Subject Verb Concord(2)


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Subject Verb Concord(2)

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Subject Verb Concord(2)

  1. 1. <ul><li>This week Focus on: </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of concord with a coordinate subject </li></ul><ul><li>以并列结构作主语的主谓一致问题 </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of concord with expressions of quantity as subject </li></ul><ul><li>以表示数量概念的名词名词词组作主语的主谓一致问题 </li></ul><ul><li>Other problems of subject </li></ul><ul><li>-verb concord </li></ul><ul><li>其他方面的主谓一致问题 </li></ul><ul><li>难点综合 </li></ul><ul><li>More exercises </li></ul>Back
  2. 2. <ul><li>1) Problems of concord with a nominal clause as subject 以名词性分句作主语的主谓一致问题 </li></ul><ul><li>以名词性分句做主语,随后的动词通常用单数,但有时也会产生主谓一致问题。可遵循的规则有: </li></ul><ul><li>由 what, why, how, whether 等 wh- 词引导的名词性分句作主语,其后的动词通常用单数。 </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: What caused the accident is a complete mystery. </li></ul>Back
  3. 3. <ul><li>两个由 and 连接的并列名词性分句作主语,如果主语表示两件事情,动词用复数。 </li></ul><ul><li>E g: What caused the accident and who was responsible for it remain a mystery to us. </li></ul><ul><li>如果 what- 分句本身明显表示复数意义,那么主句动词也可用复数。 </li></ul><ul><li>E g: What are often regarded as poisonous fungi ( 毒菌子 ) are sometimes safely edible. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>2) Subject-verb concord with a non-finite clause as subject: 以非限定分句作主语的主谓一致问题 </li></ul><ul><li>以非限定性分句(主要是不定式分句和 -ing 分词分句)作主语,随后的动词通常用单数。 </li></ul><ul><li>E g: To eat well is all he asks. </li></ul><ul><li>Playing tennis is very good exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>以两个由 and 连接的并列非限定分句作主语,如果指的是两件事,动词用复数;如果指的是一件事,动词用单数。 </li></ul><ul><li>E g: Reading Ibsen ( 阅读易卜生剧本 ) and solving a quadratic equation ( 解二次方程 ) are entirely different assignments. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>3) Subject-verb concord in relative clauses 关系分句中的主谓一致问题 </li></ul><ul><li>关系分句中谓语动词单复数形式通常依关系代词 (Relative Pronoun) 先行项 (Antecedent) 的形式而定。 </li></ul><ul><li>在” one of + 复数名词 + 关系分句“机构中,关系分句动词通常依照语法一致原则用复数形式。 </li></ul><ul><li>E g: Joan is one of those people who go out of their way to be helpful. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>但有时为了强调 one, 这类架构中关系分句的动词也可采用单数形式,这种情况在英国英语中比较常见。 </li></ul><ul><li>E g: Jasper White is one of those rare people who believes in ancient myths. </li></ul><ul><li>如果在这类结构之前有定冠词 the 或者有 the only 等限定词和强调词时,关系分句动词依 one 而定,用单数。 </li></ul><ul><li>E g: He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>4) Subject-verb concord in cleft-sentences 分裂句中的主谓一致问题 </li></ul><ul><li>在分裂句中, that/who- 分句的动词形式通常依先行项而定。 </li></ul><ul><li>在“ It is I+who- 分句”中, who- 分句动词现在时在人称和数的形式上应与 I 保持一致。 </li></ul><ul><li>E g: It is I who am to blame. </li></ul><ul><li>但在非正式语体中,分裂句中心可用宾格代词 me 。这时,随后的 that- 分句动词通常用第三人称单数。 </li></ul><ul><li>E g: It is me that is to blame. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>5) Subject-verb concord in existential sentences 存在句中的主谓一致问题 </li></ul><ul><li>在存在句中,谓语动词的单复数形式一般取决于随后的主语:主语为复数,动词用复数;主语不是复数,动词用单数。 </li></ul><ul><li>E g: There are three routes you can take. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a note left on the desk. </li></ul><ul><li>但用作主语的名词词组是个并列结构时,根据就近原则决定谓语动词的单复数。 </li></ul><ul><li>E g: There ’s a long springboard and three rafts at varying distances from the shore. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>1. Who was responsible for these accidents (is/are) not clear. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Why he entered the house and how he managed to get out of it without being seen by people (remains/remain) a mystery to us all. </li></ul><ul><li>3. He’s one of those men who never (cares/care) how they look. </li></ul><ul><li>4. She’s the only one of these women who (plays/play) bridge well. </li></ul><ul><li>5. There (is/are) more than one member who (has/have) protested against the proposal. </li></ul><ul><li>6. There (comes/come) the three noisy children from next door. </li></ul>is remain care/cares plays is, has come Back
  10. 10. Indefinite pronouns such as everyone and everybody feel plural to some writers, but they are always singular — and take a singular verb. Everyone associated with the project is proud to be part of the effort. Someone has to be responsible. Don’t be confused by phrases that come between the subject pronoun and its verb — phrases that may contain plural words. Each of the project partners is responsible for writing a chapter summary.
  11. 11. The verb that accompanies pronouns such as all and some will be determined by whether the pronoun is referring to something that is COUNTABLE or not. Some of the students in the cafeteria have voted already. Some of the grain was ruined by the flood. “ Students” is countable, but we cannot count “the grain”; it is one lump, one quantity. None is usually regarded as singular, but it can be used as a plural pronoun. None of the representatives has indicated how he or she will vote. OR None of the representatives have indicated how they will vote.
  12. 12. With fractional expressions (fractions or decimal equivalents), the verb will be determined by what is being measured: is it COUNTABLE or not. Two-fifths of the grain is ruined. One-half of the students were convinced that there would be no final exams this year. Of all the returns we have counted so far, fifty percent are in favor of the referendum. A majority of the student body is in favor of asking the Dean to stay another year.
  13. 13. Phrases such as together with, along with , and as well as seem to join subjects, but they do not work the same as and : they are not conjunctions. Some of the hay in the barn, as well as some major pieces of farm equipment, was ruined in the flood. The major spending bill before Congress, together with some other bills that are awaiting action, is going to cost taxpayers plenty.
  14. 14. In formal writing, when either and neither appear as a subject alone (without their sidekicks or and nor ), they are singular. This is true even though the subject seems to be two things. Neither of these choices appears to be satisfactory. The purchasing office will lend me a company car or compensate me for travel expenses. Either is fine with me. When either and neither act as correlative conjunctions , however, life becomes a bit more complicated!
  15. 15. When either and neither act as correlative conjunctions , the subject that is closer to the verb determines the number (singular or plural form) of the verb. Neither the principal nor the teachers are at fault. Either the teachers or the principal has to be responsible for the year-end festival. Has either the President or his aides been in touch with you?
  16. 16. When an expletive construction ( there is, there are, here is , etc.) begins a sentence, the subject (which determines the number of the verb) comes after the verb. There are several explanations for the Civil War. We were looking down the street when —all of a sudden — here come Joe and his two brothers. If the management team takes this attitude, there is very little latitude for negotiation.
  17. 17. Be careful when lengthy or numerous modifying phrases come between the subject and its verb. Tim Berners-Lee, one of America’s most prominent computer scientists and —as a founder of the World Wide Web Consortium — one of the most important figures in the development of the Internet, has been working quietly at M.I.T. for many years. The fact that the plural “scientists” and “figures” appear in this sentence has no effect on our choice of a singular verb, “has.”
  18. 18. With “of phrases,” try turning the sentence “inside-out” to find the right subject-verb combination. Connecticut is one of those states that HAVE/HAS adopted a state income tax. Turn this around to . . . . Of those states that have adopted a state income tax, Connecticut is one. This makes it easy to figure out the verb that belongs in a relative clause . ?