It is well known that by consuming a diet high in fruits and vegetables, one can reduce the risk for developing cancer and that by consuming a diet low in fat and saturated fat, one can reduce the risk for developing heart disease. Because the emphasis is on non-meat food sources, a vegetarian diet generally contains less saturated fat and cholesterol and more mono and polyunsaturated fat and includes more fiber than a non-vegetarian diet.
Many people follow a “vegetarian” diet, but there is no single vegetarian eating pattern. Although there are different types of vegetarian diets, a healthy vegetarian diet consists primarily of the following plant-based foods: Legumes Whole grains Vegetables Fruits Nuts and seeds
These are the common types of vegetarian diets: Ovo-vegetarian Lacto-ovo vegetarian Lacto-vegetarian vegan
A true vegetarian eats no meat at all, including chicken & fish. The following are types of common vegetarian diets we see in the United States from least strict to most strict. Lacto-ovo vegetarian: eats dairy products and eggs , but excludes red meat, fish, and poultry Lacto-vegetarian: eats dairy products , but not eggs or meat, fish, and poultry Ovo-vegetarian: eats eggs , but not dairy products or meat, fish, and poultry Vegan: does not eat dairy products, eggs, meat, fish, & poultry
One important thing to remember is that: not all vegetarian diets are the same. At minimum, they include the elimination of red meat, poultry, and fish. However, some also exclude food items such as eggs and milk products.
Vegan diets are the most strict. They exclude all animal products , including gelatin and honey. Vegans eat all fruits and vegetables, lentils, nuts, seeds, and grains. There is a number of foods that you would think a vegan could eat, but actually cannot– such as gelatin (which is made using meat byproducts) and cheese (which is made using an animal-based product). Vegans eat all fruits and vegetables, lentils, nuts, seeds, and grains.
Some people consider themselves semi-vegetarians and eat fish and a small amount of poultry as part of a diet that is primarily made up of vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, seeds, and nuts. A pesci-vegetarian is a person who eats fish, but not poultry.
For much of the world, vegetarianism is largely a matter of economics rather than preference. In a lot of developing countries, meat is very expensive. Beans, lentils, and staples such as rice are inexpensive. Often times people can only afford the inexpensive foods. Often times people can only afford the inexpensive foods. In many countries, dietary habits are also rooted in religion, ethnicity and also what is available locally. Do: break students into groups and give each group the Seventh Day Adventist handout. Give the groups 10 minutes time to put together a Food Guide for Seventh Day Adventist. Say: Let’s look at a group in United States that chooses to eat a diet that excludes meat, poultry, and fish. -------------------- Let groups work for 10 minutes ----------------------- Say: What did you discover about putting together a diet that included no meat, fish, or poultry, and few eggs? What do you think about the Good Eating Guidelines? Allow for 5 minute discussion. Do: Turn back to slides. Say: As you see there are people that choose to have no meat, fish or poultry. However, in countries like the United States where meat is not as expensive compared to the developing countries, people may choose to be vegetarians for other reasons other than economics .
Parental preferences, religious beliefs, lifestyle factors, and health issues are among the most common non-economic reasons for choosing to be a vegetarian. Many people choose to become vegetarians out of concern over animal rights or the environment . For the most part, most people have more than just one reason for becoming a vegetarian.
In a recent study, it was found that adolescents who eat a vegetarian diet are more likely to meet the Healthy People 2010 objectives by, on average, consuming less total fat and saturated fat and eating more servings of fruits and vegetables than their non-vegetarian counterparts. It is well known that by consuming a diet high in fruits and vegetables, one can reduce the risk for developing cancer and that by consuming a diet low in fat and saturated fat, one can reduce the risk for developing heart disease.
In fact, the American Dietetic Association (ADA) has officially endorsed vegetarianism , stating that: “appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, area nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.” The key here is “ appropriately planned .” If you are a vegetarian, or are planning to become one, the most important thing you can do is educate yourself on the best ways to make sure you are still getting adequate amounts of essential nutrients.
Vegetarians need pay particular attention to the following key nutrients in their diet: Iron. The best sources of iron are red meat, chicken, and pork. Careful planning is needed in a vegetarian diet to meet iron requirements. Green leafy vegetables have a lot of iron, but they need to be consumed with foods that have vitamin C in order to increase absorption. Calcium. The best sources of calcium are dairy products. Obtaining enough calcium can be a problem for o vo-vegetarian who eat eggs , but not dairy products, and v egan, who do not eat any animal products. Dar green leafy vegetables, fortified orange juice, soybeans and enriched grains have the most calcium if one does not consume dairy products. Protein. Individuals who do not consume animal products will need to learn to combine vegetable proteins to make complete protein. Combination of beans and corn, wheat and legumes make complete proteins. Vitamin D. Vitamin D is added into milk and can be obtained from exposure to sunlight. Vitamin B-12. Vitamin B 12 is only in animal products and may need to be taken as a supplement by vegans. Zinc. Zinc is in protein foods but also in lentils and whole grains.
Iron is used to carry oxygen in the blood making it a crucial component of red blood cells. Girls need to be particularly concerned about getting enough iron because some iron is lost during menstruation. In fact, it may be necessary to take an iron supplement if you are a female vegetarian who is not getting enough iron. Zinc is an important component of many enzymes and it plays a role in cell division and in the formation of proteins . If you aren't eating any dairy foods , you need to make sure to eat foods that contain zinc, such as: fortified breakfast cereals, dried beans, nuts, and soy products like tofu and tempeh.
Protein is essential to the body in order to maintain healthy skin, bones, muscles, and organs. Vegetarians who eat eggs and dairy products have excellent sources of protein available to them. However, for vegetarians who don’t eat eggs and dairy, other good sources of protein include: soy products, meat substitutes, legumes, lentils, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. Calcium is essential for proper bone formation . As a teen, you’re building your bones for the rest of your life. It is essential that bones be as strong as possible in order to prevent osteoporosis. Girls , in particular, need to be concerned about getting enough calcium because women have a greater risk for developing osteoporosis (weak bones) as adults. Again, a supplement may be necessary if you are not getting enough calcium. Talk to your doctor if you are a female vegetarian and you think you are not getting enough calcium in your diet
Vitamin D is important because its presence in the diet is necessary in order to get calcium into your bones, for maintaining normal blood calcium levels, and for normal immune function. Cow’s milk is a great source for Vitamin D, as well as sunlight. However, if you don’t consume cow’s milk, other sources include: fortified soy milk and fortified breakfast cereals. In the winter months, for vegetarians who do not consume milk, a supplement may be necessary if there’s not enough sunlight exposure. Vitamin B-12 is essential to the body in order to produce red blood cells and prevent anemia, for maintaining healthy nervous tissue, and for making DNA. It is found almost exclusively in animal products, including milk, eggs, and cheese . However, fortified soy milk and fortified breakfast cereals also have this important vitamin. It is hard to get enough of this vitamin; therefore, supplementation may be necessary for some.
Iron: It is primarily found in clams, oysters, and organ meats. However, it is also found in fortified ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and instant cooked cereals, beans, and spinach. Eating iron-containing foods with a food high in Vitamin C (like citrus fruits and juices, tomatoes, and broccoli) will help you to better absorb this type of iron that is found in non-meat sources (known as non-heme iron). Non meat sources of iron are: Iron-fortified cereals Legumes like chickpeas, lentils, & baked beans Soybeans and tofu Dried fruit like raisins, prunes, and figs Pumpkin seeds Broccoli Blackstrap molasses
Zinc: Primarily found in oysters, red meat and poultry. Other good food sources include beans, nuts, whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals, and dairy products. Consume these foods for increasing zinc intake: Dairy foods Whole grains Fortified cereals Dried beans Nuts Tofu Tempeh Other soy products
Protein: It is primarily found in meat, fish, and poultry. But, legumes and grains, dairy products, seeds, cereals, and vegetables also contain protein. Increase the intake of these to get more protein: Egg Dairy products Soy products Meat substitutes Legumes Lentils Nuts and seeds Whole grains Combining beans and corn, beans and wheat, nuts and wheat, or lentils and rice are examples of complementary proteins.
Calcium : It is primarily found in yogurt, milk, and cheese. But, fortified ready-to-eat cereals, soy beverages, sardines and salmon; spinach, turnip greens, and collards also contain calcium. To make sure that the diet is adequate in calcium a diet should offer plenty of these foods: Milk & yogurt Tofu Fortified soy milk Calcium-fortified OJ Green leafy vegetables like spinach, turnip & collard greens, kale, and broccoli Dried figs Nuts and seeds Whole grains
Vitamin D: Primarily from cow’s milk and from sunshine. These foods are recommended to make sure that the diet is adequate in Vitamin D, Fortified soy milk Fortified breakfast cereals
Vitamin B-12 is mainly available from animal products such as meat, fish, poultry, milk and cheese. However, it is also added during fortification to products such as: Fortified soy milk Fortified breakfast cereals
For growing teens, a vegetarian diet that includes dairy products and eggs (lacto-ovo) is generally the best choice. Generally speaking, the more restrictive your diet is, the more likely you will be to fall short on requirements for the nutrients we previously discussed: iron, protein, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, and Vitamin B-12. For example, a lacto-vegetarian (eats dairy, but not eggs) would likely have an easier time meeting requirements for the problem nutrients than would a complete vegan (does not eat dairy or eggs). Likewise, a lacto-ovo vegetarian would probably find it easier to meet requirements through the diet (excluding supplements) than both the lacto-vegetarian and the vegan.
1. Vegetarianism What you need to know Aw Pennington Biomedical Research Center eso me .2 C ent s!2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 1 Center
2. This lesson will cover: The vegetarian approach to eating What is vegetarianism? Types of vegetarian diets Becoming a vegetarian Key nutrients in vegetarian diets Significance of key nutrients Sources of nutrients2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 2 Center
3. A Healthful Approach Consuming a diet high in fruits and vegetables reduces the risk for developing cancer, and reduces the risk for developing heart disease. A vegetarian diet is high in fruits, vegetables, and contains less saturated fat and cholesterol, as well as more mono and polyunsaturated fat and fiber than a non-vegetarian diet. 2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 3 Center
4. Vegetarian Wha t is it? There is no single vegetarian eating pattern. A healthy vegetarian diet consists primarily of the following plant-based foods:  Dairy  Legumes  Whole grains  Vegetables  Fruits  Nuts and seeds2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 4 Center
5. Types of Vegetarian Diets Ovo-vegetarian Lacto-ovo-vegetarian Lacto-vegetarian Vegan2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 5 Center
6. A Closer Look Cha ra c te ris tic s o f Ea c h Die t A true vegetarian eats no meat at all, inc lud ing chicken & fish.Leas Lacto-ovo vegetarian: eats dairy products and eggs, but excludes meat, fish, and poultry o tstrict Lacto-vegetarian: eats dairy products, but not eggs or meat, fish, and poultry o o Ovo-vegetarian: eats eggs, but not dairy products or meat, fish, and poultry o Vegan: does not eat dairy products, eggs, meat, fish, & poultryMoststrict 2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 6 Center
7. Vegetarian DietsNot all vegetarian diets are the same. Some: eliminate all red meat, poultry, and fish. More strict: also exclude eggs and milk products. All are mainly plant based. Protein sources in vegetarian diets are nuts, seeds, legumes, dairy and eggs (if allowed).2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 7 Center
8. Vegan DietsVegan diets are the most strict. They exclude all animal products, including gelatin and honey. Vegans eat all fruits and vegetables, lentils, nuts, seeds, and grains.2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 8 Center
9. Other Types  Semi-vegetarians and eat fish and a small amount of poultry.  A pesci-vegetarian is a person who eats fish, but not poultry.2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 9 Center
10. Choosing to Become a Vegetarian… For much of the world, vegetarianism is largely a matter of economics. Meat and meat products are expensive. However, in the developed countries, meat is not as expensive in relation to earnings, and people choose to be vegetarians for reasons other than economics.2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 10 Center
11. Becoming a Vegetarian Co m m o n Re a s o ns Common non-economic reasons for choosing to be a vegetarian:  parental preferences,  religious beliefs,  lifestyle factors, and  health issues Also out of concern over:  animal rights or  the environment2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 11 Center
12. Are Vegetarian Diets Healthy? Ye s , the y a re  Adolescents who eat a vegetarian diet are more likely to consume less total fat and saturated fat, and eat more servings of fruits and vegetables.2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 12 Center
13. Are Vegetarian Diets Healthy? Ye s , the y a re American Dietetic Association (ADA) states that “appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.”  If you are a vegetarian, or are planning to become one, you must make sure you are still getting adequate amounts of essential nutrients. 2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 13 Center
14. Getting Adequate Amounts of Nutrients Co uld this be a Pro ble m ? Vegetarians need pay particular attention to the following key nutrients in their diet:  Iron  Calcium  Protein  Vitamin D  Vitamin B-12  Zinc 2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 14 Center
15. Significance of these Key Nutrients I n & Zinc roIron Carries oxygen in the blood. Girls need to be particularly concerned about getting enough iron. Iron supplement may be needed by female vegetarians.Zinc Component of many enzymes, Plays a role in cell division, and in the formation of proteins. 2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 15 Center
16. Significance of these Key Nutrients Pro te in & Ca lc iumProtein Protein maintains healthy skin bones, muscles, and organsCalcium Essential for proper bone formation blood clotting nerve transmission muscle action 2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 16 Center
17. Significance of these Key Nutrients Vita m in D & Vita m in B-1 2 Vitamin D Necessary for calcium deposition into bones to maintain proper blood calcium level normal immune functionVitamin B-12 Essential for red blood cell production and to prevent anemia maintaining healthy nerve cells making DNA 2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 17 Center
18. Increasing Intake of Iron Cho o s e The s e M re O fte n o  [ Tip ] : Eat iron-containing foods with Non meat sources of iron: foods high in Vitamin C such as: citrus • Iron-fortified cereals fruits and juices, tomatoes, and broccoli for increasing iron absorption • Legumes like from non-meat sources. chickpeas, lentils, & baked beans • Soybeans and tofu • Dried fruit like raisins, prunes, and figs • Pumpkin seeds • Broccoli • Blackstrap molasses2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 18 Center
19. Increasing Intake of Zinc Cho o s e The s e M re O fte n o • Dairy foods • Whole grains • Fortified cereals • Dried beans • Nuts • Tofu • Tempeh • Other soy products2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 19 Center
20. Increasing Intake of Protein Cho o s e The s e M re O fte n o • Egg • Dairy products • Soy products • Meat substitutes • Legumes • Lentils • Nuts and seeds • Whole grains2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 20 Center
21. Increasing Intake of Calcium Cho o s e The s e M re O fte n o • Milk & yogurt • Tofu • Fortified soy milk • Calcium-fortified OJ • Green leafy vegetables like spinach, turnip & collard greens, kale, and broccoli • Dried figs • Nuts and seeds2012 • Whole grains Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research Center 21
22. Increasing Intake of Vitamin D Cho o s e The s e M re O fte n o • Milk • Sunshine • Fortified soy milk • Fortified breakfast cereals2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 22 Center
23. Increasing Intake of Vitamin B-12 Cho o s e The s e M re O fte n o • Milk • Eggs • Cheese • Fortified soy milk • Fortified breakfast cereals2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 23 Center
24. What’s Best for Me?  For growing teens, a vegetarian diet that includes dairy products and eggs (lacto-ovo) is generally the best choice.  The more restrictive the diet, the more likely it will be low in: iron, protein, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, and Vitamin B-12.  Vegan and lacto-vegetarian need to make sure they get adequate nutrients by choosing the right foods.2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 24 Center
25. References1. American Heart Association. Vegetarian Diets. Accessed 9/14/2012: http://www.heart.org2. USDA. ChooseMyPlate.gov. Vegetarian Diets. Accessed 9/14/2012 : http://www.choosemyplate.gov/healthy-eating-tips/tips-for- vegetarian.html3. Nemours Foundation. Becoming a Vegetarian. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/nutrition/vegetarian.html4. Office on Women’s Health. Girls’ Health. Nutrition – Vegetarian eating. Accessed 9/14/2012 : www.girlshealth.gov/nutrition/vegetarian/index.cfm6. Vegetarian diet: How to get the best nutrition. Mayo Clinic. Accessed 9/14/2012 : http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/vegetarian- diet/HQ01596/METHOD=print2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 25 Center
26. Authors: Division of Education Phillip Brantley, PhD, DirectorHeli Roy, PhD, RD Pennington Biomedical Research CenterShanna Lundy, MS Steven Heymsfield, MD, Executive Director The Pennington Biomedical Research Center is a world-renowned nutrition research center.   Mission: To promote healthier lives through research and education in nutrition and preventive medicine.   The Pennington Center has several research areas, including:   Clinical Obesity Research Experimental Obesity Functional Foods Health and Performance Enhancement Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Nutrition and the Brain Dementia, Alzheimer’s and healthy aging Diet, exercise, weight loss and weight loss maintenance   The research fostered in these areas can have a profound impact on healthy living and on the prevention of common chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension and osteoporosis.   The Division of Education provides education and information to the scientific community and the public aboutresearch findings, training programs and research areas, and coordinates educational events for the public on various health issues.   We invite people of all ages and backgrounds to participate in the exciting research studies being conducted at the Pennington Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. If you would like to take part, visit the clinical trials web page at www.pbrc.edu or call (225) 763-3000. 2012   Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 26 Center
27. Images credits Microsoft clip art2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 27 Center