Seminar on leadership styles and its function in nursing
SEMINAR ON LEADERSHIP
STYLES AND ITS FUNCTION
Leadership is the process of influencing the
thought and action of the other people to attain
the desired objectives.
A leadership style is a way of providing direction,
implementing plan and motivating people.
Good leadership is to win the support of the
Every leader may not be a good manager but
every manager must be a good leader.
DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP
• “The quality of behaviour of individual where
by they guide people on their activities in
organizing efforts.” -Chestar Barnaid.
• “Leadership is a process of influencing others
to attain goals” - Little field.
• “Leadership is the knack of getting other
people to follow you and to do willingly the
things you want them to do” – LR. Bittle
IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP
i. Determination of goal.
ii. Organisation of activities.
iii. Achieving co-ordination.
iv. Representation of workers.
v. Providing guidance.
vi. Inspiration of employees.
vii. Building employees morale.
ix. Leadership is related to a situation.
x. Employee must be satisfied with the types of
FUNCTION OF THE LEADER
External group representative.
Surrogate for individual representative.
Controller of internal relationship within the
8) Administrator of rewards and punishment.
9) Arbitrator and mediator.
11)Symbol of the group.
QUALITIES OF A LEADER.
1. Managerial abilities:
Plan ,organizes, make decision effective encourages
cooperative and coordination.
Assists nurse subordination in solving the problems
and provides consistent feedback.
Provide rationale for difficult decision.
Assess abilities of the worker guides them to develop
Know his job and does it well and has confidence in
self and others.
Welcome different opinion and is more interested in
giving than receiving.
Provides the worker with adequate facilities.
2. Interpersonal relationship:
Show supportive and caring behaviour.
Is a good listener and sensitive to the other
Guides and motivates to act and work
together with all types of workers.
Establishes relationship and is able to work
with other harmoniously.
3.Temperament( Nature of person):
Reliable ,open, honest and sincere.
Show a sense of humor, tactful, friendly and
Calm and charismatic, modest and patient.
Positive, energetic, hard worker, happy, and
Show a balance between work and home-life
on personal life.
4. Credibility and forward thinking:
Act as a role model and influence others.
Act as a activist.
Challenger and creative thinker.
Change with agent innovator
Risk taken and courageous.
Act as a facilitator and solution seeker
5. Professionalism :
Committed to the profession.
Instill hope and pridreen the profession.
Stand for right while considering other’s rght
Act as an advocate for nursing profession .
Act as patient advocate.
Act as an advocate for nursing education and
of student for the right and standard.
VI. TYPE OF LEADERSHIP
a) AUTOCRATIC / AUTHORITARIAN
a) Autocratic or authorian leadership:
The leader alone establishes polices and make plans.
He instruct employees about the job and in return
demand strict obedience and relies on power.
The leader arranges physical set-up so that people
cannot form the social group.
The psychological needs of employees is not
The mutual trust is virtually eliminated .
The maximum productivity is achieved by making
worker completely subject to management's
Criterion used by authoritarian leader-“Do what as I said or else”
-“Do as I say because I am good to you”
• PERSONALITY OF AUTOCRATIC LEADER:
1. Firm personality, insistent, self assured, highly
directive dominating and with or without
2. Has higher concern for work than for the people
who perform the ask.
3. Uses the effort of workers t the best possible
advantages, show no regard to the interest of
4. Set rigid standard and method of performances
and the subordinates to obey the rules,
5. Make all decision and passes orders to workers.
6. There is minimal group participation or non at all
from the workers.
7.Think that what he/she plans and does is best. May
listen to them but not influenced by their
8.Has no trust or confidence in subordinates, who in
turn fear and feel they have nothing much in
9. Exercise power , manipulates subordinate to act
according to his goal plans and stays at the centre
TYPES OF AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP:
1.Strict autocrat: It is one who relies on negative
influences and gives order that must be obey without
question. The subordinates behaviour is motivated
negatively by imposing penalty, criticism.
-“Do what as I said or else”
2.Benevolent autocrat: It is the one who uses a positive
motivation style. he disperse reward to his group. This is
effective in getting higher productivity.
- “ Do as I say because I am good to you”
• Merit of autocratic leadership:
1. It can increases quality of work, save time and get
fast result , especially in emergency.
2. It work well with employees who feel insecure
with freedom and minor decision making.
• Demerit of autocratic leadership:
1. The leader get little information and ideas from
2. One-way communication lead to communication
break down, misunderstanding and costly error.
3. Lead to loss of human dignity, low morale, low
productivity and massive resistance
B. DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP
• In this type of leadership the whole team is
involved and accept responsibilities for setting
and achieving goal.
• The leader shows concern for his people than for
• The leader is not the key figure as in autocratic
• The leader work more as agent , therefore the
team is not dependence on him and can work
effectively in his absence.
Merit of democratic leadership
Lets all contribute…………………………
• Demerit of democratic leadership:
1. Participation of each member may take
enormous amount of time.
2. If not exercise properly may degenerate into
complete loss of leadership ‘s control.
3. This style can be used by some leader as way
of avoiding responsibilities.
C. LAISSEZ-FAIRE/ FREE REIGN / DELE
C. LAISSEZ-FAIRE/ FREE REIGN / DELE
• The word “ Laissez –Faire” means the non –
interferences in the affair if others.
• In this type of leadership, the leader has
absolutely no control , but only gives information,
material and facilities to accomplishes the desired
• This type can be a complete failure if leader is not
aware of integrity and abilities of employees.
• The leader gives up all power to the group.
• Characteristic of Free-Reign leadership
1. Independent activity.
2. Interest of the leader.
3. Independent thinking rewarded.
4. Free to set their own goal.
5. Effective for highly motivated professionals.
6. Power given to the group.
• Merit of Free-Reign leadership:
1. Allow employees to take decision.
2. The group collectively assumes leadership.
• Demerit of Free-reign Leadership:
1. The leader exert little or no influence on the group
2. There is lack of central direction, supervision
coordination and control.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THREE TYPES
OF LEADERSHIP Employees take
involved only leader leader collectively
decision but leader
is still responsible.
Situation where to
When leader live
short of time and is
When leader have
part of information
have other part of
are able to analyse
the situation and
able to determine
involved in decision
Motivated as free
to teke decision.
Certain task are
Full inference by
leader as he is
Inference from both No inference by
part i.e’ employees leader.
than other two.
VII. TYPES OF LEADING
a) Leading by vision
b) Leading by inspiration.
c) Leading by influence.
d) Leading by empowerment
VIII. TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE IN
1. Charismatic leadership:
Having origin from Greek civilization, ‘Charisma’
spring from ingrained personnel trait such as overreacting, unshakeable confidence and penchant fir
setting a personal example.
It is characterized by emotional relationship
between leader and he group members in which
the leader inspires others by obtaining an
emotional commitment from follower and arousing
strong feeling of loyalty and enthusiasm.
The follower may be able to overcome extreme
hardship to achieve the goal because of their faith
in the leader.
2. Transactional leadership:
• It is based on reward and punishment.
• When the work is allocated to workers by
transactional leaders, they are fully
• On success they get reward and on failure,
they are punished.
3. Transformational leadership style
• The transformational leader put passion and
energy into everything and care about
employees and encourage them to succeed.
• The leader take every opportunity and will use
whatever works to convince others the stair of
• The leader seek to transform the organisation,
they are charistic but not harcisstic as pure
charismatic, who believe in themselves.
4.ATTRIBUTED LEADERSHIP :
• In this. the perception of follower are not the
behaviour or characteristic of leaders.
• The attributed leader has a well balanced
intellect(IQ), mind (EQ) and multidisciplinary
• The leader listen more, speak less, observe
more and conclude less and use “we” more
• The leader involves the employees in taking
decision due to which the employees are more
committed to action.
• It is believed that several people together
make decision better than one person.
• In this the decision taken by the leader are not
same in every situation.
• The leader decision differ according to the
• Factor influencing decision making are:
Motivation and capability of the followers.
Relationship between follower and leader.
Leader’s perception of himself.
Stress and mood of leader and employees.
IX. CHOOSING A LEADERSHIP
According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt. Factor
affecting in choosing leadership styles are:
1. Force in the manager.
2. Force in the sub-ordinates.
3. Forces in the situation.
X. LEADERSHIP THEORY
1. TRAIT APPROACH/ TRAIT THEORY OF
This theory is describes by Kelly(1974)
attempt to classify what personality
characteristic such as physical, personality
and mental are associated with leadership
Trait theory belief that leader were born with
quality that determines leadership ability.
• A lengthy list of trait are as below1.Physical characteristic.
2. Back ground characteristic.
5.Task oriented characteristic.
• Example of Trait Leader in India- Mahatma
Gandhi, PT.Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallah Bhai
• This theory declare that “good leader are not
born, but can be trained to be effective”.
• A leader can be trained in the given three skill
below1. Technical skill- person knowledge and
proficiency in doing his work.
2.Human skill- ability to work effectively with
people and built team work.
3. Conceptual skill- deal with ideas and enable
manger to devise plan.
• Behavioral theory lead to development of
classification of leader into:
1. Autocratic leadership/ Authorian / Work
Approach or Directive leadership.
2. Democratic / Partucipative /Consultative or
Person oriented leadership.
3. Free-Reign / Laissez Faire leadership.
According to this theory, a leader is a product
of a given situation and the behavior may
infact, may vary from one situation.
And important aspect of this theory is the
interaction between the group and its leader,
people tend to follow the person who is
capable of fulfilling their desires
Four situational variables that effect the
performances of leadership,
They areDifferences between culture
Differences between individual
Differences between jobs
Differences between organization.
4. TWO DIMENSIONAL THOERY:
• The two dimensional of leadership behavior
are consideration and structure.
• The leader who are on high consideration
create mental trust, respect and the superior
respects the subordinates ideas and feeling.
• A high structure scope indicate the leader
structure their role as well as those of the
subordinates forward attainment of the
5. MANEGERIAL GRID THEORY
• The managerial grid theory is based upon two
• Relationship orientation and task orientation,
which has identified five leadership style
1.Concern for people(Relationship orientation) is
identified as the extent to which a manager has
2. Concern for production (Task orientation) is
define as the extent to which the manager
directs his subordinates effort towards goal
• The five leadership style based on the managerial
grid theory are
the leader exert a maximum effort to accomplished
the task as a manager .
The leader concentrates on production and show
no regard for the development and morale of the
Adequate concern for production and relationship.
The leader is concern with people and less for task
Leader show maximum concern for production as
well as people.
6.LIKERT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
• Likert and his associates of university of Michigan
USA, have studied the pattern and styles of
manager for decades and develop certain concept
and approaches important to understanding
• He has given a continum of 4 system of
management in term of leadership styles as below;
System 1:Exploitative autocratic.
System 2:Basic violent autocrat.
System 3: Participative
System 4: Democratic.
• An Organization strength lies in its leadership.
Leadership is a shared process for a leader and
his follower to work together to attain goal.
• Leadership style is the way of providing
direction, implementory plans and motives
• Leader has to adopt a style which fit into their
subordinates personalities as well as the task
in the hand to achieve maximum effectiveness