主谓一致(Group 1)
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主谓一致(Group 1) 主谓一致(Group 1) Presentation Transcript

  • 主谓一致 主讲人:胡艳卿、宋嘉茵、何美琴、陈丹妮、包慧琳、蔡韫
  • ? ? 主谓一致 ?
  • 1 )语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与 谓语要一致。 2 )意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。 3 )就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语。
    • 一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数。
    • There is much water in the thermos.
    • 但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。
    • Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year.
    • 常见的主谓一致的类型主要有:
    1 并列结构作主语时谓语用复数 Reading and writing are very important. 注意: 当主语由 and 连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数, and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。 The iron and steel industry is very important to our life.
  • 2 主谓一致中的靠近原则 1 ) 当 there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。 There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk.. There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class. 2 ) 当 either… or… 与 neither… nor 连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。 如果句子是由 here, there 引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。 Either you or she is to go. Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you.
  • 3 谓语动词与前面的主语一致 当主语后面跟有 with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as 等词引起的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语一致。 The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory. He as well as I wants to go boating.
  • 4 谓语需用单数 1 ) every, each, either, neither, one, no one, somebody, anybody, nobody, everyone, someone, anyone, everyone, something, anything, nothing, everything 在句中做主语,或做限定词限定一个名词时,后面的谓语一律用单数。 例: Each family was forced to send one labor to the army. 每家都被迫送一个劳动力到军队去。 Either of them isn‘t going to give up their chance of education. 他们两个都不想放弃受教育的权利。
  • 2 ) 当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。 The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English. << 天方夜谭 >> 是英语爱好者熟悉的一本好书。 3 ) 表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语 时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。 ( 用复数也可,意思不变。 ) Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations. Ten yuan is enough.
  • 5 指代意义决定谓语的单复数 1 ) 在代词 what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all 等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。 All is right.     一切顺利。 All are present.    所有人都到齐了。 2 ) 集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。如 family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee 等词后用复数形式时,意为这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时表示该个集体。 His family isn‘t very large.    他家不是一个大家庭。 His family are music lovers.   他的家人都是音乐爱好者。
  • 但集合名词 people, police, cattle, poultry 等在任何情况下都用复数形式。 Are there any police around? 3 ) 有些名词,如 variety, number, population, proportion, majority 等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。 A number of + 名词复数 + 复数动词。 The number of + 名词复数 + 单数动词 。 A number of books have lent out. The majority of the students like English.
  • 6 与后接名词或代词保持一致 1 ) 用 half of, part of, most of, a portion of 等词引起主语时,动词通常与 of 后面的名词,代词保持一致。 Most of his money is spent on books. Most of the students are taking an active part in sports.
  • 2 ) 在一些短语,如 many a 或 more than one 所修饰的词作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。但由 more than… of 作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。 Many a person has read the novel.   许多人都读过这本书。 More than 60 percent of the students are from the city. 百分之六十多的学生都来自这个城市。
  • 以集合名词做主语的主谓一致问题
  • 有些集合名词, ommittee,council,crew,crowd,family,gang,government,group,mob,staff,team, union 等,在意义上是复数,但在语法形式上是单数,这类名词作主语的主谓一致问题往往 遵循“语法一致”或“意义一致”原则 。 例如: 1).The committee has/have decided to dismiss him. 2)A council of elders governs the tribe. 3)The present government is trying to control inflation. 4)The school staff are expected to supervise school meals.
  • (一)通常作复数的集体名词 , 包括 police,people, cattle, militia, vermin 等,这些 集体名词通常用作复数 。 例如: 1)The British police have only very limited powers. 2)The militia were called out to guard the borderland. 3)It seems the cattle on the sides of the dikes were the only living creatures in these desolate surroundings.
  • (三)可 作单数也可作复数 的集体名词 , 包括 audience, committee, crew, family, government,jury 等。 例如: 1)The audience was/were enthusiastic on the opening night of the play. 2)The committee has/have decided to dismiss him. 3)The jury is/are about to announce the winners. 4)The government has/have discussed the matter for a long time. (二)通常作不可数名词的集体名词 ,包括 poultry,foliage , machinery, equipment,furniture, merchandise 等 , 这类名词后的 动词用单数 形式。 例如: Poultry is expensive at this time of year .
  • 如果主语是由 a committee of /a panel of /a (the) board of + 复数名词 构成,随后的 动词通常用单数 。 例如: 1)A committee of twelve men is to discuss the matter. 2)A panel of experts has considered the situation. 3)The board of managers is responsible for the firm. 三、a committee, etc of +复数名词的主谓一致问题
  • 四、以-s结尾的名词作主语的主谓一致问题 英语可数名词的规则复数形式是在词尾加 -s 或 -es ,但是有一些以 -s 结尾的名词并不是可数名词。它们用法多样,造成了实际使用上的困难,以下详述了以 -s 结尾的名词作主语的主谓一致问题。 (一)以 -s 结尾的疾病名称作主语的主谓一致问题 (二)以 -s 结尾的游戏名称作主语的主谓一致问题 (三)以 -s 结尾的地理名称作主语的主谓一致问题 (四)以 - ics 结尾的学科名称作主语的主谓一致问题
  • (一)以 -s 结尾的疾病名称作主语的主谓一致问题 arthritis,bronchitis,diabetes,mumps,phlebitis,rickets , 这类以 -s 结尾的疾病名称作主语时, 谓语动词通常用作单数 。 例如: 1.Arthritis causes great pain in the joints of the patient. 2.The diabetes is a kind of chronic disease. 3.Measles usually occurs in children. 4.Phlebitis is a swollen condition of the blood vessels.
  • (二)以 -s 结尾的游戏名称作主语的主谓一致问题 以 -s 结尾的游戏名称作主语时,谓语动词通常用作单数。 例如: 1.Darts is basically a easy game. 2.Marbles is not confined to children. 3.Skittles is not fashionable nowadays. 4.Draughts is not very difficult to learn. 但当 Darts , Marbles 等的意义为游戏器具而非游戏名称时,谓语动词通常用作复数。 例如: 1.Three darts are thrown at each turn. 2.All nine skittles were brought down by the good throw.
  • (三)以 -s 结尾的地理名称作主语的主谓一致问题 某些以 -s 结尾的地理名称,如果是国名,如 the United States , the Netherlands 等,因其是单一政治实体,所以谓语动词用作单数。 例如: 1.The United States was hit by the Great Depression in 1930s'. 2.In early January 1996 the Netherlands was hit by its worst storm since 1976. 但如果是群岛、山脉、海峡、瀑布等地理名称作主语,谓语动词用作复数。 例如: 1.The West Indies are commonly divided into two parts. 2.The Himalayas have a magnificent variety of plant. 3.The Straits of Gibraltar have not lost their strategic importance. 4.The Niagara Falls are perhaps the most splendid waterfall in the world.
  • (四)以 -ics 结尾的学科名称作主语的主谓一致问题 某些以 -ics 结尾的学科名称作主语时,如 physics,mathematics,mechanics, optics, acoustics, politics statistics, economics, linguistics, athletics 等 , 谓语动词通常用作单数。 例如: 1.Physics is a fundamental subject in science. 2.The third world economics is promising. 3.Acoustics studies the science of sound. 4.Mathematics is an interesting subject. 5.Athletics is a required course for students of all grades. 但如果这类名词表示学科以外的其它含义,可作复数用 。 例如: 1.Athletics have been greatly encouraged at this college. 2.The acoustics of the new concert hall are perfect. 3.The economics of the project are still at issue.
  • (五)其它以-s结尾的名词的主谓一致问题 一、以 -s 结尾的由两部分组成的物体名称作主语 英语中有一些通常以 -s 结尾的由两部分组成的物体名词,如 glasses, pincers,pliers,scissors, shorts,suspenders,trousers 等,这类名词做主语,如果不带“一把”、“一副”等单位词, 谓语动词通常用复数 。 例如: Mary's glasses are new. John's trousers are black. 如果带有单位词, 则由 单位词决定动词的单、复数 形式。 例如: One pair of pincers isn't enough. Two pairs of scissors are missing from my tool box
  • 二、其他以 -s 结尾的名词 英语中还有一些以 - s 结尾的名词,如 archives , arms,clothes, contents, eaves, fireworks, goods, minutes, morals, remains stairs, suburbs, thanks,wages 这类名词作主语时, 谓语动词通常用复数 。 例如: The archives of the country are kept in the Department of Security. The contents of the book are most amusing. High wages often result in high prices. My thanks are sincere.
  • 主谓一致 句子主语是并列结构 有关数量
  • 句子的主语是并列结构,其主谓一致问题通常遵循的原则 : (一)由 and/both...and 连接的并列主语的主谓一致问题 (二)由 or/nor/either...or 连接的并列主语的主谓一致问题 (三)主语 + as much as,etc 的主谓一致问题
  • ( 一 ) 由 and/both...and 连接的并列结构作主语,可根据主语的意义决定谓语动词的单、复数形式。 注意 :each 当 and 连接的并列名词词组带有, every, 或者 many a 等限定词时,谓语动词通常用单数。
  • 1.A truck and a car were in the ditch. 2.Each man and each woman there is asked to help.
  • ( 二 ) 由 or,nor,either...or, neither...nor,not only...but also 连接的并列结构作主语,随后的动词形式通常按照“就近原则”处理。 Neither my father nor my brothers ____ likely to be at theater. are ( 三)当主语后面跟有由 as much as, rather than , more than, no less than 等引导的从属结构,或跟有由 as well as, in addition to ,with, along with, together with, except 等引导的词组时, 其后的动词形式取决主语的形式 .
    • The ocean , as well as the gulf and the bay, provides good fishing.
    John , rather than his roommates, is to blame. Billy , together with his sisters, was wounded in the accident. Some of the employees as much as the manager were responsible for the failure.
  • 六 . 以表示数量概念的名词词组 作主语的主谓一致问题 数量概念分两类:一类是确定数量,如 two years, five seconds,three kilos, 等,另一类是非确定数量,如 all of..., some of..., none of... 。如果用这类表示数量概念的名词词组作主语,会产生主谓一致问题。 ( 一)以表示确定数量的名词词组作主(二)以表示非确定数量的名词词组作主语 (一)以表示确定数量的名词词组作主语
  • (1) 当主语为表示确定数量的名词词组时,如果数量概念被看做一个整体,动词用单数,如果被看做组成该数量的个体,动词用复数。 Eg.Three weeks is needed to complete the task. (2) 如果作主语的名词词组是由“分数 / 百分数 + of” 词组构成,其动词形式 取决于 of 词组中名词的类别。 Three-fourths of the surface of the earth __ covered by sea. is Forty-five percent of the doctors _____woman. Were
  • (3) 两数相减或相除,谓语动词用单数;两数相加或相乘,谓语动词可用单数,也可用复数。 Eg. Six times eight is/are forty-eight. (4) 如果主语由 &quot;one in/one out of + 复数名词 &quot; 构成,在正式语体中,动词用单数。 Eg.One in ten students has passed the examination. Sixty minus seventeen leaves forty-three. One out of twelve bottles was left intact.
  • (二)以表示非确定数量的名词词组作主语的主谓一致问题 如果主语由 &quot;a portion of, a series of, a pile of, a panel of + 名词 &quot; 或由“ a kind/sort/type of, this kind/sort/type of+ 名词” 构成,谓语动词通常用单数。 Eg: A panel of us decided to hire a boat and travel through . Holland by canal . This kind of cars rather expensive . has is ( 1 )
  • ( 2 ) 如果主语是由“ many a + 名词 &quot; 或“ more than one + 名词 &quot; 构成,随后的动词遵循“语法一 致”原则,用单数。 Eg: Many a person in these circumstances hoped for a long break. More than one student failed the exam. has has
  • ( 3 ) 如果主语是 all of, some of,none of, half of, most of,lots of,loads of ,plenty of, 等表示非确定数量的名词词组, 谓语动词的单、复数形式根据 of 词组中名词类别而定。 Eg: Most of the money recovered by Deputy Player. was Half of the building destroied during the war. was Some of the books badly torn. were