PBRC2009Publication # 63 Obesity and the Heart How to Determine Whether or Not You Are Overweight or Obese The Center for Disease Step 3 with 703, and youInside this issue: Control determines the will have your body mass healthiness of your weight by index. calculating your body mass Example:Being Overweight 2 index, or BMI. This is a simple equation that you can even do Step 1. Weight: 184 poundsWhy is Obesity Such a 2 at home to find out if you are Step 2. Height: 72 inchesBig Problem Worldwide? at a healthy weight. Height squared is 72 x 72 =Obesity 3 Here is a Step-By-Step way to Obese, which is a BMI 5184. calculate one’s BMI: between 30 and 39.9 Step 3. 184/5184 = 0.035 1. Determine your weight in Morbidly Obese, which is aAbout Our Company 4 Step 4. 0.035 x 703 = 24.9 BMI of 40 or greater. pounds. There are 5 weight classifica- In the example, this person is 2. Determine your height tions. They include: at the top of the normal and square it (multiply the height in inches with it- Underweight, which is a BMI weight. self). of 18.5 or less. 3. Divide the number you Normal, which is a BMI obtained from Step 1 with between 18.5 and 24.9. the number you Overweight, which is a BMI determined in Step 2. between 25 and 29.9. 4. Multiply the number from Special points of in- terest: Calculating BMI Being overweight or obese can harm your The Cost of Convenience health Convenience has schools due to increased need of the conveniences available Health Problems contributed to ready made for classes on subject matter to us and choose wisely when commonly associated meals, instant access to deemed more important than it comes to food choices. Look with Obesity. shopping via the internet, and physical activity. for smaller portion sizes and 24-hour entertainment in our The convenience factor more fresh fruits and veg- living rooms. At the same together with other factors etables daily. Include 30 time, many of our jobs involve contributes to the rising minutes of physical activity at sitting at a computer most of obesity rates in adults and least five days a week and make the day with minimal activity, children. sure the children have 60 while children no longer have minutes of physical activity recess and physical activity in People can still take advantage daily.
Page 2 Obesity and the Heart Publication # 63 Being Overweight A BMI between 25 and This leads to increased of coronary heart disease 29.9 is in the overweight risk of heart attack, is greatest for women who category. congestive heart failure, tend to live a sedentary sudden cardiac death, lifestyle, and who have According to the World angina, and abnormal large waist-to-hip ratios. Health Organization, in heart rhythm. 2005, there were approxi- Being overweight may be mately 1.6 Billion adults Being overweight and due to poor diet, genetics, that were overweight. obese has been connected overeating, alcoholism, to certain cancers. metabolic disorders, poor Those who are overweight sleep habits, stress, lack of have a 34% greater risk of Women who gain nearly physical activity, or med- developing heart failure, 45 pounds or more after ication. when compared to a age 18, are twice as likely normal weight person. to be diagnosed with Children (who are over- breast cancer after men- weight or obese) have 80 Higher BMI is a risk opause, when com- percent likelihood of factor for hypertension, pared to those who main- being obese if their diabetes mellitus, and tain a stable weight. parents are obese. dyslipidemia, all of which increase the risk of a heart Approximately 11 percent attack. of heart failure cases among women are The overweight and obese attributed to obesity alone. “Those who are have an increased overweight have a 34% incidence of heart disease. Studies show that the risk greater risk of developing heart failure, when compared to a normal weight person” Common Causes of Obesity The prevalence of energy- transportation, and increasing sedentary people. dense foods, which are high in urbanization. Regular physical activity is a sugar and fat, but low in The decrease in physical key factor in achieving and vitamins, minerals, and other activity can lead to harmful maintaining a healthy body micronutrients, contributes to physiological changes such as weight for adults and children. the overall high rates of obesity reduced fitness and inability to worldwide. Sedentary lifestyle is defined as perform in a stressful physical one with no physical activity In addition, reduced phys- activity sessions such as or irregular physical activity. ical activity and increased climbing a flight of stairs. hours of television viewing in Individuals who are active both adults and children con- and expend from 500 to 3500 tribute to a sedentary lifestyle. calories per week in physical According to the World activity can expect to live long- Health Organization, there is a er than people who live a more trend toward sedentary lifestyle sedentary lifestyle. worldwide. This is due to a Overall, mortality rates from all many variables, including: causes of death are lower in sedentary forms of work, physically active people than in changing modes of
Obesity and the Heart Publication # 63 Page 3 Facts About Obesity Obesity is defined as heart failure risk. higher risk of developing having excessive body fat. breast cancer. Increased fat deposits in Obesity effects all body the waist area can lead to Women who are obese systems, especially the high blood pressure, high have a three to four times heart, lungs, and the blood cholesterol, heart greater chance of being musculoskeletal system. disease, diabetes, and diagnosed with endometri- stroke. al cancer, in compari- According to the World son to women with a low- Health Organization, there Obesity can lead to er BMI. were at least 400 million reduced HDL (High adults that were obese in Density Lipoprotein) A study, published in the 2005. levels, the “good” Journal of Occupational cholesterol. This increases and Environmental Medi- Obesity causes at least the risk of heart disease cine, found that obesity 300,000 deaths per year in and stroke. increases absenteeism at a the United States alone! cost of $4.3 billion per The obese have a 104% year in the United States. Obesity costs healthcare greater risk of developing almost $100 Billion per heart failure, when com- Obese women are 61 year in the US. pared to someone who is “Those who are obese, percent more likely to Obesity increases the risk of normal body weight. miss time from work, have a 104% greater of cardiovascular disease. compared to women of risk of developing heart Obesity is commonly failure, when compared associated with left healthy weight. The effects of obesity on to someone who is of the cardiovascular system ventricular hypertrophy Treatment of obesity normal body weight.” can begin in childhood. and dilation; both are includes getting at least 30 The more obese a child is, known precursors of heart minutes of moderate the more likely she/he will failure. intensity exercise daily, develop some form of Obese people who live a consuming less calories cardiovascular disease as an sedentary lifestyle and than is expended, eating a adult. smoke, have a higher risk diet high in fiber and low for a coronary heart in fat, consuming more Obesity is not always diet disease event than a lean, fruits and vegetables, as related. It may be a result non-smoking person. well as whole grains, and of genetics, a pre-existing using vegetable oils health condition, or due to Obesity has been known (unsaturated fat) rather medication. to be associated with than animal fats. Obesity is associated with patients who have Individuals who have hypertension, diabetes, gallbladder disease. Remember: maintained at least a 30 pulmonary hypertension, Obesity and rapid weight pound weight loss for one A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered as well as musculoskeletal loss in obese people may year or longer adhere to overweight. difficulties. also cause gallstones. the following*: A BMI of 30 to 39.9 is considered obese Obese people are more apt The risk for being 78% eat breakfast every day. And to have high blood pres- diagnosed with esophageal 75% weigh themselves at least once a week. A BMI of 40 or greater is considered sure, which causes the cancer rises as BMI rises. morbidly obese heart to work harder. 62% watch less than 10 hours of TV per week. Postmenopausal women Obesity causes prolonged 90% exercise, on average, who are obese (BMI= about 1 hour per day. inflammation of the heart 30=39.9) tend to have a tissue, which increases *National Weight Control Registry
PBRCPennington Biomedical Research Center6400 Perkins RoadBaton Rouge, LA 70808Phone : 225-763-2500 Please Visit Our Site: www.pbrc.edu About Pennington The Pennington Biomedical Research Center is a world-renowned nutrition research center. Mission: To promote healthier lives through research and education in nutrition and pre- Promoting Healthier Lives ventive medicine. Through Research and The Pennington Center has several research areas, including: Education in Nutrition and Clinical Obesity Research Preventive Medicine Experimental Obesity Functional Foods Health and Performance Enhancement Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Nutrition and the Brain Dementia, Alzheimer’s and healthy aging Pennington Nutrition Series No 63, 2009 Diet, exercise, weight loss and weight loss maintenance Authors The research fostered in these areas can have a profound impact on healthy living and on the prevention of common chronic diseases, such as heart .disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension and osteoporosis. Beth Kalicki The Division of Education provides education and information to the scientific Heli J. Roy, PhD, RD community and the public about research findings, training programs and re- search areas, and coordinates educational events for the public on various health issues. Division of Education e invite people of all ages and backgrounds to participate in the exciting research Pennington Biomedical Research Center studies being conducted at the Pennington Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. If you would like to take part, visit the clinical trials web page at www.pbrc.edu or 12/09 call (225) 763-3000