INTRODUCTION The history of slavery in the United States (1619-1865) began after the English Colonists first settled in Virginia and lasted until the passage of the 13th Amendment to the U.S Constitution. From about the 1640s until 1865, people of African descent were legally enslaved within the boundaries of the country. They were held devastatingly by whites, but also by some Native Americans and free black people. This happened especially in the Southern region (95% of slaves).According to the 1860 U.S. census, nearly 4 million slaves were held out ofa total population of just over 12 million, in the 15 states in which slavery was legal.
INTRODUCTION The majority of slaves were held by planters, those who held 20 or more slaves. These planters achieved wealth, social and political power. The wealth of the U.S. in the first half of the 19th century was greatly enhanced bythe exploitation of labor of African AmericansHowever, with the Union victory in the Civil War, the slave labor system was abolished in the South. Industrialists from northern states dominated many aspects, including social and some of political affairs. The planter class of the South lost power temporarily.
INTRODUCTION Approximately 12 million black Africans were shipped to AMERICA from the 17th to the 19th centuries. Of these, 5.4% (645,000) were brought to what is now the United States. Videos About the History of Slavery:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nZl8YtCfObI&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=clldd6sGpCI&feature=related
COLONIAL AMERICA The first record of African slavery in Colonial America occurred in 1619. A Dutch ship, the White Lion, had captured 20 enslaved Africans in a battle with a Spanish ship bound for Mexico.The Dutch ship had been damaged by the battle, and the colony was suffering of high mortalityrates, disease and malnutrition. Since the colony needed able-bodied workers, and the ship was in need of repairs and supplies, human cargo was traded for food and services.
COLONIAL AMERICA The Virginia Slave codes of 1705 made clear the status of slaves. During the British colonial period, every colony had slavery. Those in the north were primarily house servants.In South Carolina in 1720 about 65% of the population consisted of slaves.They worked on farms and plantations growing indigo, rice, tobacco, andcotton. They were also used by rich farmers and plantation owners forcommercial export operations.
COLONIAL AMERICA Some of the British colonies attempted to abolish the international slave trade, fearing that the importation of new Africans would be disruptive.Rhode Island forbade the import of slaves in 1774. All of the states exceptGeorgia had banned or limited the African slave trade by 1786; Georgia didso in 1798, although some of these laws were later repealed.
SLAVERY FROM 1776-1850 SECOND MIDDLE PASSAGEThis was the name of the "central event” in the life of a slave between the American Revolution and the Civil War.The “Second middle passage” consisted of breaking up existing slave families and forcing them to relocate far from everyone and everything they knew.They lived in fear that they or their families would be involuntarily moved,which traumatized them significantly. It is estimated that 1,000,000 slaves moved west between 1790 and 1860.
SLAVERY FROM 1776-1850 SECOND MIDDLE PASSAGEThe internal slave trade became the largest enterprise in the South outsidethe plantation itself, and probably the most advanced in its employment of modern transportation, finance, and publicity. The Second Middle Passage was extraordinarily lonely, debilitating, and dispiriting. An observer characterized a southern march of slaves as "a procession of men, women, and children resembling that of a funeral."Slave men and women died on the march, and were even sold and resold.Murder and chaos were extremely common, which was why the men were chained tightly and guarded closely.
SLAVERY FROM 1776-1850 SECOND MIDDLE PASSAGE A combination of inadequate nutrition, bad water, and exhaustion from both the journey and the work weakened the newly arrived slaves and produced casualties.The death rate was such that, in the first few years of hewing a plantation out of the wilderness, some planters preferred whenever possible to use rented slaves rather than their own Many of the slaves were new to cotton fields and unaccustomed to the "sunrise-to-sunset labor" required by their new life. They were driven much harder than when they were involved in growing tobacco or Wheat.
SLAVERY FROM 1776-1850Between 1810 and 1830 the number of slavesincreased from under 10,000 to over 42,000.New Orleans became nationally important as a slave port, and by the 1840s had the largest slave market in the country.
SLAVERY FROM 1776-1850 IMPORTANT FACTSWith the high mortality rate, to replace losses, plantation owners encouragedthe slaves to have children.Child-bearing started around the age of thirteen, and by twenty the womenslaves would be expected to have four or five children. To encourage child-bearing some population ownerspromised women slaves their freedom after they hadproduced fifteen children.The law provided slaves with no protection at allfrom their masters. The punishments used against slavesincluded the use of the whip.Sometimes slave-owners preferred mutilating andbranding their slaves.
SLAVERY FROM 1776-1850 TESTIMONY OF A SLAVE FREDERICK DOUGLASS, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (1845) “The time came when I must go to work on the plantation. I was less than seven years old. On the plantation of Colonel Lloyd I was left to the tender mercies of Aunt Katy, a woman slave who, ill-tempered and cruel, was often guilty of starving me and the other children. One day I had offended Aunt Katy and she adopted her usual mode of publishingme; namely, making me go all day without food. Sundown came, but no bread. I was too hungry to sleep, when who but my own dear mother shouldcome in. She read Aunt Katy a lecture which was never forgotten. That night I learned as I had never learned before, that I was not only a child, but somebodys child. My mother had walked twelve miles to see me, and had the same distance to travel over before the morning sunrise. I do not remember seeing her again”.
TREATMENT OF SLAVES- Harsh and inhumane: only the threat of violence could force gangs of fieldhands to work from dawn to dusk “with the discipline of a regular trained army”.- Floggings: penalty for inefficient labor, disorderly conduct, or refusal to acceptthe authority of a superior. - Slaves and free blacks were regulated by the Black Codes. Physical abuse, murder, constant risk of losing members of their families. Murdering owners, burning farms, killing horses, staging work slowdowns.
TREATMENT OF SLAVES- Slaves: legal property of their owners.- Enslaved black women: raped by theirowners. Children who resulted from such SLAVESrapes were slaves as well.- Family: basic unit of social organization Fed, clothed, housed, and provided medical care in the most minimal manner.- Slaves: considered legal NON-persons,except if they committed crimes. Small bonuses during Christmas season. They "are rational beings, they are capableof committing crimes; and in reference to acts which Keep earnings andare crimes, are regarded as persons. Because they are gambling profits.slaves, they are incapable of performing civil acts, and,in reference to all such, they are things, not persons”.(Alabama court)
SLAVERY & WOMEN’S RIGHTS- Women and men had equal labor-intensive work. Labor-intensive jobs for WOMEN Cooking for the owner’s household as well as the slaves themselves. Sewing, midwifery, pruning fields.- 1837: Antislavery Convention of American Women (NY)- 1848: launch of the women’s rights movement at Seneca Falls, NY
ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT - 1750: widespread sentiment during the American Revolution that slavery was a social evil. - The Massachussetts Constitution of 1780 declared all men “born free and equal”. - Strong support for slavery among white Southerners, who profited greatly from the system: refer to slavery as the “peculiar institution”. Declared slavery to be a Religious movement personal sin led by William Lloyd Factor in causing Garrison the American1830 Civil War.
ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENTInfluential leaders of the abolitionist movement:• William Lloyd Garrison
ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENTInfluential leaders of the abolitionist movement:• Harriet Beecher Stowe
ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENTInfluential leaders of the abolitionist movement:• Frederick Douglass
ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENTInfluential leaders of the abolitionist movement:• Harriet Tubman
RISING TENSIONS- Economic value of plantation slavery:magnified in 1793 with the invention of thecotton gin (Eli Whitney).- Just as demand for slaves was increasing,supply was restricted. Any new slaves would have to US Constitution be descendants of ones who (1787) were currently in the US. Slavery became more or less self- sustainingPrevented Congress to 1808: Congress actedbanned importation of to ban further imports slaves until 1808.
Religious institutions North and South grew further apart in 1845 when the BaptistChurch and other denominations split into Northern and Southernorganizations. Distribution of Slaves Chart 1 Chart 2
Distribution of slaves in 1820 Census # Free Total % free Total US % black # Slaves Year blacks black blacks population of total 1790 697,681 59,527 757,208 7.9% 3,929,214 19% 1800 893,602 108,435 1,002,037 10.8% 5,308,483 19% 1810 1,191,362 186,446 1,377,808 13.5% 7,239,881 19% 1820 1,538,022 233,634 1,771,656 13.2% 9,638,453 18% 1830 2,009,043 319,599 2,328,642 13.7% 12,860,702 18% 1840 2,487,355 386,293 2,873,648 13.4% 17,063,353 17% 1850 3,204,313 434,495 3,638,808 11.9% 23,191,876 16% 1860 3,953,760 488,070 4,441,830 11.0% 31,443,321 14% 1870 0 4,880,009 4,880,009 100% 38,558,371 13% Source: http://www.census.gov/population/documentation/twps0056/tab01.xls
Nat Turner, anti-literacy laws In 1831, a bloody slave rebellion took place in SouthamptonCounty, Virginia. A slave named Nat Turner who was able to read andwrite and had "visions", led what became known as Nat TurnersRebellion or the Southampton Insurrection Nat Turner was hanged and skinned. His fellow freedomfighters were also hanged. Virginia law against educating slaves, free blacks and childrenof whites and blacks. Dred Scott Dred Scott was a 62-year-old slave who sued for his freedomafter the death of his owner on the ground that he had lived in aterritory where slavery was forbidden in the northern part of theLouisiana Purchase, from which slavery was excluded under theterms of the Missouri Compromise.
Dred Scott Ten years later in a sweeping decision that set the UnitedStates on course for Civil War, the Supreme Court denied Scott hisfreedom. The 1857 Dred Scott decision, decided 6-3, held that a slavedid not become free when taken into a free state; Congress could notbar slavery from a territory, and blacks could not be citizens. The decision enraged abolitionists and encouraged slaveowners, helping to push the country towards civil war. 1860 Presidential Elections Dred Scott was a 62-year-old slave who sued for his freedomafter the death of his owner on the ground that he had lived in aterritory where slavery was forbidden in the northern part of theLouisiana Purchase, from which slavery was excluded under theterms of the Missouri Compromise.
1860 Presidential Elections Lincoln, the Republican, won with a plurality of popular votesand a majority of electoral votes. Lincoln, however, did not appear onthe ballots of ten southern states: thus his election necessarily splitthe nation along sectional lines. They also argued that banning slavery in new states wouldupset what they saw as a delicate balance of free states and slavestates. The combination of these factors led the South to secede fromthe Union, and thus began the American Civil War. War and Emancipation The consequent American Civil War, beginning in 1861, ledto the end of chattel slavery in America. Not long after the war brokeout, through a legal maneuver credited to Union General Benjamin F.Butler, a lawyer by profession, slaves who came into Union"possession" were considered "contraband of war".
War and Emancipation Many of the "contrabands" joined the Union Army as workersor troops, forming entire regiments of the U.S. Colored Troops(USCT). Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863 was apowerful move that promised freedom for slaves in the Confederacyas soon as the Union armies reached them, and authorized theenlistment of African Americans in the Union Army. Emancipation as a reality came to the remaining southernslaves after the surrender of all Confederate troops in spring 1865. There still were over 250,000 slaves in Texas. Word did notreach Texas about the collapse of the Confederacy until June 19,1865. Juneteenth
Sharecropping An 1867 federal law prohibited a descendant form of slaveryknown as sharecropping or debt bondage, which still existed in theNew Mexico Territory as a legacy of Spanish imperial rule. Educational Issues The anti-literacy laws after 1832 undoubtedly contributedgreatly to the widespread illiteracy facing the freedmen and otherAfrican Americans after the Civil War and Emancipation 35 yearslater. Consequently, many religious organizations, former UnionArmy officers and soldiers, and wealthy philanthropists were inspiredto create and fund educational efforts specifically for the bettermentof African Americans in the South.
Apologies On February 24, 2007 the Virginia General Assembly passedHouse Joint Resolution Number 728 acknowledging "with profoundregret the involuntary servitude of Africans and the exploitation ofNative Americans, and call for reconciliation among all Virginians."
Arguments used to justify slavery Thomas Jefferson wrote in a letter 1820: “We have the wolf by the ear, and we can neither hold him, norsafely let him go. Justice is in one scale, and self preservation in the other”Robert E. Lee in 1856: “ think it is a greater evil to the white than tothe colored race. While my feelings are strongly enlisted in behalf of the latter, my sympathies are more engaged for the former”.
Slavery as a “positive good”.• In a famous speech in the senate in 1837,John C. Calhoun, declared that slavery was instead of an evil- a positive good”. Enslavement of Native Americans• During the 17th century, the enslavement of Native Americans by Europeans was common.• Allan Gallay estimates that from1670-171, British slave traders soldbetween 24,000 and 51,000 of NativeAmericans from what is now thesouthern part of the U.S.
FREE BLACK PEOPLE AND SLAVERY • Historian Ira Berlin wrote:In slave societies, nearly everyone – free andslave – aspired to enter the slaveholding class,and upon occasion some former slaves rose intoslaveholders’ ranks. Their acceptance wasgrudging, as they carried the stigma of bondagein their lineage and, in the case of Americanslavery, color in their skin.