of psychomotor skills is very
essential for good nursing practice .
By virtue of its effectiveness in teaching
psychomotor skills, demonstration enjoy a
dominant position among teaching
method employed in teaching nursing.
In nursing education, it is used for the
teaching in various areaclinic, conference, laboratory
classes, symposia, autopsies and
teaching of health to patients
can be defined as
visualized explanation of facts , concepts
and procedure .
Demonstration is a method of teaching by
exhibition and explanation combined to
illustrate a procedure or experiments.
PURPOSE OF DEMONSTRATION
purpose of demonstration :
Acquire , retain and be able to use
Understand, analyze, synthesize and
USES OF DEMONSTRATION
To demonstrate experiments and the use of
experimental equipment in the science
laboratory , medical , nursing etc.
To demonstrate procedure in the classroom
and the ward to review or revise procedure
to meet a special situation or to introduce a
To teach the patient / client a procedure to
treatment which he must carry out in the
4) To demonstrate a procedure at the
bedside or in the ward conference
room, demonstrate of a procedure in
natural setting has more meaning.
5) To demonstrate different approaches in
establishing support with client, the more
effective nurse- patient relationship may
The demonstrator should understand the
entire procedure before attempting to
All equipment needed should be
assembled and pretest before
Knowledge(theoretical aspects) above the
procedure should be given to the student
before starting procedure / demonstration.
A positive approach should be used.
should have a good view of the
The person incharge of the demonstration
should accompany it with running comments
relative to material used, amount
necessary, process taking place and anticipated
The setting for the demonstration should be as
true to life as possible wherever possible live
model cost area.
A discussion period should always follow the
The students should be provided with
opportunities for prompt practice of the
PHASES OF DEMONSTRATION
i)Planning and preparation phase :
Set well defined obective based on the theoretical
knowledge and need of the students.
b) Review related knowledge
Based on scientific principles or rational basis
split the demonstration into appropriate steps so
that the student can easily follow the
Do rehearsal as needed for attaining the
proficiency required for conducting
e) If demonstration involves patient, obtain
permission and plan for their comfort and
f) Create a conductive learning environment
by providing adequate facilities.
g) Plan for maximum student participation.
h) Ensure adequacy and good working of
equipment, assemble equipment in a
i)Plan for return demonstration.
j) Give necessary guidance to the student for
achieving the objective of demonstration.
k) Prepare a checklist regarding the articles and
steps so that the teacher can avoid
shortcoming in the performance phase.
l) In planning phase, foresee the importance of
providing opportunities for student to practice
the skill and make arrangements for the
m) Preparation of procedure manual at the
institution level with other institution not
only bring uniformity to procedures but
also reduce workload in preparation
ii. Performance phase:
Based on the principle of proceeding from whole to
parts, briefly narrate before explaining the individual
step in detail.
Explain the name and use of articles kept ready for
Start the demonstration slowly so that student can
Explain the purpose and scientific principle associated
with each step.
Pace the step and verbal explanation in a student
Make sure that students have understood each
step, repeat if they have not understood it.
g) Wherever possible involve students in
h) In between ask question and encourage to seek
clarification in order to get feedback, complete
the procedure with a summary.
i)Replace the articles and demonstrate after care
and wash hands.
j) Show the way of recording the procedure.
k) Conclude the performance phase with
discussion , as discussion will provide help in
iii. Evaluation phase:
Done through return- demonstration.
Asking about thought provoking question.
DEMONSTRATION METHOD IN
AREA IN WHICH
DEMONSTRATION IS USED IN
CLINICAL NURSING SETTING
To teach new procedure either at the
bedside or in the ward-teaching center.
To illustrate modification of basic
procedure to meet the immediate
To make application of the knowledge
of underlying scientific principles to
nursing care situation.
To teach the use and care of new
To teach application of observation
technique and skills to nursing situations.
To teach ways of establishing effective
nurse- patient communication and
To teach health maintenance and
preventive health care measures to patient
TEACHER FOR EFFECTIVE
Time demonstration is accorded with
student background of knowledge and
readiness for practice of new knowledge.
2. Arrange for demonstration to be as much
like actual situation as possible.
3. Select patient or other to serve as model
requiring nursing activity to be
demonstrated; explain purpose of
demonstration and obtain necessary legal
clearance prior to demonstration.
4. Obtain necessary equipments and test to
make certain it is in proper working place.
5. Study direction and practice demonstration exactly
as it would be performed before observer.
6. Provide student with advance information regarding
activity to be demonstrated.
7. Arrange physical setting for demonstration so that
all observer are comfortably located to hear and
see, repeated demonstration may be needed to
accommodate a large group.
8. Explain purpose of activity, result
desired, equipments to be used.
9. Proceeds with each step of activity in logical
10. Coordinate each step with running
comments, explaining exactly what is being donemake clear, definite and complete sentence.
11. Show how various aspect of activity could be
modified to meet immediate needs of patient.
12. Provide discussion period immediately after
demonstration, repeat portion needing
13. Provide opportunities for prompt , supervised
practice periods in accord with objectives of
demonstration and needs of individual students.
14. Evaluate individual students progress in
accord with expected level of ability in
development of desired skill.
15. Plan follow up experience needed to assist
students in learning activity and in applying it
to other situation.
Familiarize self with objectives for
2. Study written material and suggested
3. Observe patient and equipment in use
as example for planned demonstration.
4. Follow steps being demonstrated along
with written information.
5. Contribute to the follow up discussion.
6. Translate observation of demonstration
into return performance.
7. Seek opportunities to practice activity until
needed skill is reached.
8. Evaluate self regarding growth and areas of
help needed to perfect desired skill.
9. Seek opportunities to build on newly gained
knowledge and skill in making application to
10. Demonstrate learned activities to other
11. Recognize patient’s needs for learning
procedure and proceed with necessary
arrangement for demonstration.
12. Request demonstration of unfamiliar
procedures on equiptment.
There are so many advantages of
demonstration, few of them are;
It help student acquire
knowledge, skill and attitude.
It stimulate all the sense organs.
It motivate the learner.
It help student to form mental image
and the lesson learnt.
Its help in critical thinking.
1. Demonstration is teacher centered, small
group teaching method but return
demonstration is student centered.
1. Good explanation and theoretical
background is needed.
2. Its needs repition as for better
knowledge and for developing
creative teacher know hoe to use the
demonstration method to modify concept and
skill and to maximize the possibilities for
transfer of learning so that the student can
use previously acquired knowledge in new
Demonstration is the apt method for
developing psychomotor skill and realizing
the importance of psychomotor skill in
clinical practice, students are less likely to
remain inattentive while attending