Basics to Configure NW Device


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CCNA Exploration Chapter Eleven

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Basics to Configure NW Device

  1. 1. Chapter Eleven Configuring and Testing Your Network Haitham A. El-Ghareeb 2009 / 2010
  2. 2. Cisco IOS <ul><li>Network Device cannot function without an Operating System. </li></ul><ul><li>Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS) is the system software in Cisco Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Cisco IOS provides devices with the following network services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic routing and switching functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable and secure access to networked resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Services provided by Cisco IOS are generally accessed using Command Line Interface (CLI) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cisco IOS (Cont.) <ul><li>IOS file is several megabytes in size and is stored in a semi permanent memory area called Flash. </li></ul><ul><li>Flash memory provides non-volatile storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Using flash memory allows IOS to be upgraded to newer versions or to have new features added. </li></ul><ul><li>In many router architectures, IOS is copied into RAM when the device is powered on and the IOS runs from RAM. This function increases the performance of the device. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cisco IOS (Cont.)
  5. 5. Cisco IOS Access Methods <ul><li>Most Usual Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Console </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telnet or SSH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AUX Port </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cisco IOS Access Methods (Cont.) <ul><li>Console </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as CTY Line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses low speed serial connection to directly connect a computer or terminal to the console port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management port that provides out-of-band access to the router </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessible even if NO networking services have been configured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often used to access a device when the networking services have not been started or have failed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of console use are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initial configuration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster recovery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Password Recovery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By default, the console conveys the device startup, debugging, and error messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The device should be located in a locked room or requirement rack to prevent physical access </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cisco IOS Access Methods (Cont.) <ul><li>Telnet and SSH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A method for Remotely accessing a CLI session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require active networking service (at least on active interface configured with Layer 3 Address) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cisco IOS include a Telnet Server Process , and a Telnet Client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure Shell (SSH) protocol is a more Secure method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a best practice, always use SSH in place of Telnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IOS Devices also include SSH Server and Client </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cisco IOS Access Methods (Cont.) <ul><li>AUX (Auxiliary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a CLI Session remotely via a telephone dialup connection using a modem connected to the router’s AUX port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t require any networking services to be configured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also be used locally; like console port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all routers have AUX port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Console is preferred over AUX in troubleshooting because it displays router startup, debugging, and error messages by default </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The only time AUX is used locally instead of the console port is when there are problems using console port </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Configuration Files <ul><li>Network Devices depend on two types of software for their operation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating System: facilitates the basic operation of the device’s hardware components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration Files: contain Cisco IOS software commands used to customize functionality of the device. Commands are parsed by Cisco IOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Configuration Files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running Configuration File: used during the current operation of the device | Changes will immediately affect the operation, RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Startup Configuration File: used as the backup configuration and is loaded when the device is started (Stored in NVRAM) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cisco IOS Modes <ul><li>IOS is a modal OS. Major Modes are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Executive Mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privileged Executive Mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Configuration Mod e </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other specific configuration Mode </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. IOS Primary Modes User EXEC Mode Privileged EXEC Mode Allows only a limited no. of basic monitoring commands Execution of configuration and management commands Doesn’t allow execution of any commands that might change the device’s configuration Debugging, Testing The entrance of the CLI The Higher Level Doesn't require Authentication By default, doesn't require authentication Identified by the prompt > Identified by the prompt #
  12. 12. Basic IOS Command Structure
  13. 13. Using CLI Help (1) <ul><li>Context Sensitive Help </li></ul>
  14. 14. Using CLI Help (2) <ul><li>Command Syntax Check </li></ul>
  15. 15. IOS “Examination” Commands
  16. 16. Router#Show version <ul><li>Software Version, Bootstrap Version, System up-time, System restart info, Software image name, Router Type and Processor type, Memory type and allocation (Shared/Main), Software Features, Hardware Interfaces, Configuration Register </li></ul>
  17. 17. Other Show Commands Command Function show arp Displays the ARP table of the device show mac-address-table Displays the MAC table of a switch show startup-config Displays the saved configuration located in NVRAM show running-config Displays the contents of the currently running configuration file or the configuration for a specific interface, or map class information. show ip interfaces Displays IPv4 statistics for all interfaces on a router Show ip route Displays the next hop and checks its status
  18. 18. IOS Configuration Modes
  19. 19. Configuring IOS: Host Name
  20. 20. Limiting Device Access – Configure Passwords <ul><li>Every device shall have locally configured passwords to limit access </li></ul><ul><li>The passwords introduced here are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Console Password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable Password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable Secret Password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VTY password </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Console Password <ul><li>Switch(config)#line console 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Switch(config-line)#password password </li></ul><ul><li>Switch(config-line)#login </li></ul>
  22. 22. Telnet and Password Encryption
  23. 23. Login Banner
  24. 24. Show Running Configuration
  25. 25. Backing Up Configuration Offline
  26. 26. Removing All Configuration <ul><li>Router#erase startup-config </li></ul><ul><li>Router#Reload </li></ul><ul><li>Caution: Exercise care when using the erase command. This command can be used to erase any file in the device. Improper use of the command can erase the IOS itself or another critical file </li></ul>
  27. 27. Configure Router Interfaces
  28. 28. Configure Router Ethernet
  29. 29. Configure Router Serial Interface
  30. 30. Router Interfaces Description
  31. 31. Switch Interface VLAN <ul><li>Important for Management </li></ul><ul><li>Needed on the Switches to Ping and Telnet Routers </li></ul>
  32. 32. Testing Interface Assignment
  33. 33. Testing Local Network
  34. 34. Testing Gateway Connectivity
  35. 35. Putting it all Together <ul><li>Test 1: Local Loop </li></ul><ul><li>Test 2: Local NIC </li></ul><ul><li>Test 3: Ping Local Gateway </li></ul><ul><li>Test 4: Ping Remote Host – Failure </li></ul><ul><li>Test 5: Traceroute to Remote Host – Failure at First Hop </li></ul><ul><li>Test 6: Examine Host Configuration for Proper Local Gateway </li></ul><ul><li>Display Figure </li></ul>
  36. 36. Basic Network Baselines <ul><li>A Network Baseline is a Process that involves monitoring network performance and behavior over a certain period of time allowing for a point of reference when wanting to monitor performance in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>One method for starting a baseline is to copy and paste the results from an executed ping, trace, or other relevant command into a text file. These text files can be time stamped with the date and saved into an archive for later retrieval. </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of creating documentation cannot be emphasized enough. Verification of host-to-host connectivity, latency issues, and resolutions of identified problems can assist a network administrator in keeping a network running as efficiently as possible. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Learning About the Nodes on the Network <ul><li>arp command lists all devices currently in the ARP cache. The cache can be cleared by using the arp –d </li></ul><ul><li>Ping Sweep </li></ul>
  38. 38. Switch Connections
  39. 39. Lab Test <ul><li>Perform the Basic Configurations for Router / Switch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticate Executive Privileged Mode via Clear and Encrypted Passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticate CTY, VTY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create the suitable Log-in and MOTD Banners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply the Address Schema given to you in the Exam Paper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verify Connectivity, Debug and Correct the Issues </li></ul><ul><li>HTTP and DNS Activity </li></ul>