Introduction information systems

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Introduction information systems

  1. 1. Systems Analysis & Design!Sixth Edition! SYSTEM DESIGN TOPICS
  2. 2. Objectives ●  Identify various types of information systems and explain who uses them ●  Explain systems development tools, including modeling, prototyping, and CASE tools ●  Distinguish between structured analysis and object-oriented methodology ●  Describe the systems development life cycle ●  Discuss the role of the information technology department and the systems analysts who work there 2
  3. 3. Information System Components ●  A system is a set of related components that produces specific results ●  A mission-critical system is one that is vital to a company s operations 3
  4. 4. Information System Components ●  Hardware ●  Software –  System software –  Network operating system –  Application software –  Enterprise applications –  Horizontal system –  Vertical system 4
  5. 5. Information System Components ●  Data –  Is the raw material that an information system transforms into useful information –  Tables –  Linking 5
  6. 6. Information System Components ●  Processes –  Define the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results ●  People –  Users, or end users, are the people who interact with an information system, both inside and outside the company 6
  7. 7. Impact of the Internet ●  E-Commerce (I-Commerce) ●  B2C (Business-to-Consumer) ●  B2B (Business-to-Business) –  EDI, XML, HTML ●  Web-Based Development –  WebSphere, .NET –  Web services 7
  8. 8. How Business Uses InformationSystems ●  In past, IT managers divided systems into categories based on the user group the system served –  Office systems –  Operational systems –  Decision support systems –  Executive information systems 8
  9. 9. How Business Uses InformationSystems ●  Today, it makes more sense to identify a system by its functions, rather than by users –  Enterprise computing systems –  Transaction processing systems –  Business support systems –  Knowledge management systems –  User productivity systems 9
  10. 10. How Business Uses Information Systems ●  Enterprise computing systems –  Support company-wide operations and data management requirements –  Enterprise resource planning (ERP) 10
  11. 11. How Business Uses Information Systems ●  Transaction processing systems –  Efficient because they process a set of transaction-related commands as a group rather than individually 11
  12. 12. How Business Uses Information Systems ●  Business support systems –  Provide job-related information to users at all levels of a company –  Management information systems (MIS) –  What-if 12
  13. 13. How Business Uses Information Systems ●  Knowledge management systems –  Called expert systems –  Simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules –  Many use fuzzy logic 13
  14. 14. How Business Uses Information Systems ●  User productivity systems –  Technology that improves productivity –  Groupware ●  Information systems integration –  Most large companies require systems that combine transaction processing, business support, knowledge management, and user productivity features 14
  15. 15. Information System Users and TheirNeeds ●  A systems analyst must understand the company s organizational model in order to recognize who is responsible for specific processes and decisions and to be aware of what information is required by whom 15
  16. 16. Information System Users and TheirNeeds ●  Top managers ●  Middle Managers and Knowledge Workers ●  Supervisors and Team Leaders ●  Operational Employees ●  Strategic plans 16
  17. 17. Systems Development Tools andTechniques ●  Systems analysts must know how to use a variety of techniques such as modeling, prototyping, and computer-aided systems engineering tools to plan, design, and implement information systems ●  Systems analysts work with these tools in a team environment 17
  18. 18. Systems Development Tools andTechniques ●  Modeling –  Used to describe and simplify an information system: –  Business model –  Requirements model –  Data model –  Object model –  Network model –  Process model 18
  19. 19. Systems Development Tools andTechniques ●  Prototyping –  Prototype –  Speeds up the development process significantly –  Important decisions might be made too early –  Can be an extremely valuable tool 19
  20. 20. Systems Development Tools andTechniques ●  Computer-Aided Systems Engineering (CASE) Tools –  Framework for systems development and support a wide variety of design methodologies –  CASE tools 20
  21. 21. Systems Development Methods ●  Structured analysis and object-oriented analysis are both popular methodologies for developing computer-based information systems ●  A systems analyst should understand the alternative methodologies and their individual strengths and weaknesses 21
  22. 22. Systems Development Methods ●  Structured Analysis –  Uses a set of process models to describe a system graphically –  Systems development life cycle (SDLC) 22
  23. 23. Systems Development Methods ●  Object-oriented (O-O) analysis –  O-O analysis combines data & processes into objects –  Object is a member of a class –  Class is a collection of similar objects –  Objects possess properties –  Methods change an object’s properties –  Messages request specific behavior or information from another object 23
  24. 24. Systems Development Methods ●  Joint Application Development and Rapid Application Development –  JAD – Team based fact finding –  RAD – compressed version of the entire process ●  Other development methodologies –  Microsoft Solutions Framework (MSF) 24
  25. 25. The Systems Development Life Cycle ●  SDLC used to plan and manage the systems development process ●  It includes the following steps: –  Systems planning phase –  Systems analysis phase –  Systems design phase –  Systems implementation phase –  Systems operation, support, and security phase –  Deliverable or end product 25
  26. 26. The Systems Development Life Cycle ●  Traditionally pictured as a waterfall model, but is also presented as an interactive model depicting real world practice and the constant dialog among users, managers, and systems developers 26
  27. 27. The Systems Development Life Cycle ●  Systems planning (preliminary investigation ) –  Purpose is to identify the nature and scope of the business opportunity or problem –  Systems request – begins the process & describes problems or desired changes –  Systems planning includes preliminary investigation whose key part is a feasibility study 27
  28. 28. The Systems Development Life Cycle ●  Systems Analysis –  Purpose is to build a logical model of the new system –  First step is requirements modeling, where you investigate business processes and document what the new system must do –  Second step is data and process modeling –  Third step is object modeling –  Fourth step is transition to system design –  End product is the system requirements document 28
  29. 29. The Systems Development Life Cycle ●  Systems Design –  Purpose is to create a blueprint that will satisfy all documented requirements –  Identify all outputs, inputs, and processes –  Avoid misunderstanding through manager and user involvement –  End product is systems design specification 29
  30. 30. The Systems Development Life Cycle ●  Systems Implementation –  New system is constructed –  Write, test, & document programs –  File conversion occurs –  Users, managers, IT staff trained to operate and support the system –  Systems evaluation performed 30
  31. 31. The Systems Development Life Cycle ●  Systems operation, support, and security –  New system supports operations –  Maintenance changes correct errors or meet requirements –  Enhancements increase system capability –  Well-designed system will be secure, reliable, maintainable, and scalable –  SDLC ends with system replacement 31
  32. 32. Systems Development Guidelines –  Planning –  Involve users throughout the development process –  Listening is very important –  Create a time table with major milestones –  Identify interim checkpoints –  Remain flexible –  Develop accurate cost and benefit information 32
  33. 33. Information Technology Department ●  The information technology (IT) department develops and maintains a company s information systems ●  The IT group provides technical support 33
  34. 34. Information Technology Department ●  Application Development –  Team may include users, managers and IT staff members ●  Systems Support and Security –  Provides hardware and software support ●  User Support –  Provides users with technical information, training, and productivity support –  Help desk 34
  35. 35. Information Technology Department ●  Database Administration –  Database design, management, security, backup, and user access ●  Network Administration –  Includes hardware and software maintenance, support, and security ●  Web Support –  Design and construction of Web pages and presence –  Important for e-commerce –  Webmaster 35
  36. 36. The Systems Analyst Position ●  A systems analyst investigates, analyzes, designs, develops, installs, evaluates, and maintains a company s information systems ●  On large projects, the analyst works as a member of an IT department team ●  Smaller companies often use consultants to perform the work 36
  37. 37. Summary ●  IT is a combination of hardware and software that support business ●  The essential components of an information system are hardware, software, data, processes, and people ●  Companies are product-oriented, service- oriented, or a combination of the two 37
  38. 38. Summary ●  Organization structure usually includes levels. Each level has different responsibilities and information needs ●  Systems analysts use modeling, prototyping, and CASE tools. Modeling produces a graphical representation of the process, prototyping involves creation of an early working model, and CASE tools assist in various systems development tasks 38
  39. 39. Summary ●  The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) consists of five phases: systems planning, systems analysis, systems design, systems implementation, and systems operation, support, and security ●  Systems analysts need a combination of technical and business knowledge, analytical ability, and communication skills 39
  40. 40. TOPICS 1- OBJECT MODELING 2- TRANSITION TO SYSTEMS DESIGN SYSTEM DESIGN 3- USER INTERFACE, INPUT AND OUTPUT DESIGN 4. DATA DESIGN 5. APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION 6. APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT 7. INSTALLATION AND EVALUTION SYSTEM OPERATION AND SUPPORT 40
  41. 41. PHASE 2 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS●  CHAPTER 5 OBJECT MODELING 1- OBJECT-ORIENTED TERMS AND CONCEPTS 2- RELATIONSHIPS AMONG OBJECTS AND CLASSES 3- OBJECT MODELING WITH THE UNIFIED MODELING LAGUAGE (UML) 41
  42. 42. PHASE 2 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS●  CHAPTER 6 TRANSITION TO SYSTEMS DESIGN 1- EVALUATING SOFTWARE ALTERNATIVES 2- STEPS IN EVALUATING AND PURCHASING SW PACKAGES 3- COMPLETION OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS 4- TRANSITION TO SYSTEM DESIGN 5- PROTOTYPING 6- DESIGNING AND USING CODES 42
  43. 43. PHASE 3 SYSTEMS DESIGN●  CHAPTER 7 USER INTERFACE, INPUT DESIGN AND OUTPUT DESIGN 1- USER INTERFACE DESIGN 2- INPUT DESIGN 3- OUTPUT DESIGN ISSUES 4- PRINTED OUTPUT 43
  44. 44. PHASE 3 SYSTEMS DESIGN•  CHAPTER 8 DATA DESIGN●  1- DATA DESIGN CONCEPTS●  2- DATA DESIGN TERMINOLOGY●  3- DATA RELATIONSHIPS (E-R)●  4- NORMALIZATION●  5- STEPS IN DATABASE DESIGN 44
  45. 45. PHASE 3 SYSTEMS DESIGN•  CHAPTER 9 APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE1- CLIENT/SERVER ARCHITECTURE2- PROCESSING METHODS (ON-LINE, BATCH AND COMBINATION)3- NETWORK MODELS4- SYSTEM MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT ( PERFORMANCE, SECURITY, BACKUP, FAULT,..)5- SYSTEM DESIGN COMPLETION 45
  46. 46. PHASE 4SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION●  CHAPTER 10 APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT1- QUALITY ASSURANCE2- STRUCTURED APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT (STRUCTURE CHARTS)3- CODING4- OBJECT-ORIENTED APPLICATION DEV.5- TESTING THE APPLICATION (UNIT, INTEGRATION AND SYSTEM) 46
  47. 47. PHASE 4SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION●  CHAPTER 11 INSTALATION AND EVALUATION●  1- OPERATIONAL AND TEST ENVIROMENTAL●  2- TRAINING●  3- SYTEM CHANGOVER●  4- DATA CONVERSION●  5- FINAL REPORT TO MANAGEMENT 47
  48. 48. PHASE 5SYSTEMS OPERATION AND SUPPORT●  CHAPTER 12 –  SYSTEMS OPERATION AND SUPPORT●  1- USER SUPPORT ACTIVITIES●  2- MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES (CORRECTIVE, ADAPTIVE, PERFECTIVE AND PREVENTIVE)●  3-MANAGING SYSTEM PERFOMANCE●  4- SYSTEM OBSOLESCENCE 48
  49. 49. ●  THANKS FOR ALL 49
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