causes for 1857 revolt
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causes for 1857 revolt Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Revolt of 1857 Done by Bilal Rito
  • 2.  He played an important role in establishing British raj in India.  Contributed the growth of British in India both economically and politically.  He started the Subsidiary alliance in India.  Also called as BengalTiger.
  • 3.  Was established by LordWellesley.  By this system the wealth was enhanced as the expenses of the army were to be paid by the native rulers.  He also forced the rulers to sign this deal.  The first ruler to sign this deal was Nizam of Hyderabad.
  • 4.  Those rulers who accepted the terms suffered as they lost their independence completely.  By this he was able to annex other territories.  Tipu Sultan rejected this treaty.  So did the kings of Tanjore Surat and Carnatic.  Then increased the demand to 1.25 million Sterling.  Second Anglo – Maratha war was fought in 1802-04.
  • 5.  Became the governor of India in 1848.  Great leader and contributed a lot.  In his time British annexed Punjab by the second Sikh war in 1852.
  • 6. •Doctrine of Lapse •Disrespect shown to local rulers •Annexation of Oudh •British defeat in the Afghan war
  • 7. Doctrine of lapse Doctrine of Lapse was the policy by which the state of an issueless deceased ruler would automatically pass to the British company. Lord Dalhousie made the best use of it, as he never wasted an opportunity and thus annexed all such states whose rulers died without any legal successor. States annexed by doctrine of Lapse • Satara (1848) Jaipur ,Sambalur (1849), • Nagpur and Jhansi(1854) • and Awadh (1856)
  • 8. Cruelty and disrespect to local rulers The British instigated the Indian rulers and hurt the sentiments under their rul Nana Sahib lost his pension. Rani of Jhansi was not permitted to adopt a son. They turned against the British. They were the most able leaders of the revolt. The annexation of Oudh and deposition of its ruler Wazid Ali Shah, made Oudh the most prominent centre of the revolt. Bahadur Shah II, the MughalEmperor and his successors were humiliated by the British. They were prohibited from using their ancestral palace, the Red Fort, in future.
  • 9. Defeat of British in the First Anglo- Afghan war The first Anglo-AfghanWar broke out in 1838 when the British governor of India launched an attack on Afghanistan. He feared growing Russian influence in Afghanistan.The British capture Ghazi and Kabul.The British suffered heavy losses including 1 battle in a regiment of 4500 soldiers only 1 survived. By 1842 troops were forced to withdraw. This was a source of ispiration for Indians and it encouraged them to fight against their oppressors as they realized the british were not Invincible!
  • 10.  DECLINING OF INDIAN INDUSTRIES AS A RESULT OF INDUSTRIALISATION.  COMPETITION WAS IMPOSSIBLE WITH MACHINE MADE GOODS.  CONFISCATIONS OF LANDS FROM LANDLORDS AND TALUQDARS.
  • 11. •INDIAN SOLDIERS WERE UNEMPLOYED. •MANY INDIANS LOST THEIR JOBS INCLUDING THE HIGH OFFICERS. •CONFISCATIONS OF LANDS FROM LANDLORDS AND TALUQDARS.
  • 12. MILITARY CAUSES
  • 13. •INEQUALITY BETWEEN BRITISH AND INDIAN SOLDIERS. •INDIAN SOLDIERS WERE UNHAPPY ABOUT OVERSEAS FIGHT. •INDIAN SOLDIERS WERE ORDERED TO USE CARTRIDGES.
  • 14. Conversion of Soldiers _Rumors abound of ulterior motives of the British. *Caste System in the military. _Employment of high caste Rajputs and Brahmins _Attempts made to please higher castes _Incident at Dum Dum _General Service EnlistmentAct
  • 15.  BEHRAMPUR  - On 26th February, the 19th Infantry refused to use the greased cartridges.  BARRACKPORE  - A sepoy named Mangal Pandey fired a British Adjutant and sergeant Major  MEERUT  - In May 1857, 85 sepoys refused to use the greased cartridges. They were punished severely by the British.
  • 16.  DELHI  -The Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II declared himself as the Emperor of India.This was a great humiliation to the British.  KANPUR  -The Revolt of Kanpur was lead by NanaSaheb. He is the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II.  AWADH  -The Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh declared her adopted son Birjis Kader as the Nawab.The British refused to recognise him as the ruler.
  • 17.  JHANSI  - Rani Lakshmi Bai revolted against the British as they refused to recognise her adopted son as the ruler. However, she was killed in 1858.  BIHAR  - Kunwar Singh raised the banner of revolt against the British. The mutiny began to spread to Lucknow, Bareilly , Agra and central India. Some of the important leaders are Rani Lakshmi Bai,Tantia Tope, Begum of Awadh and Nana Saheb. In Uttar Pradesh, the common people revolted against the British and fought against them with axes, speares, bows and arrows.
  • 18. TheGreat Revolt of 1857
  • 19.  The mutiny was localised.  Major part of India was uneffected.  Lack of proper weapons.  No common goal amongst the sepoys.  Internal chaos amongst mutineers.  Many communities like Rajputs, Gurkhas, Holkar, Sindhia supported British rather than taking part in the mutiny.  The English Generals like Outram, Havlock and Campbell were experienced and competent military officers.  The uprising was mainly concentrated in cities rather than villages
  • 20.  There was lack of unity among the leaders of the mutiny. Thus, the British took advantage of their mutual jealousies and intrigues and quelled the mutiny.
  • 21.  British established direct control over India.  Queens Proclamation.  Equal opportunities to Indians.  Military Reforms.  Mistake ofWesternization.  Financial state of the economy.