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Verb and Verb Phrase 动词和动词词组
Content Classification of Verbs:  动词的分类 Tense, Aspect, Voice, Mood :时、体、态、式
Classification of verbs <ul><li>1)  Main verbs and auxiliaries </li></ul><ul><li>2)  Transitive verbs, intransitive verbs ...
Main Verbs and Auxiliaries <ul><li>According to the different roles played in the formation of verb phrases, verbs are div...
Main Verb <ul><li>Main verbs are also called  notional verbs  functioning as the head and indicating the basic meaning of ...
Main verbs <ul><li>Main verbs can be divided into  transitive verbs, intransitive verbs  and  linking  verbs  in accordanc...
Transitive verb <ul><li>Transitive verb must be followed by an object.  及物动词之后须带宾语。 </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: John is  playing...
 
Intransitive verb <ul><li>Intransitive verbs do not require an object . </li></ul><ul><li>不及物动词之后不须带宾语。 </li></ul><ul><li>...
Linking Verbs <ul><li>系动词亦称联系动词( Link Verb ),作为系动词,它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语(亦称补语),构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。 </li></ul><ul><l...
 
<ul><li>1 )状态系动词 </li></ul><ul><li>用来表示主语状态,只有 be 一词,例如: </li></ul><ul><li>He  is  a teacher.  他是一名教师。( is 与补足语一起说明主语的身份。)...
<ul><li>3 )表像系动词 </li></ul><ul><li>用来表示“看起来像”这一概念,主要有 seem, appear, look ,  例如: </li></ul><ul><li>He  looks  tired.   他看起来...
<ul><li>5 )变化系动词 </li></ul><ul><li>这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run. 例如: </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>It is to be noted  that many of the main verbs may belong to more than one of the three verb classes mentioned abo...
Auxiliary <ul><li>The grammatical function of auxiliaries is to help main verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliaries fall into t...
<ul><li>助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来 :   </li></ul><ul><li>a.  表示时态 ,例如:   </li></ul><ul><li>He  is  singing.  他在唱歌。   </li></ul><...
<ul><li>d.  与否定副词 not 合用,构成否定句 ,例如:   </li></ul><ul><li>I  don‘t  like him.   我不喜欢他。 </li></ul><ul><li>e.  加强语气 ,例如:   </l...
Primary Auxiliary <ul><li>There are three primary auxiliaries:  be, do, have . With no lexical meanings of their own, thes...
助动词 be 的用法 <ul><li>1 )  be + 现在分词,构成进行时态, 例如:   </li></ul><ul><li>They  are  having a meeting.  他们正在开会。 English  is  becom...
<ul><li>3 )  be +  动词不定式,可表示下列内容 :   </li></ul><ul><li>a.  表示最近、未来的计划或安排, 例如:   </li></ul><ul><li>He  is  to go to New Yor...
<ul><li>c.  征求意见, 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>How  am  I to answer him?  我该怎样答复他? Who  is  to go there?  谁该去那儿呢? </li></ul><ul><...
助动词 have 的用法 1 ) have + 过去分词,构成完成时态, 例如:   He  has  left for London.  他已去了伦敦。 By the end of last month, they  had  finishe...
<ul><li>3 ) have+been + 过去分词,构成完成式被动语态, 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>English  has  been taught in China for many years. 中国教英语已经多年...
助动词 do  的用法 <ul><li>1 ) 构成一般疑问句, 例如:   </li></ul><ul><li>Do  you want to pass the TEM?  你想通过大学英语专业测试吗? Did you study Japan...
<ul><li>3)  构成否定祈使句, 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>Don‘t  go there.  不要去那里。 Don’t  be so absent-minded.  不要这么心不在焉。  </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>5 ) 用于倒装句, 例如:  </li></ul><ul><li>Never  did  I hear of such a thing.   我从未听说过这样的事情。 Only when we begin our colleg...
Modal Auxiliaries <ul><li>There are thirteen modal auxiliaries including some past tense forms. </li></ul><ul><li>They are...
Semi-auxiliaries <ul><li>Semi-auxiliaries  constitute a category of verbs between auxiliaries proper and main verbs. Semi-...
Dynamic verbs and Stative verbs <ul><li>According to lexical meaning, main verbs can be  dynamic  and  stative . Dynamic v...
Dynamic verbs <ul><li>Dynamic verbs can be subclassified into three categories:  durative verbs ,  transitional verbs  and...
Durative Verbs <ul><li>表示持续动作的词 : 如 drink, eat, fly, play, rain, read, run, sit, stand, sleep, talk, watch, write, work 等。...
Transitional Verbs <ul><li>表示改变或移动的动词 :   如: arrive, become, change, come, get, go, grow, leave, reach, turn 等。 </li></ul>...
Momentary Verbs <ul><li>表示短暂动作的动词 : 如: hit, jump, kick, knock, open/close, put, shut, take out 等。 </li></ul><ul><li>With m...
Momentary Verbs <ul><li>这类动词若用一般过去时,则表示发生在过去的一次性短暂动作,若用过去进行体也表示短暂动作的不断重复。 </li></ul><ul><li>He  opened  the door and  ran ...
Stative Verbs <ul><li>Stative verbs  are verbs that refer to present or past states. Stative verbs are normally incompatib...
Stative Verbs:  ① <ul><li>The first subclass includes main verb  be  and main verb  have : 第一类是用作主动词的 be 和 have ( 作“有”解 ) ...
Stative Verbs ② <ul><li>The second subclass includes verbs that include, as part of their meaning, the notion of being and...
Stative Verbs ③ <ul><li>The third subclass includes verbs that refer to a sense perception, such as hear, see, feel, taste...
 
Stative Verbs ④ <ul><li>The fourth subclass includes verbs that refer to a feeling, a state of mind or an opinion. </li></...
Note <ul><li>静态动词的最主要语法特征是不用于进行体 ,若用进行体往往会改变含义,即变成了动态动词。如: </li></ul><ul><li>He  is   being  foolish(=is acting foolishly)...
<ul><li>但是表示肉体感觉的词,如 ache, feel, hurt 等,用进行体和不用进行体均可,含义不变。 </li></ul><ul><li>My foot  aches/is aching . </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>还有少数几个动词用进行体表示婉转口气。如: </li></ul><ul><li>Were  you  wanting  to see me? </li></ul><ul><li>I’ m hoping  you’ll look ...
<ul><li>According to word formation and grammatical forms, English verbs may be divided into:  英语主动词,按其构成及形态,可分为 单词动词和词组动词...
single-word verbs and phrasal verbs <ul><li>A  single-word verb  is verb that consists of only one word. Most verbs are si...
phrasal verbs ① <ul><li>① Verb+preposition :动词 + 介词 </li></ul><ul><li>He couldn’t  account for  ( 解释 )his long absence fro...
phrasal verbs ② <ul><li>② Verb+adverb particle :动词 + 副词小品词 </li></ul><ul><li>The Sino-Japanese War  broke out  ( 爆发 )in 19...
phrasal verbs ③ <ul><li>③  Verb+adverb particle+preposition :动词 + 副词小品词 + 介词 </li></ul><ul><li>Will this enthusiasm  carry...
<ul><li>There are also constructions such as  verb+noun+preposition   and  verb+noun ,which are also grouped under the cat...
Compare <ul><li>以上的词组动词都是一些固定搭配,相当于一个及物的或不及物的单词动词,因而又成为“成语动词” (Verbal Idiom) 。要注意这些词组动词与某些非固定搭配是有区别的。 </li></ul><ul><li>1)...
Finite verbs and non-finite verbs <ul><li>English main verbs have  two finite forms  and  three non-finite forms . The two...
 
 
 
 
Regular verbs and irregular verbs <ul><li>Verbs whose past tense and –ed participle forms are predictable are referred to ...
 
 
<ul><li>There are four important grammatical categories of the English verb: tense, aspect, voice and mood. 英语动词有四种语法形式:即时...
Tense and Aspect <ul><li>Tense  is a grammatical form associated with verbs that tells of the distinctions of time; that i...
Tense and Aspect <ul><li>English verbs have  two tenses :  the present tense  and  the past tense . There is no obvious fu...
<ul><li>Aspect  as a grammatical term indicates whether an action or state at a given time is viewed as complete or incomp...
<ul><li>Tense-Aspect </li></ul><ul><li>Simple present </li></ul><ul><li>Simple past </li></ul><ul><li>Present progressive ...
Active Voice and Passive Voice <ul><li>Voice  is a grammatical category. It is a form of the verb which shows whether the ...
Mood <ul><li>Mood , as a grammatical category, is a finite verb form that indicates whether an utterance expresses a fact ...
<ul><li>indicative mood </li></ul><ul><li>He goes to church every Sunday. </li></ul><ul><li>imperative mood </li></ul><ul>...
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动词

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Transcript of "动词"

  1. 1. Verb and Verb Phrase 动词和动词词组
  2. 2. Content Classification of Verbs: 动词的分类 Tense, Aspect, Voice, Mood :时、体、态、式
  3. 3. Classification of verbs <ul><li>1) Main verbs and auxiliaries </li></ul><ul><li>2) Transitive verbs, intransitive verbs and linking verbs </li></ul><ul><li>3) Dynamic verbs and stative verbs </li></ul><ul><li>4) Single-word verbs and phrasal verbs </li></ul><ul><li>5) Finite verbs and non-finite verbs </li></ul><ul><li>6) Regular verbs and irregular verbs </li></ul>
  4. 4. Main Verbs and Auxiliaries <ul><li>According to the different roles played in the formation of verb phrases, verbs are divided into two major classes: main verbs and auxiliaries . </li></ul><ul><li>动词按其在构成动词词组中所起的作用分为 主动词 和 助动词 两大类。 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Main Verb <ul><li>Main verbs are also called notional verbs functioning as the head and indicating the basic meaning of a verb phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>主动词构成动词词组的语义核心,它表示动词词组的基本意义,因此,主动词又叫“ 实义动词 ”。 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Main verbs <ul><li>Main verbs can be divided into transitive verbs, intransitive verbs and linking verbs in accordance with whether or not they must be followed by obligatory elements functioning as complementation and what kind of elements that must follow. </li></ul><ul><li>主动词按其是否必须跟有补足成分以及必须跟有什么样的补足成分如宾语、补语、状语等,分为 及物动词、不及物动词 和 连系动词 。 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Transitive verb <ul><li>Transitive verb must be followed by an object. 及物动词之后须带宾语。 </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: John is playing cricket. </li></ul><ul><li>Some can be followed by two objects, ie, indirect object and direct object . 有些及物动词可带双宾语。 </li></ul><ul><li>The new lamp gave us more light . </li></ul><ul><li>Some can be followed by an object and an object complement . 有些及物动词在一定上下文中须带宾语和宾语补语。 </li></ul><ul><li>The jury found the defender not guilty . </li></ul><ul><li>Some can be followed by an object and an obligatory adverbial. 有些及物动词在一定上下文中不仅须带宾语,而且宾语之后还须带状语 。 </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: The Chinese treat older people with great respect. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Intransitive verb <ul><li>Intransitive verbs do not require an object . </li></ul><ul><li>不及物动词之后不须带宾语。 </li></ul><ul><li>The president is speaking . </li></ul><ul><li>But some must be followed by an adverbial without which the meaning of the sentence will be incomplete. 但有些不及物动词在一定上下文中,其后须带状语,否则意义不完全。 </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: The musician performs in Boston next month. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Linking Verbs <ul><li>系动词亦称联系动词( Link Verb ),作为系动词,它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语(亦称补语),构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。 </li></ul><ul><li>Linking verbs are followed by a subject complement . </li></ul><ul><li>连系动词之后须带主语补语。 </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: When did you become suspicious ? </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>1 )状态系动词 </li></ul><ul><li>用来表示主语状态,只有 be 一词,例如: </li></ul><ul><li>He is a teacher.  他是一名教师。( is 与补足语一起说明主语的身份。) </li></ul><ul><li>2 )持续系动词 </li></ul><ul><li>用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有 keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand , 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>He always kept silent at meeting. 他开会时总保持沉默。 </li></ul><ul><li>This matter rests a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。 </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>3 )表像系动词 </li></ul><ul><li>用来表示“看起来像”这一概念,主要有 seem, appear, look , 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>He looks tired.   他看起来很累。 </li></ul><ul><li>He seems (to be) very sad. 他看起来很伤心。 </li></ul><ul><li>4 )感官系动词 </li></ul><ul><li>感官系动词主要有 feel, smell, sound, taste , 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>This kind of cloth feels very soft. </li></ul><ul><li>这种布手感很软。 </li></ul><ul><li>This flower smells very sweet. </li></ul><ul><li>这朵花闻起来很香。 </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>5 )变化系动词 </li></ul><ul><li>这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run. 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>He became mad after that.   </li></ul><ul><li>自那之后,他疯了。 </li></ul><ul><li>She grew rich within a short time. </li></ul><ul><li>她没多长时间就富了。 </li></ul><ul><li>6 )终止系动词 表示主语已终止动作,主要有 prove, turn out , 表达 &quot; 证实 &quot; , &quot; 变成 &quot; 之意,例如: The rumor proved false.  这谣言证实有假。 The search proved difficult.  搜查证实很难。 His plan turned out a success.   他的计划终于成功了。( turn out 表终止性结果) </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>It is to be noted that many of the main verbs may belong to more than one of the three verb classes mentioned above. The word, smell, may fall into all the three verb classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: The fish is fresh from water. You don’t have to smell it. </li></ul><ul><li>The milk is going bad. It smells . </li></ul><ul><li>This dish smells delicious. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Auxiliary <ul><li>The grammatical function of auxiliaries is to help main verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliaries fall into three categories: primary auxiliaries , modal auxiliaries and semi-auxiliaries . </li></ul><ul><li>助动词的语法功能是协助主动词表示不同的语法意义或情态意义 , 比如表示某一动作正在进行或已经完成,“应该”做某事或“不应该”做某事。助动词分为三类: 基本助动词 、 情态助动词 和 半助动词 。 </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来 : </li></ul><ul><li>a. 表示时态 ,例如: </li></ul><ul><li>He is singing.  他在唱歌。 </li></ul><ul><li>He has got married.  他已结婚。 </li></ul><ul><li>b. 表示语态 ,例如: </li></ul><ul><li>He was sent to England.  他被派往英国。 </li></ul><ul><li>c. 构成疑问句 ,例如: </li></ul><ul><li>Do you like college life?  你喜欢大学生活吗? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you study English before you came here?   你来这儿之前学过英语吗? </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>d. 与否定副词 not 合用,构成否定句 ,例如: </li></ul><ul><li>I don‘t like him.   我不喜欢他。 </li></ul><ul><li>e. 加强语气 ,例如: </li></ul><ul><li>Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。 </li></ul><ul><li>He did know that.   他的确知道那件事。 </li></ul>
  17. 19. Primary Auxiliary <ul><li>There are three primary auxiliaries: be, do, have . With no lexical meanings of their own, these auxiliaries have only grammatical functions or grammatical meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>基本助动词只有三个: be, do, have 。作为助动词, be, do, have 本身没有词汇意义,只在动词词组中起语法作用或者说只表示语法意义。比如助动词 be 经常用来协助主动词构成进行体或被动态。 </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: I’ m listening to a Beethoven symphony. </li></ul><ul><li>The students were praised by the principal. </li></ul>
  18. 20. 助动词 be 的用法 <ul><li>1 ) be + 现在分词,构成进行时态, 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>They are having a meeting.  他们正在开会。 English is becoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。 </li></ul><ul><li>2)   be + 过去分词,构成被动语态 ,例如: </li></ul><ul><li>The window was broken by Tom. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。 English is taught throughout the world.   世界各地都教英语。 </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>3 ) be + 动词不定式,可表示下列内容 : </li></ul><ul><li>a. 表示最近、未来的计划或安排, 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>He is to go to New York next week..   他下周要去纽约。 </li></ul><ul><li>We are to teach the freshmen.  我们要教新生。 </li></ul><ul><li>说明: 这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。 </li></ul><ul><li>b. 表示命令 ,例如: </li></ul><ul><li>You are to explain this.  对此你要做出解释。 He is to come to the office this afternoon.  要他今天下午来办公室。 </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>c.  征求意见, 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>How am I to answer him?  我该怎样答复他? Who is to go there?  谁该去那儿呢? </li></ul><ul><li>d. 表示相约、商定 ,例如: </li></ul><ul><li>We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning.  我们明天早晨 7 点在校门口集合。 </li></ul>
  21. 23. 助动词 have 的用法 1 ) have + 过去分词,构成完成时态, 例如: He has left for London.  他已去了伦敦。 By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work. 上月未为止,他们已经完成工作的一半。   2 ) have + been + 现在分词,构成完成进行时 ,例如: I have been studying English for ten years. 我一直在学英语,已达十年之久。
  22. 24. <ul><li>3 ) have+been + 过去分词,构成完成式被动语态, 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>English has been taught in China for many years. 中国教英语已经多年。 </li></ul>
  23. 25. 助动词 do 的用法 <ul><li>1 ) 构成一般疑问句, 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>Do you want to pass the TEM?  你想通过大学英语专业测试吗? Did you study Japanese?  你们学过日语吗? </li></ul><ul><li>2 ) do + not 构成否定句 ,例如: </li></ul><ul><li>I do not want to be criticized.   我不想挨批评。 He doesn‘t like to study.   他不想学习。 In the past, many students did not know the importance of English.  过去,好多学生不知道英语的重要性。 </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>3)  构成否定祈使句, 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>Don‘t go there.  不要去那里。 Don’t be so absent-minded.  不要这么心不在焉。 </li></ul><ul><li>说明: 构成否定祈使句只用 do ,不用 did 和 does 。 </li></ul><ul><li>4 ) 放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气, 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>Do come to my birthday party.  一定来参加我的生日宴会。 </li></ul><ul><li>I did go there.  我确实去那儿了。 </li></ul><ul><li>I do miss you.  我确实想你。 </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>5 ) 用于倒装句, 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>Never did I hear of such a thing.   我从未听说过这样的事情。 Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English. 只有在开始大学生活时我们才认识到英语的重要性。 </li></ul><ul><li>说明: 引导此类倒装句的副词有 never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well 等。 </li></ul><ul><li>6 ) 用作代动词, 例如: </li></ul><ul><li>---- Do you like Xuzhou?   -- 你喜欢徐州吗? ---- Yes, I do .   -- 是的,喜欢。( do 用作代动词,代替 like Xuzhou. ) </li></ul>
  26. 28. Modal Auxiliaries <ul><li>There are thirteen modal auxiliaries including some past tense forms. </li></ul><ul><li>They are: can/could, may/might, will/ would, shall/should, must, ought to, dare, need, used to . </li></ul><ul><li>情态助动词 一共有 13 个,其中包括一些过去时形式。它们是: can/could, may/might, will/ would, shall/should, must, ought to, dare, need, used to . 情态动词表示情态意义,其过去时形式并不一定就表示过去时间。情态动词不能重叠使用;随后的主动词无一例外地是不带 to 的不定式即动词原形。 </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: It may snow before nightfall. </li></ul><ul><li>Would you let me use your pen a minute? </li></ul>
  27. 29. Semi-auxiliaries <ul><li>Semi-auxiliaries constitute a category of verbs between auxiliaries proper and main verbs. Semi-auxiliaries, such as have to and seem to , can help the main verb to form the complex verb phrase and express the modal meaning on the one hand, and can, when preceded by other auxiliaries, function as main verbs on the other. </li></ul><ul><li>半助动词 指某些兼有主动词和助动词特征的语法结构,比如 have to, seem to 之类的结构既可与主动词搭配构成复杂动词词组并表示情态意义。 </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: I have to buy a new car. </li></ul><ul><li>He seems to be disappointed. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Dynamic verbs and Stative verbs <ul><li>According to lexical meaning, main verbs can be dynamic and stative . Dynamic verbs are verbs that refer to actions. Stative verbs are verbs that refer to states, ie to a relatively stable state of affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>英语的动词,按其词汇意义,又可分为 动态动词 和 静态动词 。动态动词是表示运动状态的动词,而静态动词则是表示一种相对静止状态的动词。 </li></ul>
  29. 31. Dynamic verbs <ul><li>Dynamic verbs can be subclassified into three categories: durative verbs , transitional verbs and momentary verbs . </li></ul><ul><li>动态动词,按词汇意义,又可分为 3 个小类: </li></ul><ul><li>1. 表示持续动作的词 </li></ul><ul><li>2. 表示改变或移动的动词 </li></ul><ul><li>3. 表示短暂动作的动词 </li></ul>
  30. 32. Durative Verbs <ul><li>表示持续动作的词 : 如 drink, eat, fly, play, rain, read, run, sit, stand, sleep, talk, watch, write, work 等。 </li></ul><ul><li>These verbs normally admit of both the progressive and the non-progressive aspect. 这类动词既可用于非进行体,也可用于进行体。如: </li></ul><ul><li>She works at a chemical factory. </li></ul><ul><li>She has been working there for a long time. </li></ul><ul><li>They talked and talked until midnight. </li></ul><ul><li>They were talking about the house. </li></ul>
  31. 33. Transitional Verbs <ul><li>表示改变或移动的动词 : 如: arrive, become, change, come, get, go, grow, leave, reach, turn 等。 </li></ul><ul><li>These verbs also admit of both the progressive and the non-progressive aspect. </li></ul><ul><li>这类动词也是既可用于非进行体,也可用于进行体。如: </li></ul><ul><li>Winter is here. The leaves of the trees are turning yellow. </li></ul><ul><li>I turned my head and saw the profile of a man. </li></ul>
  32. 34. Momentary Verbs <ul><li>表示短暂动作的动词 : 如: hit, jump, kick, knock, open/close, put, shut, take out 等。 </li></ul><ul><li>With momentary verbs, the non-progressive form indicates a single movement and the progressive form a repeated movement. 这类动词可用一般现在时表示说话正在进行的短暂动作,若用进行体则表示短暂动作的不断重复。 </li></ul><ul><li>The old man stops at a house and knocks at the door. </li></ul><ul><li>Who is knocking at the door? </li></ul>
  33. 35. Momentary Verbs <ul><li>这类动词若用一般过去时,则表示发生在过去的一次性短暂动作,若用过去进行体也表示短暂动作的不断重复。 </li></ul><ul><li>He opened the door and ran out of the house. </li></ul><ul><li>He was opening and closing the door to make sure that it worked properly. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Stative Verbs <ul><li>Stative verbs are verbs that refer to present or past states. Stative verbs are normally incompatible with the progressive except in certain cases where there is a transfer of meaning. This class can be subclassified into four categories. </li></ul><ul><li>静态动词 表示存在于现时或过去的一种状态。这种动词的最主要语法特征就是通常用于非进行体,若用进行体,通常会引起语义的改变。这类动词,按词汇意义,又可分为 4 小类。 </li></ul>
  35. 37. Stative Verbs: ① <ul><li>The first subclass includes main verb be and main verb have : 第一类是用作主动词的 be 和 have ( 作“有”解 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Jim is a teacher, but 20 years ago he was a soldier. </li></ul><ul><li>We have friends all over the world. </li></ul>
  36. 38. Stative Verbs ② <ul><li>The second subclass includes verbs that include, as part of their meaning, the notion of being and having. </li></ul><ul><li>第二类是含有静态动词 be 和 have 意义的动词 ,如: apply to (适用于) , belong to, differ from, cost, weigh, measure, fit (适合) , hold (可容纳) , lack, resemble 等。如: </li></ul><ul><li>This rule applies to (=is applicable to) everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>This house belongs to my brother.(=is my brother’s property) </li></ul>
  37. 39. Stative Verbs ③ <ul><li>The third subclass includes verbs that refer to a sense perception, such as hear, see, feel, taste, smell, etc.: </li></ul><ul><li>第三类是表示感觉的动词 ,如 hear, see, feel, taste, smell 等。如: </li></ul><ul><li>She doesn’t hear very well. </li></ul><ul><li>The material feels soft. </li></ul><ul><li>The roses smell fragrant. </li></ul>
  38. 41. Stative Verbs ④ <ul><li>The fourth subclass includes verbs that refer to a feeling, a state of mind or an opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>第四类是表示心理或情感状态的动词 。如: assume, believe, consider(=think), detest, fear, hate, hope, imagine, know, like, love, mean, mind, notice, prefer, regret, remember, suppose, think, understand, want, wish 等。如: </li></ul><ul><li>I believe we have met before. </li></ul><ul><li>Jim knows Chinese. </li></ul><ul><li>We understand your difficulty. </li></ul>
  39. 42. Note <ul><li>静态动词的最主要语法特征是不用于进行体 ,若用进行体往往会改变含义,即变成了动态动词。如: </li></ul><ul><li>He is being foolish(=is acting foolishly). </li></ul><ul><li>We’re having a wonderful time.(=are enjoying ourselves) </li></ul><ul><li>He is resembling his father(=is becoming more and more like his father) as the years go by. </li></ul><ul><li>This mistake is costing us dearly.(=is bringing great injury to us). </li></ul>
  40. 43. <ul><li>但是表示肉体感觉的词,如 ache, feel, hurt 等,用进行体和不用进行体均可,含义不变。 </li></ul><ul><li>My foot aches/is aching . </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t feel / am not feeling very tired. </li></ul><ul><li>表示心理或情感状态的动词用于进行体时通常改变含义。 </li></ul><ul><li>Be quiet. I’ m thinking .(=giving thought to a problem) </li></ul><ul><li>Now you’ re understanding .(=beginning to understand) this a little better. </li></ul>
  41. 44. <ul><li>还有少数几个动词用进行体表示婉转口气。如: </li></ul><ul><li>Were you wanting to see me? </li></ul><ul><li>I’ m hoping you’ll look after the children for us. </li></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>According to word formation and grammatical forms, English verbs may be divided into: 英语主动词,按其构成及形态,可分为 单词动词和词组动词 、 限定动词和非限定动词 、 规则动词和不规则动词 。 </li></ul><ul><li>single-word verbs and phrasal verbs </li></ul><ul><li>finite verbs and non-finite verbs </li></ul><ul><li>regular verbs and irregular verbs </li></ul>
  43. 46. single-word verbs and phrasal verbs <ul><li>A single-word verb is verb that consists of only one word. Most verbs are single-word verbs. 单词动词 是由一个单词构成的动词。大部分动词都是单词动词。 </li></ul><ul><li>A phrasal verb is a verb that is composed of two or more words. Phrasal verbs are subclassified into three categories: 词组动词 指由两个或两个以上单词构成的动词。这种动词主要分为以下 3 类: </li></ul>
  44. 47. phrasal verbs ① <ul><li>① Verb+preposition :动词 + 介词 </li></ul><ul><li>He couldn’t account for ( 解释 )his long absence from school. </li></ul><ul><li>In the valley we came across ( 碰到 )a group of Mexicans. </li></ul><ul><li>The police are looking into ( 调查 ) the case. </li></ul><ul><li>When his father died, Jim came into ( 继承 )a fortune. </li></ul><ul><li>If I were you, I would go for ( 争取 )that job. </li></ul><ul><li>Before long he had taken to ( 爱上 )a girl student in his class. </li></ul>
  45. 48. phrasal verbs ② <ul><li>② Verb+adverb particle :动词 + 副词小品词 </li></ul><ul><li>The Sino-Japanese War broke out ( 爆发 )in 1937. </li></ul><ul><li>The meeting has been called off .( 取消 ) </li></ul><ul><li>She is not really that way. She is just putting on .( 装模作样 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Even the most experienced eye may be taken in ( 受骗上当 ) on certain occasions. </li></ul><ul><li>The firm had to lay off ( 临时解雇 )100 men. </li></ul>
  46. 49. phrasal verbs ③ <ul><li>③ Verb+adverb particle+preposition :动词 + 副词小品词 + 介词 </li></ul><ul><li>Will this enthusiasm carry over to ( 持续到 )the next week? </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t want to come down with ( 染上 )the flu again. </li></ul><ul><li>I will have to fill in for ( 顶替 )Wally until he gets back. </li></ul><ul><li>How could he get away with ( 得逞 )cheating? </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve got on to ( 想出 )a good idea for increasing production. </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t go in for ( 喜欢 )that kind of thing. </li></ul><ul><li>We all look up to ( 尊敬 )Roger. He’s authoritative but kind. </li></ul><ul><li>You could be more convincing if you didn’t talk down to ( 对…大言不惭地说话 )your audience. </li></ul>
  47. 50. <ul><li>There are also constructions such as verb+noun+preposition and verb+noun ,which are also grouped under the category of phrasal verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>还要注意其他一些属于成语性质的固定搭配。这类搭配在有些语法著作中也归入“词组动词”之列。这类词组动词有的是“ 动词 + 名词 + 介词 ”相当于一个及物动词,如: make fun of ( 取笑 ), make the most of( 充分利用 ), take advantage of( 利用 ), make a mess of( 把…弄脏,弄糟 ) 等;有的是“ 动词 + 名词 ”,相当于一个不及物动词,如: change hands( 易手,过户 ), take effect( 生效 ), take place( 发生 ) 等。 </li></ul>
  48. 51. Compare <ul><li>以上的词组动词都是一些固定搭配,相当于一个及物的或不及物的单词动词,因而又成为“成语动词” (Verbal Idiom) 。要注意这些词组动词与某些非固定搭配是有区别的。 </li></ul><ul><li>1) The lights went out . </li></ul><ul><li>S V </li></ul><ul><li>2) He put on his coat and went out . </li></ul><ul><li>S V A </li></ul>
  49. 52. Finite verbs and non-finite verbs <ul><li>English main verbs have two finite forms and three non-finite forms . The two finite forms are the present tense and the past tense ; the three non-finite forms are the infinitive (including the bare infinitive and the to-infinitive), the –ing participle and the –ed participle . </li></ul><ul><li>限定动词和非限定动词又叫 动词的限定形式 和 非限定形式 。英语的主动词出现在词典或词汇表中时通常是以原形出现的,但当它出现在句中时,便有 5 种语法形式: 2 种限定形式 ,即 现在时和过去时 ,和 3 种非限定形式 ,即 不定式、 -ing 分词和 -ed 分词 。因此,限定动词与非限定动词之间最重要的区别在于前者有 “时” (Tense) 标记,而后者没有 “时” 的标记。 </li></ul>
  50. 57. Regular verbs and irregular verbs <ul><li>Verbs whose past tense and –ed participle forms are predictable are referred to as regular verbs , and those with unpredictable past and /pr –ed participle forms are called irregular verbs . </li></ul><ul><li>大多数动词的过去时和 -ed 分词都是在原形之后加词尾 -ed 构成,这类动词叫做 规则动词 。有一些动词不以加词尾 -ed 的方式构成过去时和 -ed 分词,这类动词叫做 不规则动词 。 </li></ul>
  51. 60. <ul><li>There are four important grammatical categories of the English verb: tense, aspect, voice and mood. 英语动词有四种语法形式:即时、体、态、式 </li></ul>Tense, Aspect, Voice and Mood
  52. 61. Tense and Aspect <ul><li>Tense is a grammatical form associated with verbs that tells of the distinctions of time; that is to say, tense and time are at once related and different. Time is a universal concept with three divisions: past time, present time and future time. When the notion of time, which is common to all mankind, is expressed linguistically, one way of doing this is by means of tense. </li></ul><ul><li>时是个语法范畴,它是表示时间区别的动词形式。这就是说,“时”和“时间”既是联系的,又是有区别的。“时间”是个普遍的概念,不管什么肤色和种族的人都有“过去”、“现在”“将来”的时间概念,然而表达这种时间概念的语言手段却随着语言的不同而各异。 </li></ul>
  53. 62. Tense and Aspect <ul><li>English verbs have two tenses : the present tense and the past tense . There is no obvious future tense corresponding to the time/tense parallel for present and past. Instead there are a number of possibilities of denoting future time. Chinese, which is not an inflecting language, is all the more different. </li></ul><ul><li>英语动词自“古英语” (Old English) 以来只有“现在时”和“过去时”,而没有“将来时”,这就是说,英语并没有发展出一种独特的、能与“现在时”和“过去时”平起平坐的专一表示“将来”的动词形式—“将来时”。在现代英语中,能用以表示“将来”的语法手段是多种多样的,但其中没有哪一种堪称专职的“将来时”。我们的汉语就更不同了,它根本不是通过动词形式的变化来表示时间的区别的。比如我们可以说,“我过去是、现在是、将来永远是您的贴心人”。这是通过其他手段来表示时间概念,至于“是”字却没有任何的形态变化。 </li></ul>
  54. 63. <ul><li>Aspect as a grammatical term indicates whether an action or state at a given time is viewed as complete or incomplete. English verbs have two aspects : the progressive aspect and the perfective aspect . A combination of the two tenses and the two aspects makes it possible for a finite verb phrase to take the following eight forms: </li></ul><ul><li>体 也是一个语法范畴,它表示动作或过程在一定时间内处于何种状态的动词形式。英语动词有两个体: 进行体和完成体 。现在时和过去时既可以单独使用,也可以和进行体或完成体结合使用,也可以同时与完成体和进行体结合使用。这样,英语的限定动词词组便有 8 种时、体形式 。 </li></ul>
  55. 64. <ul><li>Tense-Aspect </li></ul><ul><li>Simple present </li></ul><ul><li>Simple past </li></ul><ul><li>Present progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Past progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Present perfective </li></ul><ul><li>Past perfective </li></ul><ul><li>Present perfective progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Past perfective progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Active Voice </li></ul><ul><li>plays </li></ul><ul><li>played </li></ul><ul><li>is playing </li></ul><ul><li>was playing </li></ul><ul><li>has played </li></ul><ul><li>had played </li></ul><ul><li>has been playing </li></ul><ul><li>had been playing </li></ul>
  56. 65. Active Voice and Passive Voice <ul><li>Voice is a grammatical category. It is a form of the verb which shows whether the subject of a sentence acts or is acted on. English verbs have two voices: the active voice and the passive voice . When the subject is the agent or doer of an action, the verb takes the form of active voice; if, on the other hand, the subject is the recipient of the action, the verb takes the form of passive voice. A sentence/clause whose predicator (predicate verb) is passive is called a passive sentence/clause. </li></ul><ul><li>语态 ,简称“态”,是个语法范畴,它表示主语和谓语动词之间的主动或被动关系的动词形式。英语动词有两种语态: 主动态和被动态 。当主语是施动者时,随后的动词用主动态;当主语是受动者时,随后的动词便用被动态。 </li></ul>
  57. 66. Mood <ul><li>Mood , as a grammatical category, is a finite verb form that indicates whether an utterance expresses a fact ( indicative mood ), a command or request ( imperative mood ), or a non-fact and hypothesis ( subjunctive mood ). </li></ul><ul><li>式 ,又译作“语气”,也是个语法范畴,它是区别说话人以何种口气说话的动词形式,是陈述事实,还是发出命令,还是虚拟假设?因此英语动词便有 3 种表示不同口气的动词形式: 陈述式、祈使式和虚拟式 。 </li></ul>
  58. 67. <ul><li>indicative mood </li></ul><ul><li>He goes to church every Sunday. </li></ul><ul><li>imperative mood </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be late for school. Go to school at once. </li></ul><ul><li>subjunctive mood </li></ul><ul><li>Mother insisted that he go to hospital at once. </li></ul>
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