Vegetarianism lesson plan unit 9


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Vegetarianism lesson plan unit 9

  1. 1. Pennington Biomedical Research Center Awesome.2Cents!: Healthy Lifestyle Curriculum for AdolescentsLesson 9 – VegetarianismGrade: High School Grades 8th- 12thLearning Activity: Definition of vegetarian diets. Nutrient needs vegetarians.Track: NutritionLouisiana Content Standards Benchmarks:1-H-2, 1-H-4, 2-H-1, 2-H-2, 3-H-1, 3-H-2, 4-H-1, 5-H-6, 6-H-11-M-2, 1-M-3, 2-M-1, 2-M-2, 3-M-1, 4-M-5, 5-M-1, 5-M-4Time Allotted: 40-50 minutesKey Concepts: 1. What the vegetarian approach is 2. What is vegetarianism 3. Types of vegetarian diets 4. Becoming a vegetarian 5. Key nutrients in vegetarian diets 6. Significance of key nutrients 7. Sources of nutrientsHow will change in knowledge or skills be evaluated?Pre and post testWhat You Need for the Lesson: 1. Lesson plan, powerpoint or overheads 2. Other resources:  Dietary guidelines poster  MyPyramid poster  Food Labels youth fact sheet  Seventh Day Adventist Handout  Homework: Tribal diets A, B, and CCopyright 2012 Pennington Biomedical Research Center 9-1
  2. 2. Lesson Plan:1 Vegetarianism2 This lesson will cover:  The vegetarian approach  What is vegetarianism?  Types of vegetarian diets  Becoming a vegetarian  Key n1utrients in vegetarian diets  Significance of key nutrients  Sources of nutrients3 A Healthful Approach Say: It is well known that by consuming a diet high in fruits and vegetables, one can reduce the risk for developing cancer and that by consuming a diet low in fat and saturated fat, one can reduce the risk for developing heart disease. Because the emphasis is on non-meat food sources, a vegetarian diet generally contains less saturated fat and cholesterol and more mono and polyunsaturated fat and includes more fiber than a non-vegetarian diet.4 Vegetarian, what is it? Say: Many people follow a “vegetarian” diet, but there is no single vegetarian eating pattern. Although there are different types of vegetarian diets, a healthy vegetarian diet consists primarily of the following plant-based foods: Legumes Whole grains Vegetables Fruits Nuts and seeds5 Types of vegetarian diets Say: These are the common types of vegetarian diets: Ovo-vegetarian Lacto-ovo vegetarian Lacto-vegetarian vegan6 A closer look: characteristics of each diet Say: A true vegetarian eats no meat at all, including chicken & fish. The following are types of common vegetarian diets we see in the United States from least strict to most strict. Lacto-ovo vegetarian: eats dairy products and eggs, but excludes red meat, fish and poultry Lacto-vegetarian: eats dairy products, but not eggs or meat, fish and poultry Ovo-vegetarian: eats eggs, but not dairy products or meat, fish and poultryCopyright 2012 Pennington Biomedical Research Center 9-2
  3. 3. Vegan: does not eat dairy products, eggs, meat, fish, & poultry7 Vegetarian diets Say: One important thing to remember is that: not all vegetarian diets are the same. At minimum, they include the elimination of red meat, poultry and fish. However, some also exclude food items such as eggs and milk products.8 Vegan diets Say: Vegan diets are the most strict. They exclude all animal products, including gelatin and honey. Vegans eat all fruits and vegetables, lentils, nuts, seeds, and grains. There is a number of foods that you would think a vegan could eat, but actually cannot– such as gelatin (which is made using meat byproducts) and cheese (which is made using an animal-based product). Vegans eat all fruits and vegetables, lentils, nuts, seeds, and grains.9 Other types Say: Some people consider themselves semi-vegetarians. They eat fish and a small amount of poultry as part of a diet that is primarily made up of vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, seeds, and nuts. A pesci-vegetarian is a person who eats fish, but not poultry.10 Choosing to become a vegetarian Say: For much of the world, vegetarianism is largely a matter of economics rather than preference. In a lot of developing countries, meat is very expensive. Beans, lentils, and staples such as rice are inexpensive. Often times people can only afford the inexpensive foods. In many countries, dietary habits are also rooted in religion, ethnicity and also what is available locally. Do: break students into groups and give each group the Seventh Day Adventist handout. Give the groups 10 minutes time to put together a Food Guide for Seventh Day Adventist. Say: Let’s look at a group in United States that chooses to eat a diet that excludes meat, poultry and fish. -------------------- Let groups work for 10 minutes ----------------------- Say: What did you discover about putting together a diet that included no meat, fish, or poultry and few eggs? What do you think about the Good Eating Guidelines? Allow for 5 minute discussion. Do: Turn back to slides. Say: As you see there are people that choose to have no meat, fish or poultry. However, in countries like the United States where meat is not as expensive compared to the developing countries, people may choose to be vegetarians for other reasons other than economics.Copyright 2012 Pennington Biomedical Research Center 9-3
  4. 4. 11 Becoming a vegetarian: common reasons Say: Parental preferences, religious beliefs, lifestyle factors, and health issues are among the most common non-economic reasons for choosing to be a vegetarian. Many people choose to become vegetarians out of concern over animal rights or the environment. For the most part, most people have more than just one reason for becoming a vegetarian.12 Are vegetarian diets healthy? Yes, they are Say: In a recent study, it was found that adolescents who eat a vegetarian diet are more likely to meet the Healthy People 2010 objectives by, on average, consuming less total fat and saturated fat and eating more servings of fruits and vegetables than their non- vegetarian counterparts. It is well known that by consuming a diet high in fruits and vegetables, one can reduce the risk for developing cancer and that by consuming a diet low in fat and saturated fat, one can reduce the risk for developing heart disease.13 Are vegetarian diets healthy? Yes, they are Say: In fact, the American Dietetic Association (ADA) has officially endorsed vegetarianism, stating that: “appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, area nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.” The key here is “appropriately planned.” If you are a vegetarian, or are planning to become one, the most important thing you can do is educate yourself on the best ways to make sure you are still getting adequate amounts of essential nutrients.14 Getting adequate amounts of nutrients. Could this be a problem? Say: Vegetarians need pay particular attention to the following key nutrients in their diet: Iron. The best sources of iron are red meat, chicken and pork. Careful planning is needed in a vegetarian diet to meet iron requirements. Calcium. The best sources of calcium are dairy products. Obtaining enough calcium can be a problem for ovo-vegetarian who eat eggs, but not dairy products, and vegan, who do not eat any animal products. Protein. Individuals who do not consume animal products will need to learn to combine vegetable proteins to make complete protein. Combination of beans and corn, wheat and legumes. Vitamin D. Vitamin D is added into milk and can be obtained from exposure to sunlight. Vitamin B-12. Vitamin B 12 is only in animal products and may need to be taken as a supplement by vegans. Zinc. Zinc is in protein foods but also in lentils and whole grains.15 Significance of key nutrients: iron and zinc Say: Iron is used to carry oxygen in the blood making it a crucial component of red blood cells. Girls need to be particularly concerned about getting enough iron because some iron is lost during menstruation.Copyright 2012 Pennington Biomedical Research Center 9-4
  5. 5. In fact, it may be necessary to take an iron supplement if you are a female vegetarian who is not getting enough iron. Zinc is an important component of many enzymes and it plays a role in cell division and in the formation of proteins. If you arent eating any dairy foods, you need to make sure to eat foods that contain zinc, such as: fortified breakfast cereals, dried beans, nuts, and soy products like tofu and tempeh.16 Significance of key nutrients: protein and calcium Say: Protein is essential to the body in order to maintain healthy skin, bones, muscles, and organs. Vegetarians who eat eggs and dairy products have excellent sources of protein available to them. However, for vegetarians who don’t eat eggs and dairy, other good sources of protein include: soy products, meat substitutes, legumes, lentils, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. Calcium is essential for proper bone formation. As a teen, you’re building your bones up for the rest of your life. Girls, in particular, need to be concerned about getting enough calcium because women have a greater risk for developing osteoporosis (weak bones) as adults. Again, a supplement may be necessary if you are not getting enough calcium. Talk to your doctor if you are a female vegetarian and you think you are not getting enough calcium in your diet17 Significance of key nutrients: vitamin D and vitamin B12 Say: Vitamin D is important because its presence in the diet is necessary in order to get calcium into your bones, for maintaining normal blood calcium levels and for normal immune function. Cow’s milk is a great source for Vitamin D, as well as sunlight. However, if you don’t consume cow’s milk, other sources include: fortified soy milk and fortified breakfast cereals. In the winter months, for vegetarians who do not consume milk, a supplement may be necessary if there’s not enough sunlight exposure. Vitamin B-12 is essential to the body in order to produce red blood cells and prevent anemia, for maintaining healthy nervous tissue and for making DNA. It is found almost exclusively in animal products, including milk, eggs and cheese. However, fortified soy milk and fortified breakfast cereals also have this important vitamin. It is hard to get enough of this vitamin; therefore, supplementation may be necessary for some.18 Increasing the intake of iron: choose these more often Say: Iron: It is primarily found in clams, oysters, and organ meats. However, it is also found in fortified ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and instant cooked cereals, beans, and spinach. Eating iron-containing foods with a food high in Vitamin C (like citrus fruits and juices, tomatoes, and broccoli) will help you to better absorb this type of iron that is found in non-meat sources (known as non-heme iron). Non meat sources of iron are: Iron-fortified cereals Legumes like chickpeas, lentils, & baked beans Soybeans and tofu Dried fruit like raisins, prunes, and figsCopyright 2012 Pennington Biomedical Research Center 9-5
  6. 6. Pumpkin seeds Broccoli Blackstrap molasses19 Increasing the intake of Zinc: choose these more often Say: Zinc: Primarily found in oysters, red meat and poultry. Other good food sources include beans, nuts, whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals, and dairy products. Consume these foods for increasing zinc intake: Dairy foods Whole grains Fortified cereals Dried beans Nuts Tofu Tempeh Other soy products20 Increasing the intake of protein: choose these more often Say: Protein: It is primarily found in meat, fish and poultry. But, legumes and grains, dairy products, seeds, cereals, and vegetables also contain protein. Increase the intake of these to get more protein: Egg Dairy products Soy products Meat substitutes Legumes Lentils Nuts and seeds Whole grains21 Increasing the intake of calcium: choose these more often Say: Calcium: It is primarily found in yogurt, milk, and cheese. But, fortified ready-to-eat cereals, soy beverages, sardines and salmon; spinach, turnip greens, and collards also contain calcium. To make sure that the diet is adequate in calcium a diet should offer plenty of these foods: Milk & yogurt Tofu Fortified soy milk Calcium-fortified OJ Green leafy vegetables like spinach, turnip & collard greens, kale, and broccoli Dried figs Nuts and seeds Whole grains22 Increasing the intake of vitamin D: choose these more often Say: Vitamin D: Primarily from cow’s milk and from sunshine.Copyright 2012 Pennington Biomedical Research Center 9-6
  7. 7. These foods are recommended to make sure that the diet is adequate in Vitamin D, Fortified soy milk Fortified breakfast cereals23 Increasing the intake of vitamin B-12: choose these more often Say: Vitamin B-12 is mainly available from animal products such as meat, fish, poultry, milk and cheese. However, it is also added during fortification to products such as: Fortified soy milk Fortified breakfast cereals24 What’s best for me Say: For growing teens, a vegetarian diet that includes dairy products and eggs (lacto-ovo) is generally the best choice. Generally speaking, the more restrictive your diet is, the more likely you will be to fall short on requirements for the nutrients we previously discussed: iron, protein, zinc, calcium, and vitamins D and B-12. For example, a lacto-vegetarian (eats dairy, but not eggs) would likely have an easier time meeting requirements for the problem nutrients than would a complete vegan (does not eat dairy or eggs). Likewise, a lacto-ovo vegetarian would probably find it easier to meet requirements through the diet (excluding supplements) than both the lacto-vegetarian and the vegan.25 References 1. American Heart Association. Vegetarian Diets. Accessed 2/5/2007: 2. USDA. MyPyramid. Vegetarian Diets. Accessed 2/5/2007 : 3. Nemours Foundation. Is a Vegetarian Diet Right for me? Available at: 4. Nemours Foundation. Vegetarianism. Accessed 2/5/2007 : 5. National Women’s Health Information Center. Girls’ Health. Nutrition – Healthy Eating. Accessed 2/5/2007 : 6. Vegetarian diet: A starter’s guide to a plant-based diet. Mayo Clinic. Accessed 2/5/2007 : diet/HQ01596/METHOD=print 7. 8. Authors: Heli Roy, PhD, RD Shanna Lundy, MS The Pennington Biomedical Research Center is a world-renowned nutrition research center. Mission: To promote healthier lives through research and education in nutrition and preventiveCopyright 2012 Pennington Biomedical Research Center 9-7
  8. 8. medicine. The Pennington Center has several research areas, including: Clinical Obesity Research Experimental Obesity Functional Foods Health and Performance Enhancement Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Nutrition and the Brain Dementia, Alzheimer’s and healthy aging Diet, exercise, weight loss and weight loss maintenance The research fostered in these areas can have a profound impact on healthy living and on the prevention of common chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension and osteoporosis. The Division of Education provides education and information to the scientific community and the public about research findings, training programs and research areas, and coordinates educational events for the public on various health issues. We invite people of all ages and backgrounds to participate in the exciting research studies being conducted at the Pennington Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. If you would like to take part, visit the clinical trials web page at or call (225) 763-3000. Edited: October 2012Copyright 2012 Pennington Biomedical Research Center 9-8