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Lecture 01 - Research Methods
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Lecture 01 - Research Methods

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Research Methods Course, 3rd Year, Information Systems Department

Research Methods Course, 3rd Year, Information Systems Department

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  • 1. Research Methods Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb Information Systems Department Faculty of Computers and Information Sciences Mansoura University helghareeb@gmail.com September 24, 2012Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 1 / 21
  • 2. Course DescriptionThis course is an introduction to research methods in computer science. Itexplains the skills needed to successfully complete a research project incomputer and information sciences, exposes students to ways of thinkingabout research, and teaches general skills for writing and experimentation. Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 2 / 21
  • 3. Course Syllabus The Process of Research Writing a Research Proposal Reading and Assessing Literature Writing and Web Skills Empirical Research Tools for Experiments Ethics, Plagiarism, and copyright Research Management Presentations Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 3 / 21
  • 4. Course Page https://sites.google.com/a/helghareeb.net/courses/2012- 2013/researchDr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 4 / 21
  • 5. Text BookDr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 5 / 21
  • 6. LabsLatexSource: Wikibooks contributors: LATEX, Wikibooks, 2008. Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 6 / 21
  • 7. Grading 10 Marks Labs 10 Marks Midterm 5 Marks Oral Exam 75 Marks Final examinationDr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 7 / 21
  • 8. Introduction and Overview Puropose of Research: answer questions and acquire new knowledge. Research is the primary tool used in virtually all areas of science to expand the fronteirs of knowledge. Research is frequently used for: describing a thing or event discovering relationship between phenomena predictionDr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 8 / 21
  • 9. Research Shared CharacteristicsResearch among different fields and sciences, share certain characteristics: Testing Hypotheses Careful Observation and Measurement Systematic Evaluation of Data Drawing Valid Conclusions Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 9 / 21
  • 10. Types of ResearchTwo of the most common types of research are:correlational research andexperimental research. Correlational research: Goal is to determine whether two or more variables are related. For example, a researcher may be interested in determining whether age is related to weight. If a correlation between two variables is strong enough, knowing about one variable allows a researcher to make a prediction about the other variable. However, correlationor relationshipbetween two things does not necessarily mean that one thing caused the other. To draw a cause-and-effect conclusion, researchers must use experimental research. Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 10 / 21
  • 11. Types of Research (cont.) Experimental research: involves comparing two groups on one outcome measure to test some hypothesis regarding causation. If a researcher is interested in the effects of a new medication on headaches, the researcher would randomly divide a group of people with headaches into two groups. One of the groups, the experimental group, would receive the new medication being tested. The other group, the control group, would receive a placebo medication (i.e., a medication containing a harmless substance, such as sugar, that has no physiological effects). After receiving the medications, both groups would be compared to see whether people in the experimental group had fewer headaches than people in the control group. Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 11 / 21
  • 12. Overview of Science and Scientific Methods Science can be defined as a methodological and systematic approach to the acquisition of new knowledge. The defining characteristic of scientific research is: Scientific Method The development of the scientific method is usually credited to Roger Bacon Galilei played an important role in formulating the scientific methodDr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 12 / 21
  • 13. Scientific Method CharacteristicsScientific Method is Characterized by the following elements: Empirical approach Observations Questions Hypotheses Experiments Analyses Conclusions Replication Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 13 / 21
  • 14. Empirical Approach The scientific method is firmly based on the empirical approach. Empirical approach is an evidence-based approach that relies on direct observation and experimentation Contrast this approach to decision making with the way that most nonscientific decisions are made in our daily lives. We may often reach conclusions or make decisions that are not necessarily based on data, but rather on opinions, speculation, and a hope for the best.Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 14 / 21
  • 15. Observations Observation refers to two distinct conceptsbeing aware of the world around us and making careful measurements. Observations of the world around us often give rise to the questions that are addressed through scientific research. For example, the Newtonian observation. Observation means more than just observing the world around us to get ideas for research. Observation also refers to the process of making careful and accurate measurements, which is a distinguishing feature of well-conducted scientific investigations. An important aspect of measurement is an operational definition. Researchers define key concepts and terms in the context of their research.Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 15 / 21
  • 16. QuestionsAfter getting a research idea, perhaps from making observations of theworld around us, the next step in the research process involves translatingthat research idea into an answerable question. Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 16 / 21
  • 17. Hypotheses The next step in the scientific method is coming up with a hypothesis, which is simply an educatedand testableguess about the answer to your research question. A hypothesis is often described as an attempt by the re- searcher to explain the phenomenon of interest. Two types of hypotheses are: null hypothesis and the alternate (or experimental) hypothesis. null hypothesis always predicts that there will be no differences between the groups being studied. alternate hypothesis predicts that there will be a difference between the groups.Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 17 / 21
  • 18. Experiments involves actually conducting the experiment (or research study). For example, if the study involves investigating the effects of exercise on levels of cholesterol, the researcher would design and conduct a study that would attempt to address that question. Researcher would collect data on the levels of the study participants by using an accurate and reliable measurement device. Then, the researcher would compare the levels of the two groups to see if experiment had any effects.Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 18 / 21
  • 19. AnalysesAfter conducting the study and gathering the data, the next step involvesanalyzing the data, which generally calls for the use of statistical tech-niques. Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 19 / 21
  • 20. ConclusionsAfter analyzing the data and determining whether to reject the null hy-pothesis, the researcher is now in a position to draw some conclusionsabout the results of the study. Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 20 / 21
  • 21. ReplicationReplication essentially means conducting the same research study a secondtime with another group of participants to see whether the same resultsare obtained. Dr.Haitham A. El-Ghareeb (CIS) Data Structures and Algorithms - 2012 September 24, 2012 21 / 21