Helmut SatzingerUniversità di Vienna
BERBER CASE vs. ARABIC CASEBerber:	  Shilh	  iuɣa	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  urgaz 	   	        ...
BERBER CASE vs. ARABIC CASEBerber:	  Shilh	  argaz                                                            	  iuɣa 	   ...
BERBER CASE vs. ARABIC CASEBerber:	  Shilh	  argaz                                                                 	  iuɣa...
BERBER CASE vs. ARABIC CASEBerber:	  Shilh	  aɣiul	                                                                       ...
BERBER CASE vs. ARABIC CASEBerber:	  Shilh	  aɣiul	                     	  iuɣa‑t 	   	     	  urgaz	  the.donkey.ABS     ...
Typical morpheme: a   Berber: m. a-, f. ta-   Cushitic: *-aFunctions in Berber, after Sasse (1984) :The absolutive rather ...
BANTI 1988: 14, on Oromo:The absolutive	  is the unmarked case, and is used for• non-subjects, for• focussed NPs, for• cit...
SAHO	                      Nominative vs. absolutivexiyawt.i                                                      	  okolo...
Ergative-Absolutive:      Nominative-Accusative:Absolutive (unmarked)     Accusative (marked) (-a)!"#$%$&#()%**+,--()     ...
Ergative-Absolutive:      Nominative-Absolutive:        Nominative-Accusative:Absolutive (unmarked)     Absolutive (unmark...
EGYPTIAN                                  personal pronoun!      "#!$%&(%&%)!           2#!3(%&%)!(*+%+,%!   4#!5,6607!(*+...
EGYPTIAN                                    personal pronoun!    "#!$%&(#!()*%*+%!!          1#!2(%&%3!()*%*+%!     4#!5+6...
SAHO                                 personal pronoun!       "#!$%&!&%&()*+,-./!        3#!45%1/!!&%&()*+,-./!       6#!4*...
BERBÈRE pronom personnel!      "#$%&!%()"&!     *+!,-#.-/0!     *+!,-#.-/0!     "#$%&!3445&+!    *+!"#)"&!                ...
!"#$%&(")*+),+-%.$(*"/)0%.("/"1/*%2!+/310)(4%!            "#$%&%!   ()*+&%,-!!  .#/01!23,0*415!!61!7-8#+#-8#-&!+/9-9:-!;1!...
The B and C pronoun form sets are not identical              (Fs Vycichl p. 490) !      "#!$%&%(%)!&*++,!   -#!.,//01!&*++...
There is no original set of A pronoun forms                            (Fs Vycichl p. 492)The forms of the A pronoun, as a...
Correlation of case functions       of personal pronouns and substantives!"#$%&("#()*%*+%##          ,"#-(%&%.#()*%*+%#   ...
speculations...   AA originally of ergative-absolutive alignment ?    Typically of nominative-absolutive alignment      (B...
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Afroasiatic Case Systems

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Afroasiatic Case Systems

  1. 1. Helmut SatzingerUniversità di Vienna
  2. 2. BERBER CASE vs. ARABIC CASEBerber:  Shilh  iuɣa                                    urgaz          aɣiul  he.bought              the.man.DEP      the.donkey.ABS                        =NOM          Classical  Arabic  ’ištarā                                r-­‐rajulu          l-­‐ħumāra  he.bought  the-­‐man.NOM        the-­‐donkey.ACC   VSO
  3. 3. BERBER CASE vs. ARABIC CASEBerber:  Shilh  argaz  iuɣa    aɣiul  the.man.ABS  he.bought  the.donkey.ABS          Classical  Arabic  ’ar-­‐rajulu                            štarā                    l-­‐ħumāra  the.man.NOM                  he.bought  the-­‐donkey.ACC     SVO
  4. 4. BERBER CASE vs. ARABIC CASEBerber:  Shilh  argaz  iuɣa    aɣiul  the.man.ABS  he.bought  the.donkey.ABS          Classical  Arabic  ’ar-­‐rajulu                            štarā                    l-­‐ħumāra  the.man.NOM                  he.bought  the-­‐donkey.ACC      ’inna      r-­‐rajula  štarā      l-­‐ħumāra  PCL          the.man.ACC      he.bought      the-­‐donkey.ACC     SVO
  5. 5. BERBER CASE vs. ARABIC CASEBerber:  Shilh  aɣiul    iuɣa‑t      urgaz  the.donkey.ABS  he.bought‑it    the.man.DEP                                                                                                                  =NOM          Classical  Arabic  ’al-­‐ħumāru  štarā-­‐hu    r-­‐rajulu  the-­‐donkey.NOM  he.bought‑it    the-­‐man.NOM   O V+ S
  6. 6. BERBER CASE vs. ARABIC CASEBerber:  Shilh  aɣiul    iuɣa‑t      urgaz  the.donkey.ABS  he.bought‑it    the.man.DEP                          =NOM        Classical  Arabic  ’al-­‐ħumāru  štarā-­‐hu    r-­‐rajulu  the-­‐donkey.NOM  he.bought‑it    the-­‐man.NOM      ’inna    l-­‐ħumāra  štarā-­‐hu    r-­‐rajulu  PCL    the-­‐donkey.ACC  he.bought‑it    the-­‐man.NOM   O V+ S
  7. 7. Typical morpheme: a Berber: m. a-, f. ta- Cushitic: *-aFunctions in Berber, after Sasse (1984) :The absolutive rather than nominative (subject) case is• the citation form of the noun,• the predicative form of the noun in a verbless sentence;• The absolutive is also used for the vocative, measure constructions, andwith adverbial case markers;it also occurs when case is neutralized as a consequence of• group inflection or• focus marking. Gensler (2000) adds that the absolutive is used for the• fronted topic and emphatic noun in situ position. Mous typology p. 25
  8. 8. BANTI 1988: 14, on Oromo:The absolutive  is the unmarked case, and is used for• non-subjects, for• focussed NPs, for• citation, and generally when the other case marks do not apply.(G. Banti, Two Cushitic Systems: Somali and Oromo Nouns. In: vanden Hulst & Smith, eds. 1988. Autosegmental Studies on Pitch Accent.Dordrecht: Foris Publications. 11–49.)BANTI 2003: 21, on Saho:  The  absolutive  is  the  unmarked  case,  used  for  the    •  direct  object  of  a  verb,  as    •  citation  form,  and  when  a  noun  is  used  as  a    •  predicate  followed  by  the  copula  kinni  to  be  or  by  a  verb  like    ekke  to  be,  to  become,  to  happen,  etc.,  e.g.,    xiyawto  uble  I  saw  a  man,    yemeete  tii  xiyawto  kinni  the  one  who  came  is  a  man.    (BANTI,  in  VERGARI  &  VERGARI  Saho  Dictionary  21  §  2.3.)
  9. 9. SAHO   Nominative vs. absolutivexiyawt.i  okolo    yuble  man.NOM  donkey.ABS  he.saw        ‘The  man  saw  the  donkey’    okol.i  xiyawt.o  yuble  donkey.NOM  man.ABS  he.saw        ‘The  donkey  saw  the  man’      xiyawt.o      uble                                      ‘I  saw  a  man’  man.ABS    I.saw      yemeete                    tii              xiyawt.o    kinni  he.came                  one-­‐that        man.ABS  to-­‐be            ‘The  one  who  came  is  a  man’  
  10. 10. Ergative-Absolutive: Nominative-Accusative:Absolutive (unmarked) Accusative (marked) (-a)!"#$%$&#()%**+,--() object,.+,*&/%$,()0#/"-() adverbial formtopic, Nominativesubject of intransitive (unmarked) (-u)verbs, !"#$%$&#()%**+,--()object, .+,*&/%$,()0#/"-()adverbial form topic, subject of intransitiveErgative (marked)agent (subject) of verbs,transitive verbs agent (subject) of transitive verbsProto-Afro-Asiatic ? Semitic Otherwise,Otherwise, e.g., Basque e.g., Indo-European)
  11. 11. Ergative-Absolutive: Nominative-Absolutive: Nominative-Accusative:Absolutive (unmarked) Absolutive (unmarked) (-a) Accusative (marked) (-a)!"#$%$&#()%**+,--() !"#$%$&#()%**+,--() object,.+,*&/%$,()0#/"-() .+,*&/%$,()0#/"-() adverbial formtopic, topic, Nominativesubject of intransitive object, (unmarked) (-u)verbs, adverbial form !"#$%$&#()%**+,--()object, Nominative (marked) (-u) .+,*&/%$,()0#/"-() topic,adverbial form subject of intransitiveErgative (marked) verbs, subject of intransitiveagent (subject) of agent (subject) of verbs,transitive verbs transitive verbs agent (subject) of transitive verbsProto-Afro-Asiatic ? Berber, East Cushitic Semitic Otherwise,Otherwise, e.g., Basque Otherwise, e.g., C. Nilotic e.g., Indo-European)
  12. 12. EGYPTIAN personal pronoun! "#!$%&(%&%)! 2#!3(%&%)!(*+%+,%! 4#!5,6607!(*+%+,%! (*+%+,%!-+.&!/*0/1!854! jnk![/a»nak] *’anákV! wj *yuwa ?! !j [-i] *-i / -ya ?!95:! Twt [cu»wat]? *kuwátV?! Tw [cuw]? *kuwa ?! !k [-ak] *-ka!95;! Tmt [ci»mat]? *kimátV?! Tn [cin]? *kima ?! !T [-ic] *-ki!<5:! swt [su»wat]? *suwátV? sw [suw]? *suwa ? !f [-uf] *-fu ? < *-hu ?<5;! stt [si»tat]? *sitátV? sy [siy]? *siya ? !s [-as] *-sa…!!
  13. 13. EGYPTIAN personal pronoun! "#!$%&(#!()*%*+%!! 1#!2(%&%3!()*%*+%! 4#!5+66/7!()*%*+%! !!!!,*-&!.)/.0!854! jnk![/a»nak] *’anákV! wj *yuwa?! !j [-i] *-i / -ya ?!95:! Twt [cu»wat]? *kuwátV?! Tw [cuw]? *kuwa?! !k [-ak] *-ka!95;! Tmt [ci»mat]? *kimátV?! Tn [cin]? *kima?! !T [-ic] *-ki!…! ! ! ! quotation form; subject of adjectival possessive=genitive predicate (jnk pw it is I) predicate (pr!j my house) partly, subject of (nfr wj I’m good) nominal predicate object prepositional (jnk sn!k I’m your (sDm wj hear me!) (Hr!f on him) brother) with thetic elements augens (m!k wj here I am!; subject of verbal predicate (m pr!j jnk in my nn sw he does not (sdm!j I’ll hear) own house) exist) ~ absolutive case, ~ absolutive case ~ nominative/ genitive absolute state case!
  14. 14. SAHO personal pronoun! "#!$%&!&%&()*+,-./! 3#!45%1/!!&%&()*+,-./! 6#!4*+,-./!0%12! 0%12! 0%12!746! !""#!"$%#!"!!%#!&%( !)( %*+!846! ,"$%#,"!!%#,"%( ,+( %+!94:! ,%%#,%!!%( ,%%( +-+,!94;! &!%#&!!%( &&( )-.)#)-.&!<! ( ( (! Cp. G. Banti, “Grammatical Notes,” 22, in Vergari & Vergari A Basic Saho-English-Italian Dictionary
  15. 15. BERBÈRE pronom personnel! "#$%&!%()"&! *+!,-#.-/0! *+!,-#.-/0! "#$%&!3445&+! *+!"#)"&! (#-12! %(#-12! %$6/! 19-:!$%&!7! !"!63/$%7! ©;#8()! 355368#!!< !! =>?@ABCDEF ! =>?@ABCDEF ! 83!GHFIDCDEF!J! HFIDCDEF!J! HFIDCDEF!J! I@KDI=CDEF ! I@KDI=CDEF ! I@KDI=CDEF !L?M! %-NN! 8OPQ! 8OPQ! 8OPR! 8!S?K ! N-1˚1˚!! 8OPN! 8OQP3N! 8OPN! 8N!S?T! N-66! 8OPN-6! 8OQP36! 8OP6! 86!U?K ! %-2ç2ç3! 8OP2! 8OQP3/! 8OP/! 8/!U?T! %-2ç2ç32!! 8OP2ç!OVP! 8OQP3/! 8OP/! 8/!LWK ! %-NR%! OQP3©! OQP3©! 8%%-©! 8%-©!LWT! %-NR%2! OQP3©! OQP3©! 8%%-©! 8%-©!SWK ! N;%R! 8OPNR-%! 8OQP3R-%! 8%R-%! 8R-%!SWT! N;%%-62! 8OPNR-%2! 8OQP3NR-%2! 8%NR-%2! 8NR-%2!UWK ! %;2%! 8OP2-%! 8OQP3/-%! 8%/-%! 8/-%!UWT! %;2-%2! 8OP2-%2! 8OQP3/-%2! 8%/-%2! 8/-%2!! Cp. A. Mettouchi, « Le “t” nest-il quune marque de féminin en berbère! (kabyle)? », dans La Catégorisation dans les langues, Faits de Langue n° 14, Ophrys, Gap-Paris 2000, particulièrement pp. 223-224.
  16. 16. !"#$%&(")*+),+-%.$(*"/)0%.("/"1/*%2!+/310)(4%! "#$%&%! ()*+&%,-!! .#/01!23,0*415!!61!7-8#+#-8#-&!+/9-9:-!;1! *’anå(ku) jnk -#33<1$1! *’anta †wt < *kw=t 3#˚˚<1>! *’antŒ †mt < *km=t 3#$$?1$1! *‚¨ sw=t -#&ç&ç,?1>1 *‚Œ st=t -#&ç&ç,&.1!@#+#-8#-&!+/9-9:-!;1! (=nŒ) wj < *jw? =2%5*%<1$1! A! †w < *kw =2%53<1>! A! †n < *km =2%53#$?1$1! A! sw =2%5&?1>1 A! sj; st =2%5&!B1!":>>%C!+/9-9:-!;1! *= /*=ya =j =%<1$1! *=ka =k =3<1>! *= =† ki) =$!D=3%$?1$1! *=‚¨ =f =E?1>1! *=‚å =s =E!
  17. 17. The B and C pronoun form sets are not identical (Fs Vycichl p. 490) ! "#!$%&%(%)!&*++,! -#!.,//01!&*++,! 2.-! 3<!"!4!3#$µ ! 3%!5!!67*&%() ! 8.9! 3*" ! 3%*) ! 8.:! 3*!+ ! 3%*!,+- ! ;.9! 3." ! 3%." ! ;.:! 3.! ! 3%.) ! <! <! <! !
  18. 18. There is no original set of A pronoun forms (Fs Vycichl p. 492)The forms of the A pronoun, as actually attested in the Afro-siaticlanguages, are obviously of four types:1. B pronouns, unmodified; perhaps they were marked by a vocalicending, as in Semitic *šuwa < *šu-a, *šiya < *šī-a ).2. B pronouns with additions; in the main, a stressed ending *-átV:Egn. *kuwát, *suwát, etc.; Akk. yāti, kuāti etc.; Ge’ez wǝ’ǝtu, yǝ’ǝti, etc.(Lipiński p. 308).3. A base *’an-, to which stative endings or other pronominalelements are attached: Akk. anāku, Sem. Cush. *’anta / *’antī, etc.4. Nominal bases with a C pronoun added; this is obviously a latefeature, as Egn. int-k / int-T, int-f / int-s; Beja barū-k / batū-k, barū-s /batū-s.
  19. 19. Correlation of case functions of personal pronouns and substantives!"#$%&("#()*%*+%## ,"#-(%&%.#()*%*+%# /"#0+1123#()*%*+%#quotation form; subject of adjectival possessive=genitive (pr!jpredicate (jnk pw it is I) predicate my house)partly, subject of nominal (nfr wj I’m good) predicate object prepositional (jnk sn!k I’m your (sDm wj hear me!) (Hr!f on him) brother) with thetic elementsaugens (m!k wj here I am!; subject of verbal predicate (m pr!j jnk in my nn sw he does not (sdm!j I’ll hear) own house) exist)~ absolutive case, ~ absolutive case ~ nominative/absolute state dependent state genitive case##
  20. 20. speculations... AA originally of ergative-absolutive alignment ?  Typically of nominative-absolutive alignment (Berber, Cushitic, ...) Could develop to nominative-accusative alignment (Semitic) — with conspicuous residues of the old structure, in particular in Classical Arabic — predicative, adverbial, etc. uses of the naSb.

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