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He played an important role in
establishing British raj in India.
Contributed the growth of British in
India both economically and politically.
He started the Subsidiary alliance in
Also called as BengalTiger.
Was established by LordWellesley.
By this system the wealth was enhanced as the
expenses of the army were to be paid by the native
He also forced the rulers to sign this deal.
The first ruler to sign this deal was Nizam of
Those rulers who accepted the terms
suffered as they lost their
By this he was able to annex other
Tipu Sultan rejected this treaty.
So did the kings of Tanjore Surat and
Then increased the demand to 1.25
Second Anglo – Maratha war was
fought in 1802-04.
Became the governor of India in
Great leader and contributed a
In his time British annexed
Punjab by the second Sikh war in
•Doctrine of Lapse
•Disrespect shown to local
•Annexation of Oudh
•British defeat in the Afghan
Doctrine of lapse
Doctrine of Lapse was the policy by which the state of an
issueless deceased ruler would automatically pass to the
British company. Lord Dalhousie made the best use of it,
as he never wasted an opportunity and thus annexed all
such states whose rulers died without any legal
States annexed by doctrine of Lapse
• Satara (1848) Jaipur ,Sambalur
• Nagpur and Jhansi(1854)
• and Awadh (1856)
Cruelty and disrespect to local rulers
The British instigated the Indian rulers and hurt
the sentiments under their rul Nana Sahib lost his
of Jhansi was not permitted to adopt a son. They
turned against the British. They were the most
able leaders of the revolt. The annexation of
Oudh and deposition of its ruler Wazid Ali
Shah, made Oudh the most prominent centre of
the revolt. Bahadur Shah II, the MughalEmperor
and his successors were humiliated by the British.
They were prohibited from using their ancestral
palace, the Red Fort, in future.
Defeat of British in the First Anglo-
The first Anglo-AfghanWar broke out in 1838 when the
British governor of India launched an attack on
Afghanistan. He feared growing Russian influence in
Afghanistan.The British capture Ghazi and Kabul.The
British suffered heavy losses including 1 battle in a
regiment of 4500 soldiers only 1 survived. By 1842 troops
were forced to withdraw. This was a source of ispiration
for Indians and it encouraged them to fight against their
oppressors as they realized the british were not
DECLINING OF INDIAN
INDUSTRIES AS A RESULT OF
COMPETITION WAS IMPOSSIBLE
WITH MACHINE MADE GOODS.
CONFISCATIONS OF LANDS FROM
LANDLORDS AND TALUQDARS.
•INDIAN SOLDIERS WERE UNEMPLOYED.
•MANY INDIANS LOST THEIR JOBS INCLUDING
THE HIGH OFFICERS.
•CONFISCATIONS OF LANDS FROM
LANDLORDS AND TALUQDARS.
•INEQUALITY BETWEEN BRITISH AND
•INDIAN SOLDIERS WERE UNHAPPY ABOUT
•INDIAN SOLDIERS WERE ORDERED TO USE
Conversion of Soldiers
_Rumors abound of ulterior motives of the British.
*Caste System in the military.
_Employment of high caste Rajputs and Brahmins
_Attempts made to please higher castes
_Incident at Dum Dum
_General Service EnlistmentAct
- On 26th February, the 19th Infantry refused to
use the greased cartridges.
- A sepoy named Mangal Pandey fired a British
Adjutant and sergeant Major
- In May 1857, 85 sepoys refused to use the
greased cartridges. They were punished severely
by the British.
-The Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II declared himself as the
Emperor of India.This was a great humiliation to the British.
-The Revolt of Kanpur was lead by NanaSaheb. He is the
adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II.
-The Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh declared her adopted son
Birjis Kader as the Nawab.The British refused to recognise him as
- Rani Lakshmi Bai revolted against the British as they refused to
recognise her adopted son as the ruler. However, she was killed in
- Kunwar Singh raised the banner of revolt against the British.
The mutiny began to spread to Lucknow, Bareilly , Agra and central
India. Some of the important leaders are Rani Lakshmi Bai,Tantia
Tope, Begum of Awadh and Nana Saheb.
In Uttar Pradesh, the common people revolted against the British
and fought against them with axes, speares, bows and arrows.
The mutiny was localised.
Major part of India was uneffected.
Lack of proper weapons.
No common goal amongst the sepoys.
Internal chaos amongst mutineers.
Many communities like Rajputs, Gurkhas, Holkar, Sindhia
supported British rather than taking part in the mutiny.
The English Generals like Outram, Havlock and Campbell
were experienced and competent military officers.
The uprising was mainly concentrated in cities rather than
There was lack of unity among the leaders of
the mutiny. Thus, the British took advantage
of their mutual jealousies and intrigues and
quelled the mutiny.
British established direct control
Equal opportunities to Indians.
Financial state of the economy.