.
  • 4. Central Nervous System
  • 5. Parts of Brain: 1. Forebrain (prosencephalon) a) Telencephalon (cerebrum) b) Diencephalon (thalamecephalon) 2. Midbrain (mesencephalon) 3. Hindbrain (rhombencephalon) a) Metencephalon (pons+ cerebellum) b) Myelencephalon or medulla oblongata.
  • 6. Cerebrum  Anatomy  Frontal lobe  Parietal lobe  Occipital lobe  Precentral gyrus  Postcentral gyrus  Functions  Sensory cortex  Motor cortex  Emotion  Intellectual processes  Auditory  Visual  Speech
  • 7. Brain Stem  Anatomy:  Medulla oblongata  Pons  Midbrain Medulla: -Relays motor and sensory information. -Regulates heartbeat, breathing and blood vessel dilation.  Pons: Control breathing.  Mid Brain:  vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation
  • 8. Protective Coverings (Meninges)  Dura mater: Dense connective tissue.  Arachnoid: Nonvascular connective tissue.  Pia mater: Highly vascular. Covers surface of the brain and spinal cord and invaginates along cortical surface to form perivascular spaces.
  • 9. Cerebral Spinal Fluid  Formed in the choroid plexus of leteral ventricles and 3rd and 4th ventricles, capillaries of brain and spinal cord.  Total contain 150 ml formation rate 500ml/day.  Absorbed arachnoid villi layer to cranial venous sinus, spinal nerve.  Protects, nutritive and pathways for metabolisum.
  • 10.  Nerves that emerge directly from the brain (spinal nerves emerge from segments of the spinal cord).  12 pairs of cranial nerves.!!!!!?
  • 11.  Numbered Anterior to Posterior  Attach to Ventral surface of brain  Exit brain through foramina in skull  I + II attach to Forebrain  III-XII attach to Brainstem (midbrain, pons, medulla)  Only X goes beyond the head-neck
  • 12. Cranial nerve v/s spinal nerve  Contain inflow/outflow of brain; spinal nerves contain inflow/outflow of spinal cord.  Certain types of similar to those found in spinal nerves; ex. Sensory axons to skin.  Certain types of neurons not found in spinal nerves; ex. taste fibers.  Many cranial nerves contain more than one type of neuron.
  • 13. BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION 1) First letter: G = General = types of neurons found both in spinal nerves and cranial nerves. S = Special = types of neurons only found in cranial nerves not spinal nerves. 2) Second letter: S = Somatic = types of neurons innervating structures derived from somites. V = Visceral = types of neurons innervating gut, structures derived from or associated with gut and brachial arches; also vascular system, smooth muscle, internal organs and glands. 3) Third letter: A = Afferent = sensory neurons. E = Efferent = motor neurons to skeletal and smooth muscle; also secretomotor neurons to glands.
  • 14. A. General Innervation - like spinal cord 1. GSE (General Somatic Efferent) - motor to somatic voluntary skeletal muscles (derived from somites). 2. GSA (General Somatic Afferent) - sensory to skin, joints, muscle and tendon receptor endings, nasal and oral cavity. 3. GVE (General Visceral Efferent) = Autonomic Efferents - motor to smooth muscles in general and smooth muscles of skin (arrector pilae muscles) and blood vessels, secretomotor to glands. 4. GVA (General Visceral Afferent) - sensory to gut and its derivatives, pharynx, blood vessels, glands and internal organs.
  • 15. B. Special Innervation - only found in head. 1. SSA (Special Somatic Afferent) - special senses of vision, auditory sensation and vestibular apparatus. 2. SVA (Special Visceral Afferents) – chemical senses of taste and by analogy smell. 3. SVE (Special Visceral Efferents) - motor to voluntary skeletal muscles derived from branchial arches (these muscles develop in association with pharynx, which is rostral end of gut and therefore visceral).
  • 16. Oh! Oh! Oh! To Touch And Feel Very Good Velvet! At Heaven!  Ⅰ Olfactory nerve  Ⅱ Optic nerve  Ⅲ Oculomotor nerve  Ⅳ Trochlear nerve  Ⅴ Trigeminal nerve  Ⅵ Abducent nerve  Ⅶ Facial nerve  Ⅷ Vestibulocochlear nerve  Ⅸ Glossopharyngeal nerve  Ⅹ Vagus nerve  Ⅺ Accessory nerve  Ⅻ Hypoglossal nerve
  • 17. According to functions  Sensory cranial nerves: contain only afferent (sensory) fibers ⅠOlfactory nerve ⅡOptic nerve Ⅷ Vestibulocochlear nerve  Motor cranial nerves: contain only efferent (motor) fibers Ⅲ Oculomotor nerve Ⅳ Trochlear nerve Ⅵ Abducent nerve Ⅺ Accessory nerve Ⅻ Hypoglossal nerve
  • 18.  Mixed nerves: contain both sensory and motor fibers--- ⅤTrigeminal nerve Ⅶ Facial nerve ⅨGlossopharyngeal nerve ⅩVagus nerve
  • 19. Mnemonic for CN Function I. Some II. Say III. Marry IV. Money V. But VI. My VII. Brother VIII. Says IX. Big X. Brains XI. Matter XII. Most! S = Sensory function M = Motor function B = BOTH (Sensory and Motor function
  • 20. Cooks Out Spurt Some Spunk Right Over Silly Isabel's Incredible Jiggling Jizz Jet hole  Cribiform plate (Olfactory)  Optic canal (Optic)  Superior Orbital Fissure(Oculomotor)  Superior Orbital Fissure(Trochlear)  Superior Orbital Fissure(Trigeminal - Ophthalmic)  Foramen Rotundum (Trigeminal- Maxillary),  Foramen Ovale (Trigeminal - Mandibular), Superior Orbital Fissure (Abducens) • Internal Acoustic Meatus (Facial) • Internal Acoustic Meatus (Vestibulocochlear) • Jugular Foramen (Glossopharyngeal) • Jugular Foramen (Vagus) • Jugular Foramen (Accessory) • Hypoglossal Canal (Hypoglossal)