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  1. 1. Conversational structures How to improve fluency in oral discourse
  2. 2. 1) Get used to using oral discourse markers  (yeah,er,let me see,mmm,then, i mean, really, say, sort of, I see, you see, well, right, actually, cos, you know, among others…)  They’ll give u time to think of what is coming next and to interact appropriately  Extra links: BBC World service http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/learnit/learnitv316.shtml
  3. 3. 2) Drill language chunks and conversational structures  Words should not be studied in isolation but always in a context. By repeating and USING these fixed language chunks or expressions you’ll work on fluency http://www.splendid- speaking.com/learn/improve_english_fluency.html  It’s proved that the more you make your examples yours, the easier will be for you to remember them.
  4. 4. Conversational structures  I’m dying to + (verb) this is a structure used to express your impatience at having to wait for something I’m dying to meet my daughter I’m dying to find a good job I’m dying to ask her out
  5. 5. It’s hard for me to + (verb)  When you say that sthg is hard for you, you’re expressing the difficulty in doing something It is hard for me to let him go It is hard for me to do what you want me to do It is hard for me to work under pressure
  6. 6. It’s my/your/his/her turn to + (verb)  This is an expression used to express a change in position or role It is your turn to pay for the drinks It is my turn to do the dishes
  7. 7. You’re supposed + (verb)  This structure is used to make the suggestion that something you strongly believe ought to happen You’re supposed to keep that a secret You’re supposed to return that book on time
  8. 8. You seem + (adjective)  The structure can be used to talk about the impression people seem to be giving. Note that in this structure you seem is followed by an adjective You seem bored She seems easy to work with
  9. 9. You’d better + (verb)  The structure you had better is used to give strong advice You had better get some rest You had better mend your ways
  10. 10. Conversational structures with TO instead of a whole infinitive, if the meaning is clear  Are you and James getting married? We hope to (=we hope to get married)  I don’t do much gardening now but I used to a lot (=I used to do a lot of gardening)
  11. 11. It’s time/it’s high time + (past simple)  This structure is usually followed by a past tense with a present meaning  It’s time she went to bed  It’s time you confessed everything  It’s high time you studied English
  12. 12. 3) Underline useful chunks  In your listenings, readings…and make the most out of them  Drilling all these expressions and automatizing discourse markers will give u self-confidence and you’ll improve your communicative ability and fluency!!
  13. 13. Extra links  http://www.talkenglish.com/