About 3 yrs ago LSU AgCenter and 3 other southern institutions received a grant from USDA to put together a website called All About Blueberries. My role as a nutritionist is to pull together information about the health benefits of blueberries. I have learned a lot and I want to share that with you today.
Let’s first discuss what the definition for “functional foods’ is and about some of the regulations we have in the US. Functional foods have a function beyond basic nutrition. What do we mean by ‘basic nutrition’? Basic nutrition means that food provides vitamins minerals and calories. Functional foods are "foods and beverages with claimed health benefits based on scientific evidence". The U.S. Congress then passed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (49) (NLEA), which permits certain health claims approved by the FDA. The claims can be based on the presence or absence of a nutrient that is linked to a disease or health-related condition. Claims must be supported by "significant scientific agreement."
Mortality from chronic diseases has surpassed mortality from infectious diseases. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cancers, diabetes, injury/violence, mental disorders, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, account for 35 million deaths each year, corresponding to 60% of all deaths worldwide. . Contrary to popular belief, NCDs do not only impact the elderly in high-income countries: In the developing world, NCDs such as diabetes and hypertension often affect individuals in their mid-forties and early fifties – during the most productive part of their Lives. Many diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and even aging, have been linked to excess production of free radicals, such as superoxide, singlet oxygen, and hydroxyl radicals. Obesity is thought to be a disease of chronic inflammation. Many genes are up regulated 2 to 5 fold in WAT of obese mouse such as inflammation-related genes and those involved in diverse molecular pathways, including fat storage, cholesterol metabolism, and cell division. Increasingly, insulin resistance has been recognized as the integral feature of the so-called metabolic syndrome, which includes glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, and accelerated atherosclerosis. Growing evidence has pointed to a correlative and causative relationship between inflammation and insulin resistance/T2DM.
Chronic diseases impose an enormous financial and societal burden on the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), chronic diseases today account for 70% of the deaths of all Americans and 75% of this country’s annual health care costs. CHRONIC DISEASES ARE THE largest cause of death in the world, led by cardiovascular disease (mainly from ischemic heart disease and stroke) and followed by cancer, chronic lung diseases , and diabetes mellitus. These leading diseases share key risk factors: tobacco use, unhealthful diets, lack of physical activity, and alcohol use. The current burden of chronic diseases reflects past exposure to these risk factors, and the future burden will be largely determined by current exposures.
Hakkinen: Phenolics form an integral part of the cell-wall structure, mainly in the form of polymeric materials such as lignins, serving as mechanical support and barrier against microbial invasion. Lignins are, after cellulose, the second most abundant organic structures on earth. A most significant function of the phenolic flavonoids, especially the anthocyanins, together with flavones and flavonols as co-pigments, is their contribution to flower and fruit colours (Harborne 1994, Strack 1997). This is important for attracting insects and birds to the plant for pollination and seed dispersal. A recent finding concerning the function of phenolics, especially flavonoids, is that they can act as signal molecules (host-recognition substances) in the interaction between the plant and the nitrogen-fixing bacteria in certain leguminuos plants (Strack 1997). An important function of flavonoids and phenolic acids is their action in plant defense mechanisms (Britton 1983, Bennet and Wallsgrove 1994, Dixon and Paiva 1995). Stress conditions such as excessive UV light, wounding or infection induces the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds.
So let’s look at some of the phytochemicals: Phytochemicals are believed to contribute to the maintenance of ‘optimal health’ by preventing or delaying the onset of degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and cataracts. Anthocyanins: Over 4000 different structures identified. The term plant phenols encompasses a wide variety of naturally occurring compounds which are structurally related. Includes the simple phenols; the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives; the flavonoids including catechins (flavanols), anthocyanins, flavones and flavonols. The anthocyanins found in citrus are responsible for many of the skin colors of fruit and vegetables.
Green Tea Extract or Camellia sinensis Green tea contains bioflavonoids and polyphenol-catechins, which are thought to work synergistically with caffeine and catecholamines to improve body composition. Green Tea The thermogenic effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) was originally attributed to its caffeine content. However, green tea stimulates brown fat thermogenesis far greater than a comparable amount of pure caffeine. It appears that the catechin-polyphenols, in particular epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and caffeine that naturally occur in green tea work synergistically to stimulate thermogenesis and augment and prolong sympathetic stimulation of thermogenesis. It has been shown to increase 24-hour energy expenditure and fat oxidation (caffeine only increases metabolism during the time you take it). Drinking several cups of green tea each day also has well documented anti-cancer effects particularly with respect to the prostate, breast, uterus and ovary. Green tea is generally taken as a standardized extract in capsule or tablet form to provide 50 mg of caffeine and 90 mg of epigallocatechin gallate to be taken three times daily before meals. Although green tea contains a small amount of caffeine, it is generally not enough to create any adverse side effects. Drinking several glasses of green tea each day may yield a similar thermogenic effect to the supplement although this has not been studied thus far. An orange has over 170 different phytochemicals and more than 60 flavonoids many of which have been shown not only to have antioxidant effects but also, in cellular and animal experiments, to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activity, as well as blood clot inhibiting activity.
Allium vegetables have been shown to have beneficial effects against several diseases, including cancer. Garlic, onions, leeks, and chives have been reported to protect against stomach and colorectal cancers. The exact mechanisms of the cancer-preventive effects are not clear, although several hypotheses have been proposed. Organosulfur compounds modulate the activity of several metabolizing enzymes that activate or detoxify carcinogens and inhibit the formation of DNA adducts in several target tissues. Antiproliferative activity has been described in several tumor cell lines, which is possibly mediated by induction of apoptosis and alterations of the cell cycle. Epidemiological evidence has associated the frequent consumption of cruciferous vegetables with decreased cancer risk. In a recent review demonstrated an inverse association between consumption of total brassica vegetables and cancer risk. The anticarcinogenic properties of cruciferous vegetables to their relatively high content of glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are are catalyzed to a variety of hydrolysis products, including isothiocyanates and indoles. Some are currently under investigation for their cancer chemopreventive properties. In addition to the induction of phase I (cytochrome P450) and II (water-soluble) detoxification reactions, they may reduce cancer risk by modulating estrogen metabolism. Studies suggest that the increased formation of variety of estrogen metabolites that form in the presence of glucosinolates may protect against cancer, and act as antiestrogens in cell culture. These metabolites can bind to the estrogen receptor and reduce the risk of breast cancer. Allium vegetables and organosulfur compounds are thus possible cancer-preventive agents. Clinical trials will be required to define the effective dose that has no toxicity in humans.
Anthocyanin pigments and associated flavonoids have demonstrated ability to protect against a myriad of human diseases . These effects include acting as an antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, antiproliferative, anti-mutagenic, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic, protection from cardiovascular damage and allergy, microcirculation improvement, peripheral capillary fragility prevention, diabetes prevention, and vision improvement The role of anthocyanins in cardiovascular disease protection is strongly linked to oxidative stress protection. Anthocyanins have demonstrated marked ability to reduce cancer cell proliferation and to inhibit tumor formation . The berry anthocyanins appear to benefit vision in several ways, including improving night vision by enhanced generation of retinal pigments, increasing circulation within the capillaries of the retina, for generation of visual purple, which helps to convert light into electrical signals for the brain, decreasing macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, and improving or preventing glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, and cataracts. Brain functions such as balance, coordination, short-term memory, and information retrieval can be impaired with advancing age, but research has shown that eating blueberries can reverse age-related and oxidative stress-induced decline in brain functions. Berries have been shown to enhance dopamine release in the brain, which improves the ability of brain cells to enhance intracellular communication. Strawberry supplementation was shown to enhance striatal muscarinic receptor sensitivity, and this appeared to be reflected in the reversal of cognitive behavioral deficits. Strawberries or blueberries have also been shown to reverse age-induced declines in b-adrenergic receptor function in cerebellar Purkinje neurons, while blueberries were shown to prevent and/or reverse age-related declines in cerebellar noradrenergic receptor function. Anthocyanins effectively inhibited both body weight and adipose tissue increases in mice.
Phenolic compounds that act as potent metal chelators and free radical scavengers. They have long been recognized to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiallergic, hepatoprotective, antithrombotic, antiviral, and anticarcinogenic activities. They significantly affect the function of various mammalian cellular systems. They inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking eicosanoid production, protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) against Cu ion-induced oxidation. Lila: flavonoids decrease inflammatory responses by reducing prostaglandin production Flavonoids in wild blueberries are chemoprotective enzyme modulators. Research suggests flavonoids have a role in neuroprotection, reducing the incidence of age-related neuronal-behavioral decrements ( 11 ) and potentially reducing the risk of Alzheimer’s disease ( 12 ). Blueberries have also been shown to reduce in vitro P-fimbriated E. coli adhesion of bacterial strains responsible for urinary tract infections. Kaempferol suppress the growth of cancer cells
http://www.fujicco.co.jp/english/function/02.html Biol. Pharm. Bull. Vol. 24, No. 4, 368-372 ; 2001 Isoflavones have a molecular structure similar to estrogen and as phytoestrogen they mimic the female hormone preventing bone absorption and protecting bone health. CVD: In order to examine the relation between CVD and isoflavones, researches were conducted in 14 regions of 10 countries where WHO CARDIAC Study was carried out and an age-adjusted mortality rate was established. The mortality rate from ischemic heart diseases and the 24-hour urinary isoflavones excretion were examined. The results show a reverse correlation as in the figure. In the regions where the intake of isoflavones is greater, the mortality rate is lower. Cholesterol reduction: Ingestion of 50mg isoflavones daily for 3 weeks, reduced the cholesterol values of those with hypercholesterolemia by an average of 32mg/dL. Isoflavones are regarded to show significant effect on the change of the trunk fat ratio which includes much of visceral fat, Cancer cells actively increase the blood vessels for their growth and intake of nutrition. But as isoflavones have the characteristic to suppress this angiogenesis, it restricts the growth of cancer cells and prevents their metastasizing. Isoflavones are reported to be effective not only for hormone dependent cancers but also for other cancers.
it is the complex cocktail of chemicals in the tomato, as well as the potentiating interactions between tomato fruits and other foods (such as oils) in the diet that are actually responsible for the health-protective benefits. Lycopene, a biologically occurring carotenoid, exhibits the highest physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen, and its plasma level is slightly higher than that of β- carotene .Carotenoids, particularly β- carotene, and other antioxidants such as α- tocopherol and lycopene have been implicated in the defense against pro-oxidant states; Epidemiological evidence reveals that such compounds exert a protective action against certain types of cancer. American Cancer Society: People who have diets rich in tomatoes, which contain lycopene, appear in some studies to have a lower risk of certain types of cancer, especially cancers of the prostate, lung, and stomach. Proponents claim that lycopene may lower the risk of heart disease; macular degenerative disease, an age-related illness that can lead to blindness; and lipid oxidation, the damage to normal fat molecules that can cause inflammation and disease. It is also said to lower LDL ("bad" cholesterol), enhance the body's defenses, and protect enzymes, DNA, and cellular fats. In support of these claims regarding cancer, proponents note that lycopene is a powerful antioxidant, a compound that blocks the action of free radicals, activated oxygen molecules that can damage cells, and that several scientific studies have found lower risk of cancer among people who eat lycopene-rich foods.
Allium vegetables have been shown to have beneficial effects against several diseases, including cancer. Garlic, onions, leeks, and chives have been reported to protect against stomach and colorectal cancers, although evidence for a protective effect against cancer at other sites, including the breast, is still insufficient. The protective effect appears to be related to the presence of organosulfur compounds and mainly allyl derivatives, which inhibit carcinogenesis in the forestomach, esophagus, colon, mammary gland, and lung of experimental animals. The exact mechanisms of the cancer-preventive effects are not clear, although several hypotheses have been proposed. Organosulfur compounds modulate the activity of several metabolizing enzymes that activate (cytochrome P450s) or detoxify (glutathione S-transferases) carcinogens and inhibit the formation of DNA adducts in several target tissues. Antiproliferative activity has been described in several tumor cell lines, which is possibly mediated by induction of apoptosis and alterations of the cell cycle. Allium vegetables and organosulfur compounds are thus possible cancer-preventive agents. Clinical trials will be required to define the effective dose that has no toxicity in humans.
Monoterpenes are found in the essential oils of many plants including fruits, vegetables, and herbs. They prevent the carcinogenesis process at both the initiation and promotion/progression stages. In addition, monoterpenes are effective in treating early and advanced cancers. Monoterpenes are nonnutritive dietary components found in the essential oils of citrus fruits and other plants. A number of these dietary monoterpenes have antitumor activity. For example, limonene, which comprises >90% of orange peel oil, has chemopreventive activity against rodent mammary, skin, liver, lung and forestomach cancers.
Phenolic acids exert a direct antiproliferative action, evident at low concentrations, comparable with those found in biological fluids after ingestion of foods rich in phenolic acids. Found to be pharmacologically active as antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic agents. Chicoric acid in basil, potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immunostimulating properties. Natural honey has been used in traditional medicine of different cultures throughout the world. It was hypothesized that honey extracts contain varying amounts of phenolic compounds and that they possess anti-inflammatory activities. Ellagic acid was the most abundant of the phenolic compounds recorded in honey, with mean concentrations much higher than what is required for maximal effective concentrations for protection from cytotoxicity of various compounds.
Curcumin/turmeric has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years as a ‘cleanser of the body’. It appears to work at a number of levels: 1. It can inhibit unwanted bacterial action in the stomach and intestine: For example (i) , University of Chicago researchers have shown it inhibits Heliobacter Pylori, a bacterium known to be responsible for stomach ulcers and some stomach cancers. In Ayurvedic medicine, curcumin was used in poultices for this same reason – to kill unwanted bacteria. 2. It is a significant anti-inflammatory: Arachidonic acid is a precursor/stimulator of the production of bad eicosancids (see our reviews of omega 3 and vitamin D) and thus to inflammation, which is itself a precursor to certain cancers. Curcumin has been found to inhibit several of the pre-inflammatory enzymes (e.g. COX–2 and iNOS) in vitro and in vivo with animals. Japanese research suggests it works in much the same way as salicylin. (ii) 3. It boosts crucial cellular glutathione levels: Glutathione is a crucial intracellular antioxidant, helping the cell maintain its correct oxygen levels and ‘fight off’ the effects of stress hormones. Research has shown that curcumin can prevent the action of an enzyme that limits glutathione production. 4. It is a powerful antioxidant: “Turmeric extract tested more potent than garlic, omega 3 and cat’s claw (devil’s claw)” said German research. (iii) 5. It can help prevent liver damage 2010 research from St Louis has shown that it can turn off a protein called Leptin, which causes liver damage. It has also been shown to be capable of detoxifying the liver. Thus curcumin may be of help in keeping the liver healthy during chemotherapy cancer treatments.(vii) 6. It can prevent and treat cancer: “Curcumin can suppress tumour initiation, promotion and metastasis. Extensive research over the last 50 years has indicated it can prevent and treat cancer”. So says the mighty MD Anderson Cancer Center in Texas. Curcumin has anti-angiogenic properties and the angioinhibitory effects of curcumin manifest due to down regulation of proangiogenic genes such as VEGF and angiopoitin and a decrease in migration and invasion of endothelial cells. One of the important factors implicated in chemoresistance and induced chemosensitivity is NFkB and curcumin has been shown to down regulate NFkB and inhibit IKB kinase thereby suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis
Catechins are flavonoid phytochemical compounds that appear predominantly in green tea. Smaller amounts of catechins are also in black tea, grapes, wine, and chocolate. Four polyphenol catechins in green tea include gallocatechin (GC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin (EC), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). They are potent antioxidants. Catechins, often referred to as "tea flavonoids," are being investigated for their ability to prevent cancer and heart disease. In experimental models, catechins show a wide range of protective effects, including cardioprotective, chemoprotective, and anitmicrobial properties. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1995, 43, 2800-2802 The flavanols, epicatechin polyphenols from tea, were the group of compounds containing the most powerful antioxidants. The activity increased with an increase in the number of o-dihydroxy groups. Epigalloepicatechin gallate, the most potent of all antioxidants tested, has four of these groups. It was 20 times more potent than the best vitamin, ascorbic acid. Green tea, 20 times more potent antioxidant than vitamin C. It can reduce Cardiovascular diseases, help with Obesity prevention and weight loss . It is beneficial for the suppression of diet-induced obesity. Green tea can reduce the incidence of Diabetes and Cancer by effectively in inhibiting cancer growth. It is effective against Microbial diseases andNeurodegenerative diseases such as aging, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. International Journal of Obesity (2002) 26, 1459-1464. Cancer Res January 15, 2006 66; 1234
Dietary supplementation of EGCG resulted in a dose-dependent attenuation of body fat accumulation. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1) is the rate-limiting step in converting excess energy into fatty acids stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), SCD1 gene expression in white fat was reduced glucokinase (GK), In liver, gene expression of SCD1, malic enzyme (ME), and GK was reduced pyruvate kinase (PK) respiratory quotient during night (activity phase) was decreased. Dietary EGCG attenuated diet-induced body fat accretion in mice. EGCG apparently promoted fat oxidation. Catechin s, green tea stimulates brown fat thermogenesis far greater than a comparable amount of pure caffeine. It appears that the catechin-polyphenols, in particular epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and caffeine that naturally occur in green tea work synergistically to stimulate thermogenesis and augment and prolong sympathetic stimulation of thermogenesis. It has been shown to increase 24-hour energy expenditure and fat oxidation (caffeine only increases metabolism during the time you take it). Drinking several cups of green tea each day also has well documented anti-cancer effects particularly with respect to the prostate, breast, uterus and ovary. Green tea is generally taken as a standardized extract in capsule or tablet form to provide 50 mg of caffeine and 90 mg of epigallocatechin gallate to be taken three times daily before meals.
There are also components that are effective in helping regulate body weight. Caffein e increases catecholamine production and release. It increases resting metabolic rate and enhances lipid mobilization and oxidation while sparing muscle glycogen. Salicin inhibits prostaglandin production and potentiates the thermogenic actions of synephrine and caffeine. Yohimbine blocks alpha 2 receptors. common in sites of the body that tend to accumulate fat; abdomen, breasts, buttocks and thighs. When exposed to circulating norepinephrine and epinephrine, alpha-2 receptor sites inhibit lipolysis (the release of fatty acids). Yohimbine blocks the alpha-2 receptors allowing epinephrine and norepinephrine, to stimulate beta receptor sites, resulting in a higher rate of lipolysis. Forskolin Coleus forskohlii contains the diterpene forskolin, which directly stimulates the production of the enzyme adenylate cyclase to form cAMP, which in turn activates hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) for the release of stored fat into the blood stream. Forskolin has the ability to liberate fat stores for energy and may also play a role in thyroid output. Yerba Mate is an evergreen tree growing wild in South America. It is used as a stimulant for weight loss and as an appetite suppressant. It is also known for increasing energy and improving digestive systems. It has been used by Native Americans since ancient times in a tea form as a daily stimulant. Its traditional uses were to aid against fatigue, nervous depression and pain. The herb is currently being used in the United States as stimulant for the central nervous system and as a dietary supplement Cayenne has traditionally been used as medicine for centuries. It has shown reductions in appetite in a double-blind trial, studying the effects on appetite and energy intake. It has also been shown to increase metabolism of dietary fats. These trials suggest that Cayenne may help in the treatment of obesity.
Based on scientific research, these components in the diet offer protection from chronic diseases, cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Unsaturated vegetable fats, calorie restriction, whole grains, colorful fruits and vegetables Wild berries, goat’s rue ( Galega officinalis , the original source of the drug metformin used clinically today to treat hyperglycemia) Spices, herbs
Ordinary foods with functional ingredients Heli J. Roy, PhD, MBA, RD LSU AgCenterPennington Biomedical Research Center Louisiana State University SystemThe 5 th Medicinal Biotech Forum, Beijing, China, November 5, 2011
Functional foods• Has a function beyond basic nutrition• Functional foods are "foods and beverages with claimed health benefits based on scientific evidence" • Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990• Health Claims on food products – Currently there are 18 approved structure/function claims in the US • Green Tea & Cancer • Antioxidant Vitamins & Cancer • Walnuts & Heart Disease• In the U.S., functional foods are not defined by law
Chronic diseases• Mortality from chronic diseases has surpassed mortality from infectious diseases.• Heart disease, cancer, aging - free radicals, such as superoxide, singlet oxygen, and hydroxyl radicals.• Obesity - chronic inflammation.
Chronic diseases• Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death• Cancer is second, 35% of all cancers are diet related – Multifactorial – Long induction phase – Diet is very important• Diabetes• Obesity
Phytochemicals• Biologically active chemical compounds.• Cell wall support materials, induced under stress• Bright and vivid colors• Found in fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, and other plants• Antioxidant or hormone-like action• 1000’s• Some of the more commonly known phytochemicals include beta carotene, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), folic acid, and vitamin E
Anthocyanins: Cyanidin, Delphinidin, Malvidin,Pelargonidin, Peonidin, Petunidin• Grapes, strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, blackberries, raspberries, blue corn, nuts and beans• Cancer (antioxidant, anti-angiogenic)• Diabetes• Infections (antibacterial)• Reduces light induced photo damage to eyes and vision loss, stimulate regeneration of rhodopsin• Dermal health• Decrease inflammatory response Lila 2004• Cognitive function
Flavonols: Quercetin, Kaempferol, Myricetin,Isorhamnetin , Rutin, Luteolin• Found in onions, tea, apples, grapes, citrus fruits• Metal chelators and free radical scavengers• Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, antiallergic, hepatoprotective, antithrombotic, antiviral, and anticarcinogenic activities• Significantly affect the function of various mammalian cellular systems• Inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking eicosanoid production• Kaempferol suppress the growth of cancer cells Hakkinen 2000
Isoflavones: Daidzein, Genistein, Glycitein,Saponins• Soy foods• Mimic the female hormone estrogen preventing bone absorption and protecting bone health.• Reduce visceral fat, reducing risk for metabolic syndrome etc.• Reduced cholesterol levels, reduced risk for ischemic heart disease• Exhibit angiogenesis inhibiting action thereby restricting the growth of cancer cells and preventing metastasis.
Carotenes: Lycopene• Tomato products, watermelon• Complex cocktail of chemicals, as well as the potentiating interactions with other foods (such as oils) in the diet that are actually responsible for the health-protective benefits• Suppresses expression of proteins in tumor progression• Strong antioxidant• Eliminates singlet oxygen Lila, MA
Allium compounds• Garlic, onions, leeks, and chives• CANCER – Stomach – Colorectal – Breast• Modulate the activity of several metabolizing enzymes• Protects DNA• Antiproliferative• Apoptosis
Monoterpenes: Limonene, Hesperetin,Naringenin, Eriodictyol• Eucalyptus, citrus fruits, lavender, cherries, peppermint, dill• Prevent carcinogenesis of initiation and promotion/ progression stage• Cancers of breast, skin, liver, stomach• Inhibit cholesterol synthesis• Consumption of fruits has also been associated with inhibition of the growth of Helicobacter pylorii• Antibacterial
Phenolic acids: Ellagic acid, Caffeic acid,Chicoric acid, etc• Phenolic acids, namely caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, gallic and ellagic acid, are found in blackberry, raspberry, strawberry• Potential antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral with immunostimulating properties• Inhibits HIV integrase• Diabetes prevention• Vision enhancement• Neuroprotection
Other phenols: curcumin, capsaicin• Turmeric - curcumin – Prevents AD by inhibiting oxidative stress of lipids in the brain – Anti bacterial - Inhibits bacterial growth – Anti-inflammatory – Cancer preventive• Chili peppers - capsaicin – Pain
Catechins• Green tea, 20 times more potent antioxidant than vitamin C• Cardiovascular diseases• Obesity and weight loss – beneficial for the suppression of diet-induced obesity• Diabetes• Cancer – effective in inhibiting cancer growth• Microbial diseases• Neurodegenerative diseases
Prevention of chronic diseases• Unsaturated vegetable fats, whole grains, vegetable proteins• Colorful fruits and vegetables, berries• Spices, herbs• Calorie restriction with adequate nutrients
And back to Blueberries• 5 and 10% blueberry powder• Mice were fed control or blueberry diet for 8 weeks• Tumor volume was significantly smaller in the 5% and 10% BB supplemented groups than those on the control diet• BB ingestion (anthocyanins) mediated key processes of inflammation, signaling, cell migration• BB modulated 100’s of genes involved in inflammation, cell-to-cell interaction and cancer Adams et al. J. Nutr 141:1805, 2011
Warning – supplementation might notwork• NIH-FUNDED STUDY SHOWS INCREASED PROSTATE CANCER RISK FROM VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTS• Men who took 400 international units (I.U.) of vitamin E daily had more prostate cancers compared to men who took a placebo, according to an updated review of data from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). The findings showed that, per 1,000 men, there were 76 prostate cancers in men who took only vitamin E supplements, vs. 65 in men on placebo over a seven-year period, or 11 more cases of prostate cancer per 1,000 men. This represents a 17 percent increase in prostate cancers relative to those who took a placebo.
Warning – supplementation mightnot work• Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center• The results of the Beta-Carotene And Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) suggest that high-dose supplementation of vitamin A and beta-carotene should be avoided in people at high risk of lung cancer. About 9,000 people (smokers and people with asbestos exposure) were assigned a daily regimen of 25,000 IU of retinol and 30 milligrams of beta- carotene, while a similar number of people were assigned a placebo. After four years of follow-up, the incidence of lung cancer was 28% higher in the supplemented group compared to the placebo group.
Conclusions Lila, M.A. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1114: 372–380 (2007).• It is not a single component in plant-derived foods, but rather complex mixtures of interacting natural chemicals, that produce such powerful health-protective effects. These natural components accumulate simultaneously together in a plant, and provide a multifaceted defensive strategy for both the plant, and the human consumer.• Bioactive food constituents used to combat disease progression can be more comprehensive and broad-spectrum than the effects of any single- component synthetic drugs.