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Adolescent curriculum Lesson plan 4
Adolescent curriculum Lesson plan 4
Adolescent curriculum Lesson plan 4
Adolescent curriculum Lesson plan 4
Adolescent curriculum Lesson plan 4
Adolescent curriculum Lesson plan 4
Adolescent curriculum Lesson plan 4
Adolescent curriculum Lesson plan 4
Adolescent curriculum Lesson plan 4
Adolescent curriculum Lesson plan 4
Adolescent curriculum Lesson plan 4
Adolescent curriculum Lesson plan 4
Adolescent curriculum Lesson plan 4
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Adolescent curriculum Lesson plan 4

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  • 1. Pennington Biomedical Research CenterAwesome.2Cents! A Healthy Lifestyle Curriculum for Teens…Grades 8-12Lesson 4– Dietary FatGrade: High School Grades 8th- 12thLearning Activity: Importance of dietary fat in relation to healthTrack: NutritionLouisiana Content Standards Benchmarks:1-M-2, 1-M-3, 3-M-1, 4-M-4, 5-M-4, 5-M-5, 6-M-11-H-1, 1-H-2, 1-H-4, 1-H-6, 2-H-1, 2-H-2, 3-H-1, 3-H-2, 5-H-6, 6-H-1, 6-H-2, 6-H-4Time Allotted: 45-50 minutesKey Concepts: 1. What is fat? 2. Functions of dietary fat. 3. Dietary fat 4. Healthy vs unhealthy fat 5. Cholesterol 6. Lipoproteins 7. Saturated fats 8. Monounsaturated fats 9. Polyunsaturated fats 10. Trans fats 11. Example of a labelHow will change in knowledge or skills be evaluated? 1. Participants will be able to name the types of fatty acids and common lipoproteins. 2. Participants will be able to discuss the important roles of fat. 3. Participants will be able to list sources of fats. 4. Participants will be able to show the contents of fat in a food label for a product.What You Need for the Lesson:1. Saturated fat handout, Comparison of fatty acids handout,2. Other resources:  Types of fat: solid (margarine, butter), liquid fats (vegetable oils).  Food labels  Fat model 1
  • 2. Slide Lesson Plan1 Dietary Fats2 This lesson will cover: • What is fat? • Functions of dietary fat. • Dietary fat • Healthy vs. unhealthy fat • Cholesterol • Lipoproteins • Saturated fats • Monounsaturated fats • Polyunsaturated fats • Trans fats • Example of a label • Reducing trans fat intake • Recommendations for fats • Calculations • General information References3 Say: What is Fat? Fats are mainly carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Fats are mixtures of fatty acids and glycerol. They are part of a larger group of lipids. Three fatty acids connect to each glycerol molecule to make a molecule of fat. Do: Show molecular structure of fatty acids and triglyceride. Say: Fatty acids can be different lengths and degrees of saturation. Whether fat is solid or liquid depends on the length of the fatty acids (how many carbon atoms it has) and the degree of saturation (how many hydrogen atoms they each have). Common fatty acids have 16 to 18 carbon atoms and they can be saturated or unsaturated. Do: Show solid and liquid fats. 2
  • 3. 4 Fat synthesis Say:5 Say: Fat is a normal component of food. Some foods have almost no fat, such as fruits and vegetables, while other foods have plenty of fat, like nuts, oils, butter, and certain meats. The name “fat” usually implies something bad, or something that we shouldn’t eat. But, in fact, fat does serve many important functions.6 Say: Functions of Fat Fat is important in: • Serving as a source of energy for the body. • The production of cell membranes. • The production of several hormone-like compounds called eicosanoids, which help regulate blood pressure, heart rate, blood vessel constriction, blood clotting, and the nervous system.7 Say: Fat is also important in: • Carrying fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamins A, D, E, and K) from the food into the body. • Helping to maintain healthy hair and skin, protecting vital organs, keeping the body insulated, and providing a sense of fullness after meals (known as satiety).8 Say: Dietary Fat Fat is essential to a healthy diet. However, too much fat can be unhealthy. One reason is 3
  • 4. that eating a lot of high-fat foods adds excess calories to the diet and limits other nutrients. Why? Fat provides 9 kcal/gram. That is more than twice the calories provided by carbohydrates or protein (4 kcal/gram). This, in time, can cause weight gain and obesity. Obesity, in itself, is a risk factor for several diseases.9 Say: It is also important to note that not all fats are created equal– some are much better for you than others. Eating too much of certain kinds of fats can increase blood cholesterol levels and the risk for coronary artery disease. It is important to learn to distinguish between healthy and unhealthy fats.10 Say: Healthy vs. Unhealthy Fats Healthy fats are the unsaturated fats: monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Unhealthy fats are saturated fats, trans fats and cholesterol.11 Say: What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a wax-like substance made in the liver. It is linked to carrier proteins (called lipoproteins) that transport it to all parts of the body through the bloodstream. It is present in cell walls or membranes everywhere in the body, including the brain, nerves, muscle, skin, liver, intestines, and heart. The body uses cholesterol to produce many hormones, vitamin D, and the bile acids that help to digest fat. It takes only a small amount of cholesterol in the blood to meet these needs.12 Say: Too much Cholesterol? When there is too much cholesterol in the blood, deposits of cholesterol can build up inside of the arteries. These deposits are known as plaque, and they can narrow an artery enough to slow or even stop blood flow. This narrowing process is known as atherosclerosis and it can occur in the arteries that nourish the heart (the coronary arteries).13 Say: Angina is a chest pain which can occur as a result of one or more sections of the heart muscle is not getting enough blood. It is important that the heart gets a steady flow of blood, in order for it continue functioning properly. It needs the oxygen and nutrients that are contained in the blood. Plaque deposits can also rupture from the vessel wall, causing blood clots that may lead to heart attack, stroke, or sudden death.14 Say: Lipoproteins Cholesterol-carrying lipoproteins play central roles in the development of 4
  • 5. atherosclerotic plaque and cardiovascular diseases. Two types of lipoproteins work in opposite directions.15 Say: Lipoprotein types 1. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): These lipoproteins carry cholesterol from the liver to the rest of the body. When there is too much LDL cholesterol in the blood, the cholesterol is deposited on the walls of the coronary arteries. This is why LDL is referred to as the “bad” cholesterol.16 Say: 2. High-density lipoproteins (HDL): These lipoproteins carry cholesterol from the blood back to the liver, which then processes the cholesterol, preparing it for elimination from the body. High HDL makes it less likely that excess cholesterol in the blood will be deposited in the coronary arteries, making HDL cholesterol the “good” cholesterol.17 Say: Dietary Cholesterol Research shows that dietary cholesterol isn’t quite as closely linked to blood levels of cholesterol as previously thought. The relationship is not clearly linear. Although it is important to limit the amount of cholesterol we eat, the mix of fats (the ratio of healthy versus unhealthy fats) in the diet has more of an influence on blood cholesterol than does dietary cholesterol.18 Say: So, what are the main food sources of these healthy and unhealthy forms of fat? And, how do dietary fats effect blood cholesterol and risk for heart disease? Ideally, you want a low amount of LDL, and a high amount of HDL in the blood.19 Say: Unhealthy Fats Saturated Fats are considered unhealthy fats from chronic disease perspective. Dietary saturated fatty acids usually have 14 to 18 carbon atoms (myristic, palmitic and stearic acids). One of the most common saturated fatty acids is stearic acid. It has 18 carbon atoms. At room temperature, saturated fats are solid. These fats are unhealthy in that they raise LDL (bad) cholesterol. In addition, they work to raise HDL (good) cholesterol. Dietary saturated fatty acids usually have 16 to 20 carbon atoms. One of the most common saturated fatty acids is stearic acid. It has 18 carbon atoms. Saturated fatty acids are found in animal products such as meats and dairy. Vegetable sources of saturated fatty acids are coconut oil and palm oil. 50% of palm oil fatty acids are saturated (mainly palmitic acid), while 90% of coconut oil is saturated and majority of the fatty acids are lauric acid (12 carbon fatty acid). 5
  • 6. Do: Show fatty acid structure and handouts on fatty acid content of different fats.20 Say: The main food sources for saturated fats are: Whole milk, Butter, Cheese, Ice cream, Red meat, Chocolate, Coconuts, Coconut milk, and Coconut oil.21 Say: Healthy Fats Monounsaturated Fats. At room temperature, monounsaturated fats are liquid but the fat will congeal in cooler temperatures or in the refrigerator. Monounsaturated fats have one double bond in the molecule. Hence “mono” and “unsaturated.” These fats are important because they work to lower LDL (bad) cholesterol, while raising HDL (good) cholesterol. Monounsaturated fats are heart healthy and are part of the heart healthy Mediterranean diet.22 Say: The main food sources for monounsaturated fats are: Avocados, Olives, Olive oil, Canola oil, Peanut oil, Cashews, Almonds, Peanuts, and Most other nuts.23 Say: Polyunsaturated Fats At room temperature, polyunsaturated fats are liquid. Polyunsaturated fats have more than one double bond within the molecule. Polyunsaturated fatty acids can assume a cis or trans conformation depending on the geometry of the double bond. Polyunsaturated fats are important because they work to lower LDL (bad) cholesterol, while raising HDL (good) cholesterol. They have many other important functions in the body. Their products help to improve the immune system, they reduce inflammatory reaction, they reduce the risk of several types of cancer, and they are required for normal brain development and function.24 Say: The main food sources for polyunsaturated fats are: Corn oil, Soybean oil, Safflower oil, Cottonseed oil, and Fish.25 Say: Polyunsaturated Fatty acids – Types and Role Omega-3 fatty acids reduce inflammation and help prevent certain chronic diseases such as heart disease and arthritis. Omega 3 fatty acids are found in cold water fish. Omega 6 fatty acids are required for normal growth and development. Omega 6 fatty acids are found in commonly used cooking oils, including sunflower, safflower, corn, cottonseed, and soybean oils. Omega 6 fatty acids are required for normal growth and development Omega 6 fatty acids are found in commonly used cooking oils, including sunflower, safflower, corn, cottonseed, and soybean oils. Normal American diet has a omega-6 to omega-3 ratio is 15/1-16.7/1. Western diets are 6
  • 7. deficient in omega-3 fatty acids, and have excessive amounts of omega-6 fatty acids. Excessive amounts of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a very high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as is found in todays Western diets, promote the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, whereas increased levels of omega-3 PUFA (a low omega- 6/omega-3 ratio) is healthier. Early humans had a diet with a ratio of approximately 1 between omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA), and some nutritionist today recommend that to be the ideal ratio for reducing the risk of chronic diseases.26 Say: Trans Fats Similar to saturated fats, trans fats raise LDL (bad) cholesterol. However, trans fats have an even greater negative impact on blood cholesterol levels than saturated fat, they lower HDL (good) cholesterol.27 Say: In nature, most of the fatty acids are in the “cis” form. Hydrogenated oils are liquid oils that have been changed into a solid form of fat by adding hydrogen. At room temperature, trans fats are either solid or semi-solid. The process of hydrogenation allows these fats to keep longer without losing their flavor, thus increasing their shelf life.28 Say: In addition to raising the bad and lowering the good cholesterol, trans fats can increase the inflammatory reaction. This can mean increased risk of: heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and other chronic conditions. It is important to limit the intake of saturated fats and to recognize and eliminate sources of trans fat from the diet. Today it is easier to identify foods containing trans fat. It has to be listed on the food label.29 Say: Trans Fats - Sources Remember that trans fats are only in processed foods. They are in all processed foods that have fats. The highest sources of trans fats are baked products, crackers, cookies, partially hydrogenated shortening and fried foods. Fried foods in fast food restaurants are common sources of trans fats. The main food sources for trans fats are: Most margarines, Vegetable shortening, Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, Deep-fried chips, Many fast foods, and Most commercial baked goods. 7
  • 8. 30 Say: A look at common food items for Trans fat content. This table how the foods, their common serving size, total fat in the food, total saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Product Common Total Sat. Fat Trans Fat Combined Chol. (mg) Serving Size Fat (g) (g) (g) Sat. & Trans Fat (g) French Fries (Fast Medium (147 27 7 8 15 0 Food) g) Doughnut 1 18 4.5 5 9.5 25 Cake, pound 1 slice 16 3.5 4.5 8 0 (80 g) Shortening 1T 13 3.5 4 7.5 0 Margarine, stick 1T 11 2 3 5 0 Potato Chips Small bag 11 2 3 5 0 (42.5 g) Candy Bar 1 10 4 3 7 <5 (40 g) Cookies, cream 3 6 1 2 3 0 filled (30 g) Margarine, tub 1T 7 1 0.5 1.5 0 Mayonnaise 1T 11 1.5 0 1.5 5 Milk, whole 1 cup 7 4.5 0 4.5 35 Milk, skim 1 cup 0 0 0 0 5 Butter 1T 11 7 0 7 3031 Say:32 Say: Example of a Nutrition Facts Label The nutrients listed first are the ones Americans generally eat in adequate amounts, or even too much. They are identified in yellow as Limit these Nutrients. Eating too much fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, or sodium may increase your risk of certain chronic diseases, like heart disease, some cancers, or high blood pressure. Important: Health experts recommend that you keep your intake of saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol as low as possible as part of a nutritionally balanced diet. 8
  • 9. Total Fat: the amount of fat present in one serving of a food; it includes the total of all monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, saturated, and trans fat found within one serving of the food. The label will have information on: • Saturated Fat • Trans Fat • It may also have information on: • Monounsaturated Fat • Polyunsaturated Fat Upper Limit - Eat "Less than"... The nutrients that have "upper daily limits" are listed first on the footnote of larger labels and on the example above. Upper limits means it is recommended that you stay below - eat "less than" - the Daily Value nutrient amounts listed per day. For example, the DV for Saturated fat (in the33 Say: Reducing Trans Fat Intake Helpful Tips • Choose liquid vegetable oils, or choose a soft tub margarine that contains no trans fats. 9
  • 10. • Reduce intake of commercially prepared baked goods, snack foods, and processed foods (including fast foods). • Choose products that list the hydrogenated oils near the end of the ingredient list (these products contain less of the oil than products listing the oil near the top). • Avoid trans fats in restaurants by avoiding deep-fried foods (since many restaurants continue to use partially hydrogenated oils in their fryers).34 Say: Recommendations for Fats From the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Children and adolescents. Keep total fat intake between 30 to 35 percent of calories for children 2 to 3 years of age and between 25 to 35 percent of calories for children and adolescents 4 to 18 years of age, with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils.35 Say: Helfpful information about fat recommendation http://www.mypyramid.gov is a website based on the new My Pyramid. The website has an interactive interface that can be used to assess individual dietary intake. Caloric intake can be determined by age, gender, and level of physical activity. Example: For example, Kara, is a 16 year old female who exercises 30-60 minutes each day, is recommended to eat 2,000 calories a day to maintain her current weight (according to MyPyramid). If Kara ate a total of 65 grams of fat for the day (including all mono and polyunsaturated, saturated, and trans fat) is it enough?36 Say: Does it fall within the recommended 25 to 35 percent of calories from fat guideline? To find out: • First: calculate the least amount of fat (in grams) that Kara could eat at the lower part of the recommendation (25% of calories from fat). • Then, calculate the highest amount of fat (in grams) Kara could at the higher end of the recommendation (35% of calories from fat).37 Say: For 25% of calories coming from fat (in a 2,000 calorie diet): Say and Do: First, multiply 2,000 calories (or whatever your recommended calorie intake is) by 0.25 (or 25%). 2000 calories x .25 = 500 calories Next, you would divide 500 calories by 9 (since there are 9 kcal per gram of fat). 500 calories = 55.5556 g 9 calories/gram 10
  • 11. This can be rounded to 56 g. 56 grams is the least amount of fat Kara could have to be within the 25-35% recommendations for fat.38 Say and Do: For 35% of calories coming from fat (in a 2,000 calorie diet): Multiply 2,000 calories (or the recommended calorie intake for you) by 0.35 (35% in decimal form). 2000 calories x .35 = 700 calories Next, divide 700 by 9 (since there are 9 kcal per gram of fat). 700 calories = 77.7778 grams 9 calories/gram This can be rounded to 78 g. 78 grams is the highest amount of fat that Kara could have to be within the 25-35% recommendations for fat.39 Say: Based on a 2,000 calorie diet, children and adolescents 4 to 18 years of age should consume between 56 to 78 grams of total fat and still fall within the recommended range of 25-35% of calories from fat. Because Kara ate 65 grams of total fat for the day, she falls within the guideline. Therefore, yes – Kara did meet recommendations for fat for the day.40 Say: Review The word “fat” doesn’t have to be a negative word. Fat has many important functions in the body. Not all fats are created equal. It is important to limit the intake of saturated and trans fats. Unsaturated fats are the healthier fats.41 Say: How we eat today does effect our health in the future. Even little steps can make a big difference later on. Substitute, when possible, healthier fat options for the unhealthy options. • Example: Choose oven baked fries or a baked potato over those fried in vegetable shortening.42 Say: Choose unsaturated fats & oils more often, such as: • Margarine (especially soft, light, trans free margarine) • Corn, canola, olive, safflower, soybean, and sunflower oils • Avoid trans fat-containing products, such as: • Stick margarine Avoid saturated fat-containing products, such as: • Butter 11
  • 12. • Solid shortening • Lard • Fatback43 References44 References45 Authors: Heli Roy, PhD, RD Shanna Lundy, MS Beth Kalicki Division of Education Phillip Brantley, PhD, Director Pennington Biomedical Research Center Claude Bouchard, PhD, Executive Director The Pennington Biomedical Research Center is a world-renowned nutrition research center. Mission: To promote healthier lives through research and education in nutrition and preventive medicine. The Pennington Center has several research areas, including: Clinical Obesity Research Experimental Obesity Functional Foods Health and Performance Enhancement Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Nutrition and the Brain Dementia, Alzheimer’s and healthy aging Diet, exercise, weight loss and weight loss maintenance The research fostered in these areas can have a profound impact on healthy living and on the prevention of common chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension and osteoporosis. The Division of Education provides education and information to the scientific community and the public about research findings, training programs and research areas, and coordinates educational events for the public on various health issues. We invite people of all ages and backgrounds to participate in the exciting research studies being conducted at the Pennington Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. If you would like to take part, visit the clinical trials web page at www.pbrc.edu or call (225) 763-3000. 12
  • 13. Edited : October 2009References• Revealing Trans Fats. Available at:http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2003/503_fats.html• Fats & Cholesterol- The Good, the bad and the healthy diet. Available at:http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/fats.html• Dietary Fats: Know which types to choose. Available at:http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/fat/NU00262• Learning About Fats. Available at:http://www.kidshealth.org/kid/nutrition/food/fat.html• Figuring Out Fat and Calories. Available at:http://www.kidshealth.org/teen/nutrition/general/fat_calories.html• Tip sheet: Fats and Oils to Choose.• Available at: http://www.nhlbisupport.com/chd1/Tipsheets/tipsheet-satfat.htm• Know Your Fats.• Available at: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=532 13

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