Ages 2 - 6 are the early childhood years, orpreschool years. Although physicaldevelopment in preschoolers is slower andmore stable than during infancy.
Some important influences on physicalDevelopment during the preschool period : Physical Changes Brain Development Motor Skills Health
Physical Changes Children begin to lose their baby fat around age 3. Toddlers soon acquire the leaner, more athletic look associated with childhood. The childs trunk and limbs grow longer, and the abdominal muscles form, tightening the appearance of the stomach. Boys tend to have more muscle mass than girls. The preschoolers physical proportions also continue to change.
Three-year-old preschoolers may grow to be about 38inches tall and weigh about 32 pounds. For the next 3years, healthy preschoolers grow an additional 2 to 3inches and gain from 4 to 6 pounds per year. By age 6,children reach a height of about 46 inches and weighabout 46 pounds.
Brain DevelopmentThe two cerebral hemispheres develop atdifferent rates, with the left hemispheredeveloping more fully in early childhood (ages 2to 6), and the right hemisphere developing morefully in middle childhood (ages 7 to 11).
Handedness - preference for using one hand over the other.90 percent of the general population isright-handed, while the rest of the population isleft-handed and/or ambidextrous.A person is ambidextrous if he or she shows no preference for one hand over the other.
The nervous system undergoes changes in early childhoodtoo. The majority of a childs neurons, glial cells and myelinsheaths form prenatally and develop most rapidly.Neurons - cells that make up nervesGlial cells - (nervous system support cells surroundingneurons) that nourish, insulate, and remove waste from theneurons without actually transmitting information themselvesThe myelin sheaths - surround, insulate, and increase theefficiency of neurons (by speeding up the action potentialalong the axon)
Motor SkillsGross motor skills - involve the use of large bodily movements.Fine motor skills - involve the use of small bodily movements.fine motor skills develop more slowly in preschoolers.
Albert Banduras theory ofObservational Learning 1. Observe the behavior in others. 2. Form a mental image of the behavior. 3. Imitate the behavior. 4. Practice the behavior. 5. Be motivated to repeat the behavior.
Healthminor illnesses - last no more than 14 days may help children to learn coping skills. may also help children learn empathy.major illnesses - last longer than 14 daysRespiratory ailments are the most common illnesses among children at this age because preschoolers lungs have not yet fully developed.
The majority of deaths during early childhood are due to accidental injuries rather than illnesses.The most common causes of childhood death the automobileOther causes of childhood death Drowning Suffocating being burned being poisoned falling from heights Young childrens sense of adventure often outweighs their understanding of the dangers inherent in various activities and situations.