Intro to s r

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Intro to s r

  1. 1. Case Study 2. Savage-Rumbaugh et al. (1986) Objective: Be able to extend your knowledge and understanding of the background research and theories attached to this case study.
  2. 3. <ul><li>How do we acquire language? </li></ul><ul><li>Whilst watching the documentary makes notes on the different theories on how we acquire language during childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/why-do-we-talk/ </li></ul>
  3. 4. Ways of Investigating Language <ul><li>primate studies using alternative apparatus / methods: </li></ul><ul><li>- American Sign Language (ASL) </li></ul><ul><li>- plastic tokens </li></ul><ul><li>- brain-scanning technology </li></ul><ul><li>longitudinal studies of ‘normal’ humans from birth </li></ul><ul><li>studies of children raised by deaf parents </li></ul><ul><li>quasi-experiments / case studies of feral children </li></ul><ul><li>- Genie </li></ul><ul><li>- Czech twins </li></ul>
  4. 5. Language vs Communication <ul><li>Language is a system of symbols (words / sounds) which convey meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is the transmission of ‘something’ (a message, signal) from one location to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Some form of language is necessary for communication. </li></ul>
  5. 6. COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE PHONOLOGY (sound patterns) SEMANTICS (meaning patterns) GRAMMAR (rules of language) PRAGMATICS (rules of effective communication)
  6. 7. Children’s Language Development <ul><li>2 mths – cooing (pre-linguistic) </li></ul><ul><li>6 mths – reduplicated babbling (‘dadada’) </li></ul><ul><li>12 mths – one-word utterances </li></ul><ul><li>18-24 mths – two-word utterances (telegraphic speech) </li></ul><ul><li>3 yrs – vocabulary of @1000 words; use of personal pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>6-7 yrs – rules of grammar are mastered </li></ul><ul><li>Language comprehension develops before language production. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Nature-Nurture Debate Nurture View (Skinner, 1957) Nature View (Chomsky, 1965) <ul><li>language is learnt… (Behaviourism) </li></ul><ul><li>language is innate / biologically pre-programmed (Nativist) </li></ul><ul><li>through principles of Operant Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>and is acquired through the existence of an innate processing box (LAD) hard-wired in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>child will repeat sounds which have been positively reinforced </li></ul><ul><li>critical period (birth – puberty) </li></ul><ul><li>implies primates have capacity for learning language </li></ul><ul><li>implies primates should show no ability for language </li></ul>
  8. 9. What makes us human? What do you think are the main differences between primates and humans? Are there any similarities ?
  9. 10. Some differences <ul><li>Humans have: </li></ul><ul><li>a theory of mind (‘Sally-Anne task’) </li></ul><ul><li>consciousness / self-awareness </li></ul><ul><li>the ability for tool use </li></ul><ul><li>language ability </li></ul><ul><li>high levels of intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>less instinctive behaviour </li></ul>Some similarities <ul><li>Living as part of a group </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic material (98%) </li></ul>
  10. 11. Animals and Language <ul><li>Do animals have language? </li></ul><ul><li>Do animals have the ability to understand communication? Think about how the following adverts were achieved… </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HgzEBLa3PPk </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kmmE_h60rjk&feature=related </li></ul>
  11. 12. Earlier Research on Primates Name of Chimp (researchers) Main Findings Gua (Kellogg & Kellogg, 1933) <ul><li>Gua raised with researchers own child (Donald) but never uttered a word. </li></ul>Vicki (Hayes & Hayes, 1952) <ul><li>Vicki learnt 4 words in six years: up, cup, mama & papa. </li></ul>Washoe (Gardner & Gardner, 1969) <ul><li>Using ASL, Washoe learnt 30 signs over a 22 month period </li></ul><ul><li>some creativity (“Gimme tickle”) </li></ul><ul><li>but no structure dependence </li></ul>Nim Chimpsky (Terrace) <ul><li>Using ASL, Nim learnt 125 signs over a 4yr period – but was he just imitating his teachers? </li></ul>

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