INTRODUCTION OF CROW AND
Collective behaviour entail a ‘crisis’ on break in a
regular routines. It brings people into contact with
others in situation where conventional guidelines and
formal authority fall to afford direction and support
channels for action.
Crowd is a collection of individual united temporarily
and in close proximity to each other whose object may
be of diverse kind.
Public is the part of people. It is a part of the people
sharing common opinion, desire or interest, who are
not organized and scattered all over.
DEFINITION OF CROWD
“Crowd is a collection of
proximity in each
other, whose objective may
be diverse kinds”
“ Crowd is a gathering of a
considerable number of
people around a center
and a common point of
attraction.” – Maciver.
CHARACTERISTIC OF CROWD
Temporary social group.
Low mental level.
KINDS OF CROWD
According to Le Bon
i. Homogeneous crowd :- These crowd may be
anonymous like parliamentary assembles.
ii. Heterogeneous crowd :- These crowd are of
sects, caste and classes.
II. According to Blumel
i. The casual crowd.
ii. The conventional crowd.
iii. The Expressive crowd.
iv. The active crowd.
III. According to Kimball or General classification
A. Active crowd.
B. Inactive crowd.
A. ACTIVE CROWD
According to Kimball, ” An active crowd is amass of
individual, who with the common focus of attention
unleash certain deep lying attitude , emotion and
It is accidental and momentary.
It is motivated by a common motive and behaves the
same ways to realise a common end.
Its is classified into four typea. Aggressive crowd.
b. Panicky crowd.
c. Acquisites crowd
d. Expressive crowd
a. Aggressive crowd : Consist of people in aggressive
mood, capable of any destruction and
Its characteristic areIntense emotionally.
Influence of rumour.
Tendency of imitation.
Low educational level.
Importance of leader.
b. Panicky crowd : It is one in which is fear stricken
and whose member are running hither and thither
to save their lives.
Its characteristics are:
It is fear ridden.
A sense of crisis over takes it.
Its members are given to the tendency to escape.
There is no leader in a panicky crowd.
It lack the sense of responsibility.
It is an irrational and emotional group.
c. Acquisitive crowd : In these member has gathered
in order to acquire something . For example – A crowd
d. Expressive crowd : In these the individual gather to
give expression or to manifest their demands or
manifest their demands or sentiment. Members are
interest more in voicing their grievances than in
II . INACTIVE CROWD :
An audience which collect for some peaceful purpose.
The action does not change even after an hour or two,
Its further classified as –
i. Informative crowd.
ii. Recreational seeking crowd.
iii. Conversional crowd.
iv. Pedestrian crowd.
THEORIES OF CROWD BEHAVIOUR
GROUP MIND THEORY
According to these theory, the individual in the
crowd loses his individuality and becomes a part of
the crowd which comes to develop its own crowd
The ‘Group mind ‘theory has ben advocated byLebon, Espinas, Trotter, Durkheim. Mc Dougall and
Lebon was the first writer to put forward the theory of
group in 1892.
His theory is based on ‘ contagion’.
In his book ‘Crowd’ has written ” The sentimental and
ideas of all persons in the gathering take one and
same direction and their conscious personality
vanishes. A collective mind is formed, doubtless
transitory but presenting very clearly defined
The different individual in a group do not think
individually. But think, experience and act through
Theory of Espinas
Espinas was a French philosopher and an authority on
Her theory of group mind reflected on biological
According to him- just as in an individual the various
cell of his organism combine to form a consciousness
that he regard as his own and which is a unity, in the
same way, in society, the collective consciousness is
formed out of the collection of many individual
In this way, Espinas called ‘Group mind’ as social
Trotter’s has sought to explain man’s social behaviour
on the basis of heard instinct.
Everyman, according to him is possessed of the
This gregariousness activates his mental system as a
result of which he accept the command of the group
without any argument and act according to the
Since man wants to love in the community and does
not wants to do things which may displease the group.
Accordingly his social behaviour is caused by the herd
DURKHEIM’S THEORY behaviour
Durkheim has sought to explain group
in term of collective consciousness.
According to him, when people collect in a
group, a collective consciousness is created by the
mutual exchange of ideas and notions.
Mind is the another name of flow
consciousness, where several minds meet
together, there is a flow of consciousness from
one mind to another.
Out of these flow, Social consciousness is created.
He postulated a theory of Group mind.
According to him, every group has its own mind.
The group mind has the power of influencing the
mind of the individual.
It is because of this power, the individual changes
his thinking and become the member of the
According to him, the behaviour in the croed is
influenced by two processes- social facilitation
Social stimulation- because of these all
individual are seen behaving in an identical
manner and members motivate each other.
Inter –stimulation- because of this, the member
of the group feel possessed of an unconquerable
II. FREUDIAN THEORY
Martin E.D and other thinkers of the Freudian
view interpret crowd behaviour as the release for
The crowd not only brings the consciously
repressed desires, but also hidden and
unconscious desires which the individual
discipline of normal social life has repressed.
III. THEORY OF MULTIPLR FACTORS
No simple explanation can be given to explain a
complex phenomena of crowd behaviour.
The ‘crowd’ is under a “spell”.
Its take its members into the world of
magic, where things happen unaccountability.
A numbers of factor like
unaccountability, limitation , low degrees of
intelligence, suggestibility. Lack of
volition, stimulation, anonymity, unconscious
impulse and influence of leaders work upon the
crowd and influence its behaviour.
DEFINITION OF PUBLIC
The public is an aggretion of persons, moving in a
common universe of discourse, confronted by an
issue or a value , divided in an opinion regarding
ways to meet the issue or to appraise the value
and engaging in discussion.
A public is a scattered group of people who share
an interest in a particular topic. -Horton and
NATURE OF PUBLIC
A disperses group.
A deliberate group.
Lack of organization.
Other points on nature of public:
1) A public has core members and fringe members.
2) The composition of members changes.
3) Individual can be members of many public at
4) Social changes is decided upon within demicracy.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PUBLIC
The members are scattered
The members have physical contact.
Membership is large.
Membership is small.
It is influence by printed works
It is influenced by spoken words.
Stimulus is diffused.
Stimulus is immediate
Public discuss and debate in a
No critical discussion is possible.
The crowd and public have something in common
.Both are collectives of people and are generally
The crowd cannot call for behaviour for which
there does not already exist a favorable basis in
establishing attitude and habits.
Public is a group of people with common
interest, may be dispersed and physical proximity
is not necessary.