PBRCCholesterol and youAUGUST 2009 PUBLICATION # 55About Cholesterol Special points of interest: In the bloodstream arterial walls. Eventually cholesterol is carried in this buildup can narrow Types of Cholesterol lipid particles called your arteries and cause a lipoproteins. There are blood clot to form, which Cholesterol guidelines for chil- several versions of these may lead to a heart attack dren lipoproteins, but two are or a stroke. relevant in cholesterol Cholesterol guidelines for adults. A persons cholesterol control: level is one part of the LDL HDL—High density lipo- equation for determining proteins, or good choles- risk for cardiovascular HDL terol, which attempts to disease (CVD). Other remove fatty deposits of risks for CVD include Facts & Statistics plaque from your arteries. smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, family LDL—Low density lipo- history of heart disease, proteins, or bad and age (older than 45 for cholesterol, which tends men and older than 55 for to leave fatty deposits that women). accumulate in your blood- stream and build up on Cholesterol Guidelines for Children and Adults Cholesterol Level Guidelines for Children* Cholesterol Level Guidelines for Adults* (mg/dL) : (mg/dL) : Total Cholesterol Total Cholesterol <200 Desirable Acceptable = less than 170 200-239 Borderline high Borderline = 170 to 199 >240 High High = 200 or greater LDL Cholesterol Inside this issue: LDL Cholesterol <100 Optimal Acceptable = less than 110 100-129 Near /above optimal Borderline = 110 to 129 130-159 Borderline high Facts About LDL 2 160-189 High High = 130 or greater >190 Very high Facts About HDL 2 HDL Cholesterol <40 Low >60 High Cholesterol Fact Sheet 3 *Cholesterol guidelines are evaluated and updated by the National Cholesterol Education Program About Our Company 4 (NCEP) Expert Panel by the National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The latest version of the ATP III Classification of LDL, Total, and HDL Cholesterol (mg/dL) is the Third Report by the Panel. National Cholesterol Education Program’s Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol in Children and Adolescents sets the acceptable level for children and adolescents.
CHOLESTEROL AND YOU Page 2 Facts About LDL Cholesterol High cholesterol level, par- those who are on In order to reduce LDL ticularly high LDL choles- cholesterol lowering cholesterol you should: terol, is a major risk factor medication, should eat less exercise regularly; eat a diet for coronary heart disease, than 200 mg of cholesterol that is low in cholesterol, heart attack, and stroke. daily. saturated fat, and trans fat, maintain a healthy weight LDL levels in the blood are Postmenopausal women and BMI (body mass index controlled by the liver and who are diagnosed with = weight in pounds multi- the intestines. Liver heart disease should treat plied by 703, then divide synthesizes LDL high LDL levels with drug the total by your height in cholesterol, and disposes it, therapy together with a diet inches squared), and avoid and the intestinal track is that is rich in fruits, vegeta- smoking. the site of lipoprotein bles, whole grains, high absorption. Many drugs can fiber foods, and low fat Limit cholesterol intake to be used to block the dairy products. 300 mg daily. absorption of cholesterol Substituting soy protein for from the intestinal track. animal protein has been In order to lower your LDL shown to lower LDL cholesterol levels, limit cholesterol levels. foods that are high in saturated fats and trans fats. Individuals with high LDL blood cholesterol levels, orFacts About HDL Cholesterol HDL cholesterol assists in the removal of cholesterol from the bloodstream. When LDL cholesterol is too high, cholesterol begins to be deposited into the walls of arteries. This attracts other material such as fat, calcium, cholesterol, cellular waste, and fibrin. Plaque begins to a risk factor for heart avoid smoking, cut trans build up and overtime, ather- disease. fats from your diet, add osclerosis develops. This may soluble fiber such as fruits, eventually lead to a heart HDL levels that are greater oats, beans, and nuts), and attack or even a stroke. High than 60 tend to have car- increase the amount of HDL lowers your chance of dio-protective effects. monounsaturated fats. getting atherosclerosis or heart disease, by remov- Ways to raise your HDL Consuming no more than 1 ing the cholesterol and pre- Cholesterol levels include: or 2 servings of alcoholic venting the plaque buildup. exercise regularly, maintain beverages per day. a healthy weight and BMI, An HDL level less than 40 is
Page 3 PUBLICATION # 55 Cholesterol Facts Coronary heart disease is tends to protect premen- the leading cause of death opausal women from hav- in the United States. ing high levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol or be at Over 43 percent of hospital risk for cardiovascular dis- patients treated for ease. coronary heart disease are under the age of 65. Cholesterol levels tend to increase as we age. According to the United States Center for Disease The process of developing Control, 106.9 million atherosclerosis, usually American adults have a begins in childhood. High blood cholesterol level of fat diet in childhood can 200 mg/dL or greater; 37.7 lead to fatty deposit in the of which have cholesterol bloodstream of children Keep your sodium intake at levels higher than 240 mg/ (Bogalusa Heart Study). 2300 mg or less daily (1 dL. This places them at an teaspoon). This will help High intake of Omega-3 increased risk of having with blood pressure control fatty acids, commonly heart disease or a stroke. and the work load on the found in fish, is known to reduce the risk of heart heart, particularly if you Everyone 20 and older disease. have high level of LDL should have their cholesterol. cholesterol levels checked A diet that is rich in soluble High intake of at least once every five Use margarine in place of fiber, fruits and whole Omega-3 fatty years. butter to avoid saturated grains will lower blood acids, commonly cholesterol levels. fats. Choose margarines The overweight and obese found in fish, is that have zero grams of are likely to have higher known to reduce Ways to help keep control trans fat. cholesterol level than the the risk of heart of your cholesterol levels lean. However, even lean It is important to follow a disease. include: attending periodic individuals can have high heart healthy diet from checks with your physician, cholesterol level due to childhood which includes maintaining a healthy familial hypercholesterole- plenty of fresh fruits and weight and BMI, participat- mia. vegetables, whole grains ing in moderate intensity exercise for at least 30 and lean meats, and The liver makes cholesterol, minutes per day, and eating includes physical activity. which is used to make bile a diet that is low in You can be a role model by acids. The liver also assists cholesterol, saturated fat, being active and enjoying a in the removal of cholester- and trans fat. variety of healthful foods. ol from the blood. The intestines have the When selecting food, keep ability to absorb cholesterol. in mind that the first Sources of cholesterol in ingredient on the Nutrition the intestinal track are food Facts Panel is the one that and bile. is the main ingredient in the food. Estrogen, a female hormone, tends o raise Always choose foods that HDL cholesterol levels. have fats and oils listed later This property of estrogen on in the list of ingredients.
Your Risk for Heart DiseaseDetermine your other risk low HDL cholesterol Increasing intake of soluble fiberfactors for heart disease family history of early coronary heart Reducing weight if you are overweightIf you have already diagnosed coronaryheart disease, atherosclerosis, or diabetes, disease - especially if you have metabolic syn-the guidelines would place you into the drome age (for men, age 45 or older; for wom-high risk category, even if you have no en, age 55 or older) Increasing physical activity—regularsymptoms of heart disease. physical activity is recommended for Improve your cholesterolIn addition to high LDL, atherosclerosis everyone. numbersor diabetes, other important risk factors The new guidelines emphasize preventing Controlling high blood pressurefor heart disease are: heart disease in the short- and long-term, Quitting smoking Cigarette smoking and recommend "therapeutic lifestyle chang- es (TLC)" to lower LDL. These involve: Working with a dietitian or nutritionist is High blood pressure (140/90 mm extremely helpful. Hg and above or on blood pressure Reducing saturated fat and cholesterol medication) intake About Pennington Mission: To promote healthier lives through research and education in nutrition and preventive medicine. The Pennington Center has several research areas, including: Pennington Nutrition Series No 55, 2009 Clinical Obesity Research Authors Experimental Obesity Functional Foods Health and Performance Enhancement Beth Kalicki Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Heli J. Roy, PhD, RD Nutrition and the Brain Dementia, Alzheimer’s and healthy aging Diet, exercise, weight loss and weight loss maintenance Division of Education The research fostered in these areas can have a profound Pennington Biomedical Research Center impact on healthy living and on the prevention of common chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, 8/10 hypertension and osteoporosis. The Division of Education provides education and information to the scientific community and the public about research findings, training programs and research areas, and coordinates educational events for the public on various health issues. We invite people of all ages and backgrounds to participate in Pennington Biomedical the exciting research studies being conducted at the Research Center Pennington Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. If you would 6400 Perkins Road like to take part, visit the clinical trials web page at Baton Rouge, LA 70808 www.pbrc.edu or call (225) 763-3000. (225) 763-2500 clinical trials web page at www.pbrc.edu www.pbrc.edu or call (225) 763-3000.