Introduction information systems
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Introduction information systems Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Systems Analysis & Design!Sixth Edition! SYSTEM DESIGN TOPICS
  • 2. Objectives ●  Identify various types of information systems and explain who uses them ●  Explain systems development tools, including modeling, prototyping, and CASE tools ●  Distinguish between structured analysis and object-oriented methodology ●  Describe the systems development life cycle ●  Discuss the role of the information technology department and the systems analysts who work there 2
  • 3. Information System Components ●  A system is a set of related components that produces specific results ●  A mission-critical system is one that is vital to a company s operations 3
  • 4. Information System Components ●  Hardware ●  Software –  System software –  Network operating system –  Application software –  Enterprise applications –  Horizontal system –  Vertical system 4
  • 5. Information System Components ●  Data –  Is the raw material that an information system transforms into useful information –  Tables –  Linking 5
  • 6. Information System Components ●  Processes –  Define the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results ●  People –  Users, or end users, are the people who interact with an information system, both inside and outside the company 6
  • 7. Impact of the Internet ●  E-Commerce (I-Commerce) ●  B2C (Business-to-Consumer) ●  B2B (Business-to-Business) –  EDI, XML, HTML ●  Web-Based Development –  WebSphere, .NET –  Web services 7
  • 8. How Business Uses InformationSystems ●  In past, IT managers divided systems into categories based on the user group the system served –  Office systems –  Operational systems –  Decision support systems –  Executive information systems 8
  • 9. How Business Uses InformationSystems ●  Today, it makes more sense to identify a system by its functions, rather than by users –  Enterprise computing systems –  Transaction processing systems –  Business support systems –  Knowledge management systems –  User productivity systems 9
  • 10. How Business Uses Information Systems ●  Enterprise computing systems –  Support company-wide operations and data management requirements –  Enterprise resource planning (ERP) 10
  • 11. How Business Uses Information Systems ●  Transaction processing systems –  Efficient because they process a set of transaction-related commands as a group rather than individually 11
  • 12. How Business Uses Information Systems ●  Business support systems –  Provide job-related information to users at all levels of a company –  Management information systems (MIS) –  What-if 12
  • 13. How Business Uses Information Systems ●  Knowledge management systems –  Called expert systems –  Simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules –  Many use fuzzy logic 13
  • 14. How Business Uses Information Systems ●  User productivity systems –  Technology that improves productivity –  Groupware ●  Information systems integration –  Most large companies require systems that combine transaction processing, business support, knowledge management, and user productivity features 14
  • 15. Information System Users and TheirNeeds ●  A systems analyst must understand the company s organizational model in order to recognize who is responsible for specific processes and decisions and to be aware of what information is required by whom 15
  • 16. Information System Users and TheirNeeds ●  Top managers ●  Middle Managers and Knowledge Workers ●  Supervisors and Team Leaders ●  Operational Employees ●  Strategic plans 16
  • 17. Systems Development Tools andTechniques ●  Systems analysts must know how to use a variety of techniques such as modeling, prototyping, and computer-aided systems engineering tools to plan, design, and implement information systems ●  Systems analysts work with these tools in a team environment 17
  • 18. Systems Development Tools andTechniques ●  Modeling –  Used to describe and simplify an information system: –  Business model –  Requirements model –  Data model –  Object model –  Network model –  Process model 18
  • 19. Systems Development Tools andTechniques ●  Prototyping –  Prototype –  Speeds up the development process significantly –  Important decisions might be made too early –  Can be an extremely valuable tool 19
  • 20. Systems Development Tools andTechniques ●  Computer-Aided Systems Engineering (CASE) Tools –  Framework for systems development and support a wide variety of design methodologies –  CASE tools 20
  • 21. Systems Development Methods ●  Structured analysis and object-oriented analysis are both popular methodologies for developing computer-based information systems ●  A systems analyst should understand the alternative methodologies and their individual strengths and weaknesses 21
  • 22. Systems Development Methods ●  Structured Analysis –  Uses a set of process models to describe a system graphically –  Systems development life cycle (SDLC) 22
  • 23. Systems Development Methods ●  Object-oriented (O-O) analysis –  O-O analysis combines data & processes into objects –  Object is a member of a class –  Class is a collection of similar objects –  Objects possess properties –  Methods change an object’s properties –  Messages request specific behavior or information from another object 23
  • 24. Systems Development Methods ●  Joint Application Development and Rapid Application Development –  JAD – Team based fact finding –  RAD – compressed version of the entire process ●  Other development methodologies –  Microsoft Solutions Framework (MSF) 24
  • 25. The Systems Development Life Cycle ●  SDLC used to plan and manage the systems development process ●  It includes the following steps: –  Systems planning phase –  Systems analysis phase –  Systems design phase –  Systems implementation phase –  Systems operation, support, and security phase –  Deliverable or end product 25
  • 26. The Systems Development Life Cycle ●  Traditionally pictured as a waterfall model, but is also presented as an interactive model depicting real world practice and the constant dialog among users, managers, and systems developers 26
  • 27. The Systems Development Life Cycle ●  Systems planning (preliminary investigation ) –  Purpose is to identify the nature and scope of the business opportunity or problem –  Systems request – begins the process & describes problems or desired changes –  Systems planning includes preliminary investigation whose key part is a feasibility study 27
  • 28. The Systems Development Life Cycle ●  Systems Analysis –  Purpose is to build a logical model of the new system –  First step is requirements modeling, where you investigate business processes and document what the new system must do –  Second step is data and process modeling –  Third step is object modeling –  Fourth step is transition to system design –  End product is the system requirements document 28
  • 29. The Systems Development Life Cycle ●  Systems Design –  Purpose is to create a blueprint that will satisfy all documented requirements –  Identify all outputs, inputs, and processes –  Avoid misunderstanding through manager and user involvement –  End product is systems design specification 29
  • 30. The Systems Development Life Cycle ●  Systems Implementation –  New system is constructed –  Write, test, & document programs –  File conversion occurs –  Users, managers, IT staff trained to operate and support the system –  Systems evaluation performed 30
  • 31. The Systems Development Life Cycle ●  Systems operation, support, and security –  New system supports operations –  Maintenance changes correct errors or meet requirements –  Enhancements increase system capability –  Well-designed system will be secure, reliable, maintainable, and scalable –  SDLC ends with system replacement 31
  • 32. Systems Development Guidelines –  Planning –  Involve users throughout the development process –  Listening is very important –  Create a time table with major milestones –  Identify interim checkpoints –  Remain flexible –  Develop accurate cost and benefit information 32
  • 33. Information Technology Department ●  The information technology (IT) department develops and maintains a company s information systems ●  The IT group provides technical support 33
  • 34. Information Technology Department ●  Application Development –  Team may include users, managers and IT staff members ●  Systems Support and Security –  Provides hardware and software support ●  User Support –  Provides users with technical information, training, and productivity support –  Help desk 34
  • 35. Information Technology Department ●  Database Administration –  Database design, management, security, backup, and user access ●  Network Administration –  Includes hardware and software maintenance, support, and security ●  Web Support –  Design and construction of Web pages and presence –  Important for e-commerce –  Webmaster 35
  • 36. The Systems Analyst Position ●  A systems analyst investigates, analyzes, designs, develops, installs, evaluates, and maintains a company s information systems ●  On large projects, the analyst works as a member of an IT department team ●  Smaller companies often use consultants to perform the work 36
  • 37. Summary ●  IT is a combination of hardware and software that support business ●  The essential components of an information system are hardware, software, data, processes, and people ●  Companies are product-oriented, service- oriented, or a combination of the two 37
  • 38. Summary ●  Organization structure usually includes levels. Each level has different responsibilities and information needs ●  Systems analysts use modeling, prototyping, and CASE tools. Modeling produces a graphical representation of the process, prototyping involves creation of an early working model, and CASE tools assist in various systems development tasks 38
  • 39. Summary ●  The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) consists of five phases: systems planning, systems analysis, systems design, systems implementation, and systems operation, support, and security ●  Systems analysts need a combination of technical and business knowledge, analytical ability, and communication skills 39
  • 40. TOPICS 1- OBJECT MODELING 2- TRANSITION TO SYSTEMS DESIGN SYSTEM DESIGN 3- USER INTERFACE, INPUT AND OUTPUT DESIGN 4. DATA DESIGN 5. APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION 6. APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT 7. INSTALLATION AND EVALUTION SYSTEM OPERATION AND SUPPORT 40
  • 41. PHASE 2 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS●  CHAPTER 5 OBJECT MODELING 1- OBJECT-ORIENTED TERMS AND CONCEPTS 2- RELATIONSHIPS AMONG OBJECTS AND CLASSES 3- OBJECT MODELING WITH THE UNIFIED MODELING LAGUAGE (UML) 41
  • 42. PHASE 2 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS●  CHAPTER 6 TRANSITION TO SYSTEMS DESIGN 1- EVALUATING SOFTWARE ALTERNATIVES 2- STEPS IN EVALUATING AND PURCHASING SW PACKAGES 3- COMPLETION OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS 4- TRANSITION TO SYSTEM DESIGN 5- PROTOTYPING 6- DESIGNING AND USING CODES 42
  • 43. PHASE 3 SYSTEMS DESIGN●  CHAPTER 7 USER INTERFACE, INPUT DESIGN AND OUTPUT DESIGN 1- USER INTERFACE DESIGN 2- INPUT DESIGN 3- OUTPUT DESIGN ISSUES 4- PRINTED OUTPUT 43
  • 44. PHASE 3 SYSTEMS DESIGN•  CHAPTER 8 DATA DESIGN●  1- DATA DESIGN CONCEPTS●  2- DATA DESIGN TERMINOLOGY●  3- DATA RELATIONSHIPS (E-R)●  4- NORMALIZATION●  5- STEPS IN DATABASE DESIGN 44
  • 45. PHASE 3 SYSTEMS DESIGN•  CHAPTER 9 APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE1- CLIENT/SERVER ARCHITECTURE2- PROCESSING METHODS (ON-LINE, BATCH AND COMBINATION)3- NETWORK MODELS4- SYSTEM MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT ( PERFORMANCE, SECURITY, BACKUP, FAULT,..)5- SYSTEM DESIGN COMPLETION 45
  • 46. PHASE 4SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION●  CHAPTER 10 APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT1- QUALITY ASSURANCE2- STRUCTURED APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT (STRUCTURE CHARTS)3- CODING4- OBJECT-ORIENTED APPLICATION DEV.5- TESTING THE APPLICATION (UNIT, INTEGRATION AND SYSTEM) 46
  • 47. PHASE 4SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION●  CHAPTER 11 INSTALATION AND EVALUATION●  1- OPERATIONAL AND TEST ENVIROMENTAL●  2- TRAINING●  3- SYTEM CHANGOVER●  4- DATA CONVERSION●  5- FINAL REPORT TO MANAGEMENT 47
  • 48. PHASE 5SYSTEMS OPERATION AND SUPPORT●  CHAPTER 12 –  SYSTEMS OPERATION AND SUPPORT●  1- USER SUPPORT ACTIVITIES●  2- MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES (CORRECTIVE, ADAPTIVE, PERFECTIVE AND PREVENTIVE)●  3-MANAGING SYSTEM PERFOMANCE●  4- SYSTEM OBSOLESCENCE 48
  • 49. ●  THANKS FOR ALL 49