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Future Tense

Future Tense

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  • 1. Future Tense 将来时
  • 2. Content 一般将来时 过去将来时 将来进行时 将来完成时 Review: 将来时常用的表达方式
  • 3.  
  • 4. 一般将来时
    • 一般将来时 动词表示将来发生的动作或情况。主要有以下几种表现形式:
    • ( 1 ) shall/will + 动词原形
    • 表示单纯的将来,不涉及主语的主观意愿。第一人称 I, we 用 shall 或 will ,其余用 will. 其否定式、疑问式和简单回答形式如下:
  • 5. Will he study…? He will not study…. Will you study…? You will not study…. Shall I study…? I shall/will not study…. 疑问式 否定式
  • 6. Yes, he will. No, he won’t. Will he not (Won’t he) study….? Yes, I shall/will. No, I shan’t/won’t. Will you not (Won’t you) study…? Yes, you will. No, you won’t. Shall I not (shan’t i) study…? 简单回答(肯定 / 否定) 否定疑问式
  • 7.
    • 例如:
    • I shall be twenty years old next year. 我明年二十岁。
    • The sky is black. I think it will rain. 天黑下来了。我想可能会下雨。
    • You will meet him at the station this afternoon. 你下午会在车站碰到他。
    • The train will arrive soon. 火车快要到了。
    • When shall we see you next time? 我们下次什么时候能看见你呢?
    • He probably won’t go with us.   他大概不能和我们一起去。
  • 8. 注意
    • 1 ) shall, will 的缩写形式为’ ll, 如 I’ll, you’ll, he’ll 和 she’ll 等。
    • 2 ) will 用于第一人称时,可以表示将来的意愿、决心、允诺、命令等; shall 用于第二、三人称时,可以表示说话人的将来的意愿 。 例如:
    • I will give you a new pen for your birthday. 我将送你一支新钢笔作为生日礼物。(允诺)
    • I will take the college entrance examination. 我将参加大学入学考试。(决心)
    • Shall I open the window? 我打开窗户好吗?(征求允诺)
    • You shall have the book as soon as I get it. 我一拿到书就给你。(说话人的允诺)
    • The enemy shall not pass. 决不让敌人通过。(说话人的保证)
    • I will do my best to help you. 我愿意尽力帮助你。(意愿)
    • Nobody shall be late for the meeting. 任何人开会都不能迟到。(说话人的命令)
  • 9. ( 2 ) be going + 动词不定式
    • 1 )这种结构表示主体现在打算在最近或将来要做某事。这种打算往往是事先考虑好的。 例如:
    • My brother is going to learn English next year. 我哥哥准备明年学英语。
    • I am going to meet Tom at the station at six. 我六点钟要到火车站去接汤姆。
    • She is not going to be there. 她不会到那儿去的。
    • He is going to stay a week. 他准备呆一星期。
    • We are going to call a meeting to discuss it. 我们准备开个会来讨论一下。
  • 10.
    • 2 )这种结构还可以表示说话人根据已有的迹象认为非常可能即将发生某事 。例如:
    • Look at these black clouds ? it is going to rain. 看这些乌云?要下雨了。
    • I think it is going to snow. 我看要下雪。
    • I am afraid I am going to have a bad cold.   恐怕我要得重感冒。
  • 11.
    • 注意:
    • 1 ) will 和 be going to 都可以表示某种意愿。 例如:
    • I won’t ( am not going to ) tell you my age. 我不(愿意)告诉你我的年龄。
    • be going to 和 will 在含义和用法上略有不同。 Be going to 往往表示事先经过考虑的打算; will 多表示意愿,决心。有时不能互换。 例如:
    • I have bought some bricks and I am going to build a kitchen with them. 我买了些砖,我要用它们盖个厨房。(不能用 will 替换)
    • Can somebody help me? ? I will . 谁能帮我一些吗?―?我来。(不能用 be going to 替换)
  • 12.
    • 2 ) be going to 可用于条件从句,表示单纯的将来; will 则不能。例如:
    • If you are going to go to the cinema this evening, you’d better take your umbrella with you. 你若今晚去看电影,最好带着雨伞。
    • ( 3 ) be to + 动词原形 ,表示安排、命令或肯定将会发生的事情;在问句中表示征求意见 。如:
    • You are not to smoke in this room. 你不许在这个房间里抽烟。
    • In future you are not to go out alone. 将来你不许一个人出去。
    • The worst is still to come. 最糟糕的还在后面呢。
    • Tomorrow is still to come. 明天过了还有明天。
  • 13.
    • ( 4 ) be about + 动词不定式 。这种结构表示正要、即将发生的事情。 例如:
    • Let’s go in. The class is about to begin. 咱们进去吧。马上开始上课了。
    • They are about to get married. 他们即将结婚。
    • My book is about to be published. 我的书即将出版。
    • 一般将来时的关键是记住表示将来的几种句型及其用法。
  • 14.
    • 练习:
    • 用 be going to 或 will. 填空:
    • 1 ) What are you doing with that spade? I __________________ (plant) some trees.
    • 2 ) This is a terribly heavy box. I _______ (help) you carry it.
    • 3) I’ve left my watch upstairs. I _________ (go) and get it for you.
    • 4) Who will post this letter for me? I ____.
    • 5) She has bought a length of cloth; she ____________ (make) herself a dress.
    am going to plant will help will go will is going to make
  • 15. 将来进行时
    • ( 1 )构成: shall/will be + 现在分词
    • ( 2 )用法:将来进行时动词表示在将来 某一段时间内 将会发生的动作。
    • This time next week we shall be working in that factory. 下星期这时候,我们将在那个工厂劳动。
    • When I get up tomorrow morning, my mother will be getting breakfast for me. 当我明天早晨起床时,我妈妈将在为我准备早饭。
    • I will be seeing him next month. 我下个月将要见他。
    • Tomorrow we will be going to the village fair.     我们明天去赶集。
    • We will be taking our holiday at the seaside in July. 七月份我们要去海边度假。
  • 16.
    • 一般将来时与将来进行时都表示将来,那么如何区别一般将来时和将来进行时呢? 将来进行时不表示个人意愿,强调主观上感觉某事即将发生,并对这一事情有着期待,感情色彩较浓,强调动作 。 一般将来时主要是对某一事情即将发生做一个事实性的说明或陈述,强调事实或意愿 。
  • 17.
    • 翻译下列句子:
    • 1 )下月这个时候,我们将呆在南京了。
    • This time next month we shall be staying in Nanjing.
    • 2 )在今天下午的会议上,你们讨论这个计划吗?
    • Will you be discussing the plan at the meeting this afternoon?
    • 3 )你会见到我的兄弟吗?
    • Will you be seeing my brother?
    • 4 )下学期你教我们吗?
    • Will you be teaching us next term?
    • 5 )你来的时候,我们将在开会。
    • When you come we shall be having a meeting.
    • 6 )下周这个时候,我们将在考试。
    • This time next week we shall be taking our exams.
  • 18.  
  • 19. 过去将来时
    • ( 1 ) 由 should/would + 动词原形构成。 第一人称用 should; 第二、三人称用 would 。美国英语所有人称一律用 would. should/would 的简略形式为’ d, 如 I’d, you’d; would not 和 should not 的简略形式分别为 wouldn’t 和 shouldn’t.
    • ( 2 )过去将来时表示从过去某时间看将要发生的事情,多用在宾语从句中。还可以表示过去的倾向或过去经常发生的事情。如:
    • They asked me if I would go to Guangzhou soon. 他们问我是否很快要去广州。
    • She told me she would come again next week. 她和我说她下周还来。
  • 20.
    • I told him to leave immediately, but he wouldn’t . 我告诉他马上离开,但他不。
    • He ’d play the violin when he was in low spirits. 他情绪低落的时候,就拉小提琴。
    • When I was in college, I would find a part-time job during the summer holidays every year to earn my tuition. 我上大学的时候,每年暑假都找份临时工挣学费。
  • 21.
    • ( 3 )其他表示过去将来时的结构:
    • 1 ) were/was going to + 动词原形,表示过去的安排、打算或确信某事会发生,多用于口语。 如:
    • I told her I was going to see her that afternoon. 我告诉她我那天下午要去看她。
    • I was sure (that) they were going to do that. 我确信他们要做那件事。
    • 2 ) were/was to + 动词原形,表示安排,命令或后来将要发生的事。 如:
    • He didn’t know he was to become famous later on. 他不知道以后他会出名。
    • They were to receive salaries from the government. 他们将接受政府的工资。
    • She and I were to meet at an agreed place. 她和我将在一个约定的地方见面。
  • 22.
    • 3 ) were/was about to + 动词原形,表示正要、即将发生的事。 如:
    • Mrs. Brown was about to begin, but Jennie spoke first. 布朗夫人刚要开始,但是珍妮先说话了。
    • He was about to say something more, but then checked himself. 他正要再说点什么,却又打住了。
    • He waited until she was about to leave. 他一直等到她即将离开。
  • 23.  
  • 24. 将来完成时
    • ( 1 )构成: shall/will + have + 过去分词
    • ( 2 )用法:将来完成时动词主要表示在将来的某一时刻或将来的某一时刻之前完成的动作,这一动作也可能继续进行。 例如:
    • By seven o’clock this afternoon we shall have got to Shanghai if the train keeps good line. 如果火车运行正常,我们今天下午七点就到上海了。
    • Before bedtime Xiao Ming will have completed his work. 到上床睡觉的时候,小明会做完他的工作(或作业)。
    • By February next year this foreign expert will have been here on this job for five years. 到明年二月,这个外国专家在这儿做这项工作就满五年了。
    • By Sept. 2008 Beijing will have held/hosted the Olympic Games.   到 2008 年 9 月,北京将举行完了奥运会。
  • 25.
    • 翻译练习:
    • 1 )七月份你们再来时,他们就搬进新房子里去了。
    • When you come again in July, they will have moved into a new house.
    • 2 )到下一个五一节,我们在一起的时间就很长了。
    • By next May Day we shall have been together for a long time.
    • 3 )我相信,在你到那儿之前,这些困难他已经解决了。
    • I’m sure he will have settled/solved the difficulties before you arrive there.
    • 4 )到明年七月,我就大学毕业了。
    • By July next year, I will have graduated from college.
  • 26. 将来时常用的表达方式
    • ( 1 )单纯将来时用 shall/will+ 动词原形表示。 如:
    • I shall be twenty years old next year. 明年我就二十岁了。
    • Tomorrow will be September 10th. 明天是九月十号。
    • ( 2 )“ be going to + 动词原型 ” 这种形式用于人时表示打算,意图,也表示说话者确信无疑;用于物时表示可能或必然性。
    • They are going to get married in July. 他们打算七月份结婚。
    • Mr. Brown says he is going to buy a new car next year. Brown 先生说他们打算明年买辆新车。
    • His wife is going to have a baby. 他妻子要生小孩子了。
    • There is going to be a storm. 将有一场暴风雨。
    • Look ! It’s going to snow. 看,要下雪了。
  • 27.
    • ( 3 )“ be to + 动词原形 ”表示命令,安排,疑问句中表示征求意见。 例如:
    • You are to clean the window. 你要擦窗。
    • The President is to arrive in Rome at three o’clock this afternoon. 总统今天下午三点到达罗马。
    • Am I to set to work? 要着手工作吗 ?
    • Is he to leave/come, too 。 要他也走 / 来吗?
    • ( 4 )“ be about to + 动词原形 ”表示即刻就要发生的动作 。例如:
    • They are about to go out when it begins to snow. 他们正出去的时候开始下雪了 .
    • The ship is about to sail 。 船要扬帆起航了。
  • 28.
    • ( 5 )现在进行时可表示将来。主要是表示“来,去,留,住,开始,结束 ”等意义的动词, 如: come, end, leave, return, go, start, set out, meet, open, die, arrive 。
    • We are going to Paris on Friday. We are leaving from London Airport. 我们星期五离开巴黎,我们从伦敦机场出发。
    • The poor dog is dying. 那条可怜的狗快要死了。
    • The tragedy is ending/beginning. 悲剧就要结束了 / 开始了。