Ch. 4 – Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures <ul><li>II. Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>(p. 80 – 98) </li></ul><ul><...
A. Matter Flowchart MATTER Can it be separated by  physical means? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous Mixture Co...
B. Pure Substances <ul><li>Element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>matter composed of identical atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX ...
Elements: <ul><li>Element: A pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means...
Every element has Characteristic Properties: <ul><li>Characteristic Properties do not depend on the amount of material pre...
How do you identify an element? <ul><li>Look on a periodic table (see your agenda on page 117) </li></ul><ul><li>Use the p...
Elements are divided into 3 categories: Elements Metals Nonmetals Metalloids
Examples of Elements
B. Pure Substances <ul><li>Compound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>matter composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio that have...
Examples of Compounds
<ul><li>Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Forming of a bond is like marriage </li></ul><ul><li>More sta...
<ul><li>Bonds Between Atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic </li></ul><ul><li>Polyatomic Ions </li></ul...
Ionic Bonds <ul><li>What is an  Ionic Bond ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- An Ionic Bond is a chemical bond resulting from the T...
<ul><li>Covalent Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>What is an  Covalent Bond ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- A covalent bond is a chemical...
<ul><li>Metallic Bonding </li></ul><ul><li>What is a Metallic Bond? </li></ul><ul><li>- A metallic bond occurs in metals. ...
<ul><li>Polyatomic Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>What is a Polyatomic Bond? </li></ul><ul><li>- A polyatomic bond is charged gro...
<ul><li>Anion - negative ion </li></ul><ul><li>Cation -positive ion </li></ul><ul><li>Octet Rule - rule that states that a...
II. Balancing Equations
A. Balancing Steps <ul><li>1. Write the unbalanced equation. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Count atoms on each side. </li></ul><ul>...
B. Balancing Example <ul><li>Aluminum and copper(II) chloride form copper and aluminum chloride.  </li></ul>1  1 1  1 2  3...
Practice Balancing Equations <ul><li>1. H 2  + O 2  ---> H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>2. N 2  + H 2  ---> NH 3   </li></ul><ul>...
C. Balanicing Equestions <ul><li>Phases are often shown as: (s) solid, (l) for liquid, and (g) gas. Compounds that dissolv...
Mixtures <ul><li>2 or more substances mixed together but not chemically combined  </li></ul>
Properties of Mixtures <ul><ul><ul><li>Each substance keeps it original properties. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So...
Separation of Mixtures <ul><li>Distillation: separates mixtures based on boiling points </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetism: separ...
Examples of Separation
C. Types of Mixtures <ul><li>Homogeneous Mixture  (Solution) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>even distribution of components </li></...
C. Mixtures <ul><li>Heterogeneous Mixture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uneven distribution of components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
C. Mixtures <ul><li>Colloid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>medium-sized particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tyndall effect - parti...
C. Mixtures <ul><li>Suspension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>particles scatter light  <...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions :  This is a type of homogeneous mixture but the particles do dissolve. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul>...
Examples of Mixtures
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Chapter 4

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  • Chemical bonding is the joining of atoms to form new substances.. The force of attraction that holds two atoms together is called a chemical bond.
  • Chapter 4

    1. 1. Ch. 4 – Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures <ul><li>II. Composition of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>(p. 80 – 98) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matter Flowchart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure Substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixtures </li></ul></ul>MATTER
    2. 2. A. Matter Flowchart MATTER Can it be separated by physical means? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Element yes no MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE Can it be decomposed by chemical means? no yes Is the composition uniform? no yes
    3. 3. B. Pure Substances <ul><li>Element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>matter composed of identical atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX : copper </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Elements: <ul><li>Element: A pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means. </li></ul><ul><li>Pure substance: a substance in which there is only one type of particle (atom). (there is only one type of particle in it) </li></ul><ul><li>Every particle in a 5g nugget of gold is like every other particle of gold. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Every element has Characteristic Properties: <ul><li>Characteristic Properties do not depend on the amount of material present. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties: Boiling pt., melting pt., density, color, hardness, texture </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Properties: reactivity, flamability </li></ul>
    6. 6. How do you identify an element? <ul><li>Look on a periodic table (see your agenda on page 117) </li></ul><ul><li>Use the physical properties: color, hardness, texture, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Use chemical properties: reactivity, flammability/combustibility </li></ul>
    7. 7. Elements are divided into 3 categories: Elements Metals Nonmetals Metalloids
    8. 8. Examples of Elements
    9. 9. B. Pure Substances <ul><li>Compound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>matter composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio that have been chemically combined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>properties differ from those of individual elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX : salt (NaCl) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Examples of Compounds
    11. 11. <ul><li>Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Forming of a bond is like marriage </li></ul><ul><li>More stable </li></ul><ul><li>exothermic </li></ul><ul><li>The breaking of a bond relates to a divorce . </li></ul><ul><li>Less stable </li></ul><ul><li>Endothermic </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Bonds Between Atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic </li></ul><ul><li>Polyatomic Ions </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic </li></ul>
    13. 13. Ionic Bonds <ul><li>What is an Ionic Bond ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- An Ionic Bond is a chemical bond resulting from the TRANSFER of electrons from one bonding atom to another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When is an ionic bond formed? </li></ul><ul><li>- An ionic bond is formed when a cation (positive ion) transfers electrons to an anion (negative ion). </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Covalent Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>What is an Covalent Bond ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- A covalent bond is a chemical bond resulting from SHARING of electrons between 2 bonding atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What forms a covalent bond? </li></ul><ul><li>- A covalent bond is formed between two nonmetals. </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Metallic Bonding </li></ul><ul><li>What is a Metallic Bond? </li></ul><ul><li>- A metallic bond occurs in metals. A metal consists of positive ions surrounded by a “sea” of mobile electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Name 4 Characteristics of a Metallic Bond. </li></ul><ul><li>Good conductors of heat and electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Great strength </li></ul><ul><li>Malleable and Ductile </li></ul><ul><li>Luster </li></ul><ul><li>This shows what a metallic bond might look like. </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Polyatomic Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>What is a Polyatomic Bond? </li></ul><ul><li>- A polyatomic bond is charged group of covalently bonded atoms. It is made up of more than one atom. </li></ul><ul><li>Polyatomic ions usually have a charge because the collection of atoms has either gained an extra electron or else it has lost an electron. </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Anion - negative ion </li></ul><ul><li>Cation -positive ion </li></ul><ul><li>Octet Rule - rule that states that atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons so that each atom has full outermost energy level which is typically 8 electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Polyatomic Ion - charged group of covalently bound atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Monatomic Ion - ion formed from a single atom </li></ul><ul><li>Molecule -neutral group of atoms united by covalent bonds </li></ul>
    18. 18. II. Balancing Equations
    19. 19. A. Balancing Steps <ul><li>1. Write the unbalanced equation. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Count atoms on each side. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Add coefficients to make #s equal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coefficient  subscript = # atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Reduce coefficients to lowest possible ratio, if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Double check atom balance!!! </li></ul>
    20. 20. B. Balancing Example <ul><li>Aluminum and copper(II) chloride form copper and aluminum chloride. </li></ul>1 1 1 1 2 3 2   2 3  6   6  3 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 Al + CuCl 2  Cu + AlCl 3 Al Cu Cl
    21. 21. Practice Balancing Equations <ul><li>1. H 2 + O 2 ---> H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>2. N 2 + H 2 ---> NH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>3. S 8 + O 2 ---> SO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>4. N 2 + O 2 ---> N 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>5. HgO ---> Hg + O 2 </li></ul>
    22. 22. C. Balanicing Equestions <ul><li>Phases are often shown as: (s) solid, (l) for liquid, and (g) gas. Compounds that dissolved in water are designated as (aq) for aqueous. </li></ul><ul><li>C(s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) </li></ul>
    23. 23. Mixtures <ul><li>2 or more substances mixed together but not chemically combined </li></ul>
    24. 24. Properties of Mixtures <ul><ul><ul><li>Each substance keeps it original properties. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some physical properties may change appearance but the chemical properties stay the same. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The amounts of substances can change. They do not have to stay the same. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mixtures can be separated easily through physical means. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Separation of Mixtures <ul><li>Distillation: separates mixtures based on boiling points </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetism: separates mixtures by attracting the iron </li></ul><ul><li>Centrifuge: separates mixtures according to densities </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration: separate a solid from a liquid </li></ul>
    26. 26. Examples of Separation
    27. 27. C. Types of Mixtures <ul><li>Homogeneous Mixture (Solution) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>even distribution of components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very small particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>particles never settle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX : saline solution </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. C. Mixtures <ul><li>Heterogeneous Mixture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uneven distribution of components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>colloids and suspensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX : granite </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. C. Mixtures <ul><li>Colloid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>medium-sized particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tyndall effect - particles scatter light (looks cloudy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>particles never settle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX : milk </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. C. Mixtures <ul><li>Suspension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>particles scatter light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>particles will settle (needs to be shaken) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX : fresh-squeezed lemonade </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions : This is a type of homogeneous mixture but the particles do dissolve. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solute: the substance that is dissolved </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solvent: the substance that does the dissolving (universal solvent: water) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solution: the final product </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solubility: If the substance dissolves then it is soluble. If the substance does not dissolve it is insoluble. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alloys: This is a solid solution. Metals are a good example of alloys. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Examples of Mixtures

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