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Different But Equal In Europe

1
INTRODUTION
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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam
nonummy nibh euismod tincidu...
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Different But Equal In Europe

5
Benoîte Groult
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http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benoîte_Groult

Benoîte Groult was born in Paris on the 31st Jan...
Coco Chanel
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http://www.femalefatal.com/fashion-icon-coco-chanel/

Gabrielle Chanel, nicknamed “Coco Chanel”,...
Elisabeth Badinter
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Elisabeth Badinter was born on the 5th March, 1944 in Boulogne-Billancourt,
near Paris. ...
Fadela Amara
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http://www.elle.fr

Fadéla Amara was born on the 25th of April in 1964 in Clermont-Ferrant, Puy...
Lucie Aubrac
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http://www.clunisois.fr/category/biographie/

Lucie Samuel was born in France on 29th June, 191...
Simone de Beauvoir
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www.biography.com

Born in 1908 in a wealthy family she received a catholic education but...
Simone Veil
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www.lexpress.fr

Simone Jacob was the youngest of four children (Magdalene, John, Denise and
Sim...
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GREECE

Different But Equal In Europe

21
Amalia Fleming
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http://rascunhos01.com.sapo.pt/Sophia.html

She was born in Istanbul in June 1912 and she was...
Anna Comnena
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She was the first child of the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Comnenos.
She was born on the 1th D...
Helene Glikatzi-Ahrweller
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www.agonaskritis.gr

One of the most prominent academic figures in Greek and inter...
Hypatia
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She was born in about 370 A.D in Alexandria, Egypt.
Her father, Theon, was an important literary ma...
Maria Callas
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www.ilove80.be

Maria Callas was an American born Greek soprano and one of the most renowned
op...
Melina Merkouris
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http://belasatrizesdomundo.blogspot.pt

Melina Merkouri is one of the great female figures ...
Kalliroi Siganou-Parren
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http://stigmes.gr

Kalliroi Parren child of a wealthy family was born in Platania, R...
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ITALY

Different But Equal In Europe

37
Alda Merini
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http://www.tarantoeventi.it

Alda Merini, born in Milan in 1931, published her first poetry coll...
Emma Bonino
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ttp://www.mondoinformazione.com/

Emma Bonino is an Italian politician and campaigner on civil s...
Grazia Deledda
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www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1926

As described in Grace and in her a...
Margherita Hack
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www.radiosmith.it

Born in Florence June 12, 1922, Margherita Hack was one of the brightest ...
Maria Montessori
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www.mehermontessori.org

Maria Montessori (1870 –1952) was an Italian physician and educato...
Rita Atria
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www.ritaatria.it

“Perhaps an honest world will never exist but who prevents us from dreaming? pe...
Rita Levi-Montalcini
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www.vanityfair.it

Rita Levi-Montalcini born 22 April 1909 was an Italian Neurologist w...
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LITHUANIA

Different But Equal In Europe

53
Alma Adamkienė
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www.alfa.lt

Alma Adamkienė was born in Šiauliai on 10 February,1927. Her father was a trader...
Barbora Radvilaitė
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www.alytausgidas.lt

Barbora Radvilaitė is a symbol of beauty who made a king go against ...
Dalia Ibelhauptaitė
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalia_Ibelhauptait%

Dalia Ibelhauptaitė is a Lithuanian an...
Janina Lapinskaitė
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http://www.tiesa.com

Janina Lapinskaitė is a well – known Lithuanian actress, film direc...
Marija Aušrinė Pavilionienė
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http://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marija_Aušrinė_Pavilionienė

Marija Aušrinė Pavilio...
Ona Skaistutė Idzelevičienė
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http://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ona_Skaistutė_Idzelevičienė

Ona Skaistutė Idzelevi...
Violeta Urmana
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www.violetaurma.com

Violeta Urmana was born in Kazlų Rūda, Lithuania in 1961. At the age of ...
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Different But Equal In Europe

69
Amália Rodrigues
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www.arlindo-correia.com

Amália da Piedade Rodrigues was a Portuguese singer and actress. S...
Carolina Beatriz Ângelo
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pt.wikipedia.org

Carolina Beatriz Ângelo was a Portuguese woman, born on April 16t...
Eunice Muñoz
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http://mesemquando.blogspot.pt/

Eunice Muñoz, born on 30th July 1928, is a Portuguese actress ...
Florbela Espanca
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http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florbela_Espanca

Florbela Espanca was a precursor of the femi...
Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo
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www.arquivopintasilgo.pt

Maria de Lourdes Ruivo da Silva Matos Pintasilgo (Abr...
Paula Rego
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www.local.pt

The artist was born in Lisbon, Portugal, on the 26th January, 1935. She must be
the...
Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen
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www.teleios.com.br

Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen was born in Porto in 1...
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Different But Equal In Europe

85
ANA ASLAN
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Ana Aslan is one of the most famous Romanian women throughout the world.
She was born on February...
Angela Gheorghiu
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Angela Gheorghiu was born in Adjud, Romania. She attended the School of Music
in Bucharest...
Herta Müller
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Romanian-born German writer Herta Müller was born on 17 August 1953, in the
town of Nitchidorf...
MARIA UCA MARINESCU
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Maria Uca Marinescu was born on May 15, 1940 in the city of Gheorgheni,
Harghita County...
Nadia Comaneci
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phoolaurkankar.blogspot.com

Nadia Elena Comaneci was born on 12th November 1961, in Onesti, ...
Stephanie Mărăcineanu
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http://roncea.ro/

Stephanie Mărăcineanu was the first important Romanian woman physic...
Virginia Haret
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www.bazavan.ro

Maria Virginia Andreescu Haret also known as Virginia Haret is a famous Roman...
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Different But Equal In Europe

101
Azra Akın
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www.actorsbiography.com

Azra Akın is a Turkish model and actress. She was born on 8 December 1981...
Halide Edip Adıvar
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Halide Edip Adıvar was a Turkish novelist and nationalist and feminist political
leader....
İdil Biret
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İdil Biret is a Turkish concert pianist. She is renowned for her interpretations
of the Romantic...
Neslihan Demir
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www.cheerall.com

Neslihan Demir is a Turkish volleyball star and she plays for Eczacıbaşı Vi...
Sabiha Gökçen
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Sabiha Gökçen was the first female combat pilot in the world and the first
Turkish aviatrix. ...
Sertab Erener
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www.vmuzike.net

Sertab Erener is a Turkish pop music singer and also a cross-over sopranowith...
Tansu Çiller
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www.todayszaman.com

Tansu Çiller is a Turkish economist and politician. She is the first femal...
Comenius Project
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“We thank to all the local and national institutions that have supported our work ”
Istitu...
Comenius - DIFFEQUAL
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Comenius - DIFFEQUAL

  1. 1. Photo Source: Different But Equal In Europe 1
  2. 2. INTRODUTION Photo Source: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat, vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent luptatum zzril delenit augue duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi. Nam liber tempor cum soluta nobis eleifend option congue nihil imperdiet doming id quod mazim placerat facer possim assum. Typi non habent claritatem insitam; est usus legentis in iis qui facit eorum claritatem. Investigationes demonstraverunt lectores legere me lius quod ii legunt saepius. Claritas est etiam processus dynamicus, qui sequitur mutationem consuetudium lectorum. Mirum est notare quam littera gothica, quam nunc putamus parum claram, anteposuerit litterarum formas humanitatis per seacula quarta decima et quinta decima. Eodem modo typi, qui nunc nobis videntur parum clari, fiant sollemnes in futurum. DIFERENT BUT EQUAL IN EUROPE Different But Equal In Europe 3
  3. 3. Photo Source: Different But Equal In Europe 5
  4. 4. Benoîte Groult Photo Source: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benoîte_Groult Benoîte Groult was born in Paris on the 31st January 1920. She is now 93 years old. She is a French journalist, a writer but also and above all a feminist activist. During World War Two she was a nurse for the Red Cross. From 1945 to 1953, she worked for the RDF (Radiodiffusion Française), a French national public broadcasting organization created in 1939. She wrote several novels and essays: - Journal à quatre mains (Journal Written with Four Hands): it’s her first novel, it was published in 1962. - Le Féminin pluriel (The Feminine Plural),1965. - Ainsi soit-elle (1975) is an essay on the condition of women. It was an instant success. The title is a parody of the expression ‘ainsi soit-il’ (French for ‘amen’ or ‘so be it’) and could be translated by ‘so be her’. - Mon évasion (2008) is her latest novel. In 1978, she took part in the creation of a feminist monthly magazine named F Magazine, of which she was managing director. From 1984 to 1986, she headed the commission for the Feminisation of job-related terminology. Indeed, in French, some occupations are referred to with a feminine («chercheuse» ---> researcher, «infirmière» ---> nurse) or a masculine («chercheur», «infirmier») term depending on the employee’s gender whereas some others are only referred to with a masculine word (“pilote” ---> pilot). In 1986, she published the declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen. She was awarded the Legion d’honneur in 2010: it’s an official recognition by the State for her career and her life. By Gaetan. Different But Equal In Europe FRANCE 7
  5. 5. Coco Chanel Photo Source: http://www.femalefatal.com/fashion-icon-coco-chanel/ Gabrielle Chanel, nicknamed “Coco Chanel”, was born on August 19th, 1883 in Saumur, and died on January 20th 1971, in Paris. She was a French creator and and stylist, famous for her work in fashion design and perfume. She founded the Chanel House, “symbol of French elegance” Compared with the other struggles of her life for women’s rights, fashion design, can seem rather trivial. But in the 19th and 20th centuries, there were few women who managed to become emancipated and to climb up the ladder of the various social classes to stand out in a society where the laws were dictated by men. She did. From apprentice needlewoman to major fashion figure, Coco, as she was nicknamed, was literally going to change, from head to foot, the way of dressing the woman. Indeed, she created a very particular style: short hair, black and white clothes and masculine appearance: the Chanel style. Dressing as men did was a sort of provocation to prove that women could get the same rights and the same place in a society dominated by men. She proved that fashion could also be a way to the emancipation of women. By Celia. Different But Equal In Europe FRANCE 9
  6. 6. Elisabeth Badinter Photo Source: Elisabeth Badinter was born on the 5th March, 1944 in Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris. She is a philosopher, a feminist writer but also a business woman. Her father was Marcel Bleustein Blanchet, he founded the Publicis Groupe, a Parisian multinational advertising and public relations company. Her father was a self-made man. Elisabeth has declared that both of her parents believed in gender equality. She became a feminist in her teens. She attributes her “conversion” to her reading of Simone de Beauvoir’s Le Deuxième Sexe when she was sixteen. She is married to Robert Badinter, a lawyer, previous French Minister of Justice from 1981 to 1986 in the socialist government of François Mitterrand and famous for his role in the abolition of death penalty in France. Professor of Philosophy at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, she is a thinker, a socialist who defends as her husband an idea of the social democracy through her books. In 1980 she published L’Amour en plus, the history of maternal love from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. In this book she wrote that maternal love was not a natural quality of women. In 1984, she published Emilie, in 1985 Les “Remonstrances” de Malesherbes. Because she has been such a promoter of feminism, which she calls one of the most important revolutions in modern times, her 2003 book Fausse Route provoked an outcry among feminist circles. Indeed she criticizes some feminist activists, those who see women as different from men. “Man is not the enemy ” she writes. It is necessary to “fight to win equality with men, surely not against them.” She opposes the display of religious symbols in public places and considers the covering of women’s hair in Islam as a form of sexual discrimination. By Victor. Different But Equal In Europe FRANCE 11
  7. 7. Fadela Amara Photo Source: http://www.elle.fr Fadéla Amara was born on the 25th of April in 1964 in Clermont-Ferrant, Puyde-Dôme. She’s from an Algerian Kabyle family. She has 4 sisters and 6 brothers. Her mother didn’t have a job and her father was a worker. At the beginning, she didn’t intend to be a politician, indeed she graduated in accounting. She got involved very early in various causes. She took part in many demonstrations like in 1983, a mass demonstration of the “Beurs” (French people of North African origins), a demonstration against a certain kind of racism, or discrimination. She also campaigned for «SOS Racisme», a civil rights organisation that fights racism, racial discrimination. In 2000, she was chosen to become the president of the “Fédération Nationale des Maisons des Potes” that also fights against discriminations. In 2002, she wrote a petition to denounce the conditions of women in the deprived urban and suburban areas. Fadéla Amara also created in 2003 the association “Ni putes ni soumises” (“Neither whores, nor subjected”) to prevent inequalities between men and women. Fadéla Amara is a socialist but she was chosen by Nicolas Sarkozy in the previous government to become Secretary of State in charge of Urban Policies. She is involved in many demonstrations and associations: Marche des beurs, Fédération nationale des Maisons des Potes, SOS racisme. But she is bestknonwn for her involvement in “Ni putes, ni soumises” (“Neither whores, nor subjected” ). By Louis. Different But Equal In Europe FRANCE 13
  8. 8. Lucie Aubrac Photo Source: http://www.clunisois.fr/category/biographie/ Lucie Samuel was born in France on 29th June, 1912. She got married to a member of the French Communist Party, Raymond Samuel, in December, 1939. After the defeat of France in 1940 she decided to become a resistance fighter with her husband. In 1941 they took the nickname of “Aubrac”, a French region where resistant fighters were hiding. Lucie Aubrac gave birth to her first child, Jean-Pierre, in May 1941. In 1943, Raymond Aubrac was arrested, held and tortured by the Germans in Montluc Prison in Lyons. Lucie Aubrac visited him in prison. She then decided to set up a release operation: despite her pregnancy, she went into action, took up arms and fought. The operation was successful because her husband managed to escape. She is still very famous for this feat and, more generally, for her patriotic involvement. Once women were granted the right to vote and be elected in 1944, she became one of the first women to sit in a French parliamentary assembly after France was liberated. After she retired, she often went to schools to talk about WWII and the importance of feeling concerned and standing and fighting for freedom and justice. Lucie Aubrac died on 14th March, 2007. During her life, she showed that women could be as strong, valiant, brave and clever as men. By Malek. Different But Equal In Europe FRANCE 15
  9. 9. Simone de Beauvoir Photo Source: www.biography.com Born in 1908 in a wealthy family she received a catholic education but rejected religion, declared herself atheist and quickly separated from her family to live a non-conformist life. Jean-Paul Sartre was a French writer and philosopher who shared Simone De Beauvoir’ s ideas. Both of them belonged to the existentialist movement. They met in 1929, at the end of their studies. They lived in non-conformism and had several lovers. In 1945, she created Les Temps Modernes with Maurice Merleau-Ponty and JeanPaul Sartre. It was a literary, cultural, political and philosophical magazine which expressed their political commitment with the socialists. In 1949 she wrote Le Deuxième Sexe (The Second Sex) in which she advocates the emancipation of women and denounces a society where women always lose out against men. In 1954, she won the Goncourt literary prize, with her novel Les Mandarins. In 1958, she wrote an autobiography composed of three books which deal with the emancipation of women and men’s behavior in society. She died in 1986, aged 78. She left behind the founding elements of the feminist movement. She is considered the precursor of the French feminist movement. By Célia. Different But Equal In Europe FRANCE 17
  10. 10. Simone Veil Photo Source: www.lexpress.fr Simone Jacob was the youngest of four children (Magdalene, John, Denise and Simone); three of them survived the Second World War (Madeleine, Denise and herself). She was born on July 13, 1927 in Nice (in the South of the country). Simone Veil sat her baccalaureate in March 1944, the day before her arrest by two SS soldiers. She was deported and sent several months in Auschwitz and other death camps from which she is a survivor. Her father and her brother John were also arrested and deported to a Lithuanian death camp by train but never came back. Simone Veil never saw them again. In 1945, Simone Veil went to university, more precisely to the Faculty of Law and the Institute of Political Studies in Paris where she met Antoine Veil, future financial inspector, whom she married on Oct. 26, 1946. They had three sons. She then got involved in politics and later became Minister of Health in May 1974. In this position, her major action remains what is now called the “Veil Law” promulgated on 17 January 1975, which gave women the right to have an abortion. From 1979 to 1982 she was the first woman to chair the European Parliament, elected by universal suffrage. She wrote her memoirs in an autobiography called Une Vie (A Life). The book has been translated into a dozen languages and sold in France, more than 550,000 copies. It was awarded the “Green Laurel” prize in 2009. By Mathilde. Different But Equal In Europe FRANCE 19
  11. 11. Photo Source: GREECE Different But Equal In Europe 21
  12. 12. Amalia Fleming Photo Source: http://rascunhos01.com.sapo.pt/Sophia.html She was born in Istanbul in June 1912 and she was daughter of the well known dermatologist Charilaos Coutsouris. She moved to Greece and she studied medicine at the University of Athens specializing in bacteriology. During the World War II Amalia joined the National Resistance for which she was jailed by the Italians. With a scholarship from the British Council in 1945 she went to London where she worked at the Wright Fleming Institute next to the Nobel laureate microbiologist Alexander Fleming, the discoverer of penicillin, until 1949, when she returned to Greece. In 1953 she was married to Fleming but their marriage lasted only two years since Alexander Fleming died in 1955. During the dictatorship she developed intense action against it. She was arrested in August 1971 on charges of plotting the escape of Alekos Panagoulis. She was tortured and convicted by a special court in Athens. Fearing the impact on the international community the dictatorship left her free while she was stripped of her Greek citizenship and forced to exile, in London, where she wrote the “A Piece of Truth,” a personal account of her imprisonment as well as of the trial of Alexandros Panagoulis. Lady Fleming returned to Greece after the fall of the junta in 1974, joined PASOK and was elected to the Greek Parliament in 1977, 1981 and 1985. She was active in several human rights organizations, notably Amnesty International, Democratic Concern and Human Rights Union. Amalia Fleming initiated and funded the establishment of the Greek Foundation for Basic Biological Research “Alexander Fleming” which was later transformed into the Biomedical Sciences Research Center “Alexander Fleming” a governmental, non-profit institution which is actively involved in research areas covering immunology, molecular biology, genetics and molecular oncology. She died in February 1986 at the age of 77 years old. Different But Equal In Europe GREECE 23
  13. 13. Anna Comnena Photo Source: She was the first child of the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Comnenos. She was born on the 1th December 1083, in the Porphyra Chamber of the imperial palace of Constantinople. Anna Comnena is commonly regarded as the world’s first femal historian. Due to her social position and her personal interest, she had philosophical, philological and scientific education and was trained in subjects including astronomy, medicine, history, military affairs, geography and maths. In 1097 14-year old Anna got married to an accomplished young nobleman, the Caesar Nikephoros Bryennios the Younger and they had four children. As a child Anna had expected to inherit the throne and was even given a crown. All her hopes were disappeared when her brother John Comnenos was born. She therefore joined her mother, Empress Irene, in a vain effort to persuade her father, during his last illness, to disinherit his son in favor of her husband. Later conspiring to depose her brother after his accession to the throne (1118) Anna was however unable to obtain the support of her husband; the plot was revealed; she lost her property and spent her final years in a convent, where she wrote the “Alexiad”. In the Alexiad, written in Greek, she describes the political and military history of the Byzantine Empire during the reign of her father (1081- 1118). The biggest problem with this work, which is divided in 15 books, is the relationship between the author and its subject. It has sometimes been called “hagiography”. Nevertheless, it remains one of the most important historical sources on the Byzantium of the High Middle Ages and the events of the First Crusade as it is the only Hellenic eyewitness account available. The Alexiad also contains high praise for the accomplishment of women in her days, including her influential grandmother Anna Dalassena. Anna Comnena rose above the stereotypes of her time and became a distinguished woman. Different But Equal In Europe GREECE 25
  14. 14. Helene Glikatzi-Ahrweller Photo Source: www.agonaskritis.gr One of the most prominent academic figures in Greek and international level. She was born in Athens in 1926, daughter of Nicolas Glykatzi and Calliroe Psaltides. In the difficult postwar years, she graduated from the Philosophy School of the University of Athens. After her graduation, she was offered a position as a researcher in the Center of Asia Minor Studies. In 1953 she moved to Paris where she continued her studies in History and became an expert in Byzantine history. In an era dominated by men, she succeeded to hold higher-level positions and be honored with numerous decorations. She participates in art and intellectual circles making friends with great personalities like Pablo Picasso, Louis Aragon, Simone de Beauvoir… In 1958 she meets and marries Jacques Ahrweiler, a French Army officer. She lives a beautiful family life and she has a daughter named Mari – Helen. Her carrier escalates rapidly. In 1955 she was accepted into the French National Center of Scientific Research and became the head of research in 1964. In the history of the University of Paris I - Sorbonne, she is the first woman to be the head of the History department in 1967 and the president of this institution in 1976 for a five year period. In 1982, French President Francois Mitterand named her as Rector of the Academy of Paris and Chancellor of the Universities of Paris, a post she held until 1989. From 1989 to1991, she was president of the “Centre National d’Art et de Culture” Georges Pompidou. She has also held positions as secretary-general in the International Committee of Historical Science, president of European University and president of European Cultural Center of Delfi. She is also member of Greek, British, Belgian, German and Bulgarian Academies. Some of her publication are Byzance et la mer (1966), L’Idéologie politique de l’empire byzantin (1975), The Making of Europe (1999), Les Européens (2000), Le Roman d’Athènes (2004). Different But Equal In Europe GREECE 27
  15. 15. Hypatia Photo Source: She was born in about 370 A.D in Alexandria, Egypt. Her father, Theon, was an important literary man, mathematician and astronomer. By his side Hypatia took an excellent education, which she developed to such an extent that she finally got ahead of him by teaching philosophy, mathematics and astronomy. Her reputation was spread so fast that a lot of people regardless of religion gathered round her in order to study philosophy. Throughout her life she was greatly respected for her extraordinary dignity, virtue and wisdom. Hypatia was a remarkable Neo-Platonist philosopher. Like every pagan philosopher of ancient times she was trying to help her students realize the true beauty of life and real knowledge. The 4th century A.D was marked by the emperors’ efforts to impose Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire. Therefore Christianity had to confront all the religional and philosophical tensions existing within the roman state. Neo-Platonism particularly consisted the “greatest enemy” as it was the most serious alternative beside Christianity. Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria since 412 A.D threw himself into a prosecution of all the non- orthodox Christians. Orestes –imperial sub prefect of Egypt during 412415 A.D – a Christian himself and Hypatia’s student as well, opposed Cyril’s acts warmly supported by Hypatia. Cyril anxious by the fact accused the philosopher of practicing black magic. In the spring of 415 Hypatia returning home, after her usual walk in the city, was attacked by a group of Christians, who took her clothes off and dragged her to the cathedral, where they killed her cutting her body with sharp shards. Despite the Christians’ hatred for her, Hypatia was registered in the history of civilization as the first woman who taught in public particularly in the field of high exact sciences, contributing to the freedom of thinking and speech. Different But Equal In Europe GREECE 29
  16. 16. Maria Callas Photo Source: www.ilove80.be Maria Callas was an American born Greek soprano and one of the most renowned opera singers of the 20th century. She combined an impressive bel canto technique, a wide-ranging voice, and great dramatic gifts. Her remarkable musical and dramatic talents led to her being hailed as “La Divina”. She actually started her career in Italy where she met her future husband, Meneghini as well as her mentor, Tullio Serafin. Her sensational performance in Wagner’s ‘Walküre’ and later, in Bellini’s ‘I Puritani’, received worldwide publicity. From then on she was a star and she received many recording offers from gramophone record companies. With her husband’s love and devotion she readily accepted her heavy artistic commitments. Maria’s wide-ranging voice and her musicality were so perfect that some specialists called it “almost frightening”. In1952 she experienced a dramatic weight loss. She continued to perform and her career exploded into greatness. After meeting Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis through her husband, a torrid affair erupted and her marriage ended. Maria gave up the stage in the early 60s for the jet-set life with Onassis. Despite experiencing vocal problems, she made one unforgettable comeback on stage in 1964-1965 when she toured with her personal favourites (“Norma” in Paris and “Tosca” at the Met). She was weak and tired when her final curtain on stage was rung down in July 1965 in Covent Garden. With her career over, she renounced her American citizenship and expected to marry Onassis. But their relationship was a stormy one and it eventually tapered off with Onassis marrying Jacqueline Kennedy instead in 1968. Her last public performance was on 11th November 1975. Riddled by sadness and despair, and by now firmly addicted to sleeping pills, Maria turned a recluse in her last year and died of a heart attack in 1977 at the age of 53. She was cremated and her ashes were scattered in the Aegean. Different But Equal In Europe GREECE 31
  17. 17. Melina Merkouris Photo Source: http://belasatrizesdomundo.blogspot.pt Melina Merkouri is one of the great female figures of Greece in the 20th century: a world-famous actress, brave fighter of the resistance movement against the military regime in Greece, politician of an enormous radiance, Minister of Culture for eight and a half years. Still, above all she was a great Greek, a woman that was cherished and passionately loved by the Greek people. Maria Amalia Merkouri was born in Athens, on 18th October 1920. She started her cinema career in 1955 with the film “Stella”, directed by Michalis Kakoyannis. The film received special praise at the Cannes Film Festival in 1956 where she met the American filmmaker Jules Dassin with whom she would share her life and career. From 1958, she played the leading part in many Dassin films. She became internationally well-known in 1960 when she received the Best Actress Award at Cannes Film Festival for Dassin’s film “Never on Sunday”. At the time of the colonels’ coup in April 1967, Melina Merkouri was in the States. She immediately joined the struggle against the Greek dictatorship. She travelled all over the world to inform the international public about the dictatorial regime in Greece, in a relentless campaign for the international isolation and fall of the colonels. In November 1977 Melina Merkouri was elected as a Member of Parliament. As a Minister of Culture, Merkouri took advantage of her fame abroad and got in contact with great European leaders in order to promote Greece. She strongly advocated the return to Athens of the Parthenon Marbles, which were violently removed from the Parthenon and are now part of the British Museum collection in London. One of her greatest achievements was the establishment of the European Capital of Culture, with Athens being the first city to hold the post in 1985. This title still exists.Melina Merkouri died on 6th March 1994, of lung cancer. Thousands attended her funeral. Different But Equal In Europe GREECE 33
  18. 18. Kalliroi Siganou-Parren Photo Source: http://stigmes.gr Kalliroi Parren child of a wealthy family was born in Platania, Rethimno Crete, in 1859. In 1866 the family moved to Athens and a few years later she graduated from the Arsakeio School with full marks. Kalliroi Parren was the first in Greece to introduce the feminist principles, which had already shown up about Europe. As she thought she could not achieve her purpose through scattered articles in the already existing newspapers, she founded her own weekly “Women’s Newspaper”, which she edited until 1918. The newspaper carried educational, financial, philological and artistic articles as well as biographies of famous women and descriptions of how other countries had managed to solve the feminist problems. Kalliroi Parren also participated in many international women’s conferences, which inspired her to found various organizations, such as the “Union for Liberation of Women” founded in 1896. She tried to influence politicians to give women the right to study at higher educational establishments. When the first woman was enrolled as a medical student at the university of Athens in 1895,her purpose has been achieved. Kalliroi Parren also tried to influence society through literature. With her novel “Cheirafetimeni” (Liberated) 1900, she contributed to the development of the social novel in Greece. Her second book “I magissa” (The Witch Woman) 1901, a sequel to her first one was a “courageous and adult social novel” according to the Greek poet Kostis Palamas. In 1911 she founded the still working “Lykeio ton Ellinidon” – un upper secondary school for Greek women. The school has later opened branches all over Greece and tries to preserve and promote the local traditions. Throughout the last years of her life she struggled for women’s right to vote. When Kalliroi Siganou-Parren died in January 1940, she could look back on an active life within the liberation of women. Different But Equal In Europe GREECE 35
  19. 19. Photo Source: ITALY Different But Equal In Europe 37
  20. 20. Alda Merini Photo Source: http://www.tarantoeventi.it Alda Merini, born in Milan in 1931, published her first poetry collection, La presenza di Orfeo, when she was only twenty-two, but her life was suddenly shattered by the experience of the asylum. In fact she was interned several times in mental hospitals in the 60s and 70s, a painful experience having her children taken away from her. Alda Merini was able to draw beauty and poetry from her history of suffering and marginalization. In the 80s and the 90s her life becomes more stable, she won the Montale award for poetry in 1993 and benefitted from a state subsidy to poor artists, which allowed her to escape from a state of constant deprivation and poverty. Over the last twenty years she became increasingly known to the general public, appeared several times on television, continued to write and publish books of poems, although the poetess has not been widely translated abroad What renders Merini’s work so compelling is that despite her struggle with a mental illness and her proclivity to write about death, she still finds glimmers of hope, which is apparent in several of her poems. (I leave you with these footprints on the ground / sweet and tender, that one might say: / a gem or a storm went through here / or a woman who was eager to speak / who said nocturnal and delicate things / a woman who has never been loved./ Perhaps a furious beast went through here / an eager thirst that brought storms / to the earth, to every climate, to every vault of heaven / but all that went through here was my torment). For those who love Alda Merini, these are her lines that would certainly come to mind if one wishes to outline a profile of the poet. She was neglected during her lifetime, especially when her economic situation became very serious and she was surrounded by general disinterest. But now, after her death in 2009, she is at the centre of attention. Different But Equal In Europe ITALY 39
  21. 21. Emma Bonino Photo Source: ttp://www.mondoinformazione.com/ Emma Bonino is an Italian politician and campaigner on civil society issues, former Member of the European Parliament and of the Italian Senate. She is a leading member of the Italian Radicals, a political party that supports economic and social libertarianism, and human rights. In 1975, she founded the Information Centre on Sterilisation and Abortion and promoted the referendum which led to the legalisation of abortion in Italy. She also led campaigns on the legalisation of drugs, sexual and religious freedoms, end of capital punishment, against female genital mutilation, and the eradication of world hunger. In 1998 she took part to “A Flower for the Women of Kabul”, an international action on discrimination against women in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan. In 1999, she was appointed Board Member of the International Crisis Group. Emma Bonino’s conviction that the rule of law is a pre-requisite for the protection of vulnerable people also finds expression in her long-standing commitment to the development and strengthening of the international criminal justice system. Since 1993, she has led the campaign for the establishment of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda, and for the establishment of the International Criminal Court. In 1999 she was one of the two winners of the North-South Prize, an award that honors individuals with accomplishment in the protection of human rights, pluralistic democracy, and improvement of North-South relations. Since July 2003, Emma Bonino has also been campaigning for “Women’s Rights in Africa” . This is part of consistent work on sensitive political and cultural issues related to human rights, including “Stop FGM”, the international campaign for the abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation; Emma Bonino’s other major international commitments have included the European Parliament’s 2004 delegation to the Darfur region of Sudan. For her battles and engagements with controversial issues, her engagement in the promotion of human rights and civil rights in the world, she received the “Open Society Prize 2004” and “Prix Femmes d’Europe 2004” for Italy. In 2012 Emma Bonino received “Freedom Award” for her long-standing commitment in defense of human rights and for being a pioneer in the promotion of civil liberties and fundamental rights in Europe and worldwide. Different But Equal In Europe ITALY 41
  22. 22. Grazia Deledda Photo Source: www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1926 As described in Grace and in her autobiography, Cosima, Grazia Deledda grew up in Nuoro, a town rigidly structured by patriarchal beliefs, customs and traditions. In 1871, when Deledda was born, Nuoro was isolated from the socioeconomic and political changes occurring on continental Italy, had no railroad nor telegraphical services. Girls could not leave their houses unless accompanied by an adult family member and, as in Deledda ‘s case, they could neither be seen in public nor appear by a window during morning. She received a third-grade education, the most school offered girls in this area and so she undertook a program of self-education reading Italian classics and romantic adventure novels . “ My family prohibited me from writing, since my future was supposed to be quite different from the kind I dreamed about; it was supposed a future devoted entirely to homelife …raising a large family…So long as I wrote children’s stories , no one bothered much. But when the love stories started – with night time rendez-vous, kisses and sweet, compromising words- the persecution became rentless, from all my family….A well-bred girl can’t write about these things….. if she somehow does arouse the curiosity of the young men in the district , not one of them will think of asking her to marry him….But this wasn’t what troubled me…… So Deledda kept on writing and in her novels she gave an astonishing picture of a nation emerging from centuries of historical and cultural inertia of the conflict between old and new ideas of age old tradition and new political realities. Grazia Deledda wrote over thirty novels, four hundred short stories. Her most popular works were: Il vecchio della montagna (The Old Man of the Mountain), Canne al Vento (Reeds in the Wind), Cerere, which speaks of a woman who gives up her child to foster parents to give him a better chance in life, captivated audiences all over Europe and was adapted for the screen. This movie has been a unique classic movie in the history of silent movies. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1926 and she was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize in Literature. Grazia Deledda died on August 15, 1936 Different But Equal In Europe ITALY 43
  23. 23. Margherita Hack Photo Source: www.radiosmith.it Born in Florence June 12, 1922, Margherita Hack was one of the brightest minds of the Italian scientific community. She was an Italian astrophysicist and popular science writer, the first woman to direct an astronomical observatory in Italy. She was born into a family where the father worked as an accountant and the mother was a miniaturist at the prestigious Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Her parents were not sympathetic to the Fascist regime of Mussolini, and were victims of discrimination. In 1945, after the war, Margherita Hack took her Degree in Physics from the University of Florence in 1945, with a thesis in Astrophysics conducted at the Astronomical Observatory of Arcetri, a place which became her main field of research She was full Professor of Astronomy from 1964 to 1997 at the University of Trieste. She was the director of the Astronomical Observatory in Trieste from 1964 to 1987, making it become internationally well known. She was a member of several Physics and Astronomy associations, and was director of the Astronomy Department at the University of Trieste from 1985 to 1991 and from 1994 to 1997. She was a member of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, the most ancient Italian academy of sciences, and of the Italian Union of Rationalist Atheists and Agnostics. Along with publishing many original papers on international scientific journals, she was the author of numerous books and received global recognition and awards for her scientific dissemination activities. She dedicated to meetings and conferences in order to “spread the knowledge of astronomy and scientific minds”. “Women referents in Italy are still less than men but (...)it seems to me that it also depends on women to demand visibility and to impose themselves in society. (...) Those who have less rights that have to fight to have them. No one offers them, therefore women have to be hard-fighting . (...) I have never had problems, I have always been a fighter and I have never been pushed around”. She died in Trieste on 29 June 2013 at the age of 91. She left to the city of Trieste her personal library containing 24,000 books on astronomy. Different But Equal In Europe ITALY 45
  24. 24. Maria Montessori Photo Source: www.mehermontessori.org Maria Montessori (1870 –1952) was an Italian physician and educator, best known for the method that bears her name. Maria Montessori was a great innovator, a scientist who inaugurated the line of research around the child upbringing and education, still active. Maria Montessori was the only child of the marriage between Alessandro Montessori and Renilde Stoppani Montessori. At the time she was born there was gender discrimination against women. Regardless of that situation, she graduated with the highest honor and became the first woman doctor in Italy. She had a child secretly and gave him up for adoption, because her boyfriend at that time, Dr. Montesano, did not want to marry her. She could not openly be a single mother, because the society was very conservative toward women. From 1896 to 1901, Montessori worked with and researched so-called “phrenasthenic” children—in modern terms, children experiencing some form of mental retardation, illness, or disability. In 1900 the National League opened the Scuola Magistrale Ortofrenica, for training teachers in educating mentally disabled children .Montessori was appointed co-director. During her two years at the school, Montessori developed methods and materials which she would later adapt to use with mainstream children. The first Casa The name Casa dei Bambini, or Children’s House, was suggested to Montessori, and the first Casa opened on January 6, 1907. Given free choice of activity, the children showed more interest in practical activities and Montessori’s materials than in toys provided for them, and were surprisingly unmotivated by sweets and other rewards. Over time, she saw a spontaneous self-discipline emerge. She replaced the heavy furniture with child-sized tables and chairs light enough for the children to move, and placed child-sized materials on low, accessible shelves. She expanded the range of practical activities such as sweeping and personal care to include a wide variety of exercises for care of the environment and the self, including flower arranging, hand washing, gymnastics, care of pets, and cooking. Her method was created to change the way the ancient teachers used to teach their students. She did not believe that a teacher could be able to help the children to develop their own skills. Instead she believed that the only person who could help each child to foster his desire to learn new things was the student himself/herself. Different But Equal In Europe ITALY 47
  25. 25. Rita Atria Photo Source: www.ritaatria.it “Perhaps an honest world will never exist but who prevents us from dreaming? perhaps, if each of us tries to change the world, perhaps we will succeed” (Rita Atria) Rita Atria was born in 1974 in a family of a Mafia “clan” and her father Don Vito, a little boss, was considered a man of honour and respect in the territory of Partanna, in the Valley of Belice, near Trapani. When Rita was eleven, Don Vito was murdered in 1985 in the Mafia’s feud for the ascent to power of the Corleonesi, that wanted to take possession of criminal public affairs and of the drug traffic. In front of her father’s corpse, Rita swore revenge. In 1991 six years later her father’s assassination also her brother Nicola became a victim of Mafia. Nicola was associated with the local “Mafia” and in the course of the years he had revealed to Rita the secret affairs of the clan. After her brother’s death, Rita at the age of 17, decided to meet the judge Paolo Borsellino, engaged in the process against the “Mafia” who lead Rita along a path from revenge to justice. Rita “ a picciridda” with this nickname P. Borsellino called her with affection, starts her collaboration with justice in 1991claiming a better world of truth and justice. She became a “witness of Mafia”, fighting to change the things, to break the code of silence, to convince the other women to denounce and reject the “Mafia”. After this choice Rita remained completely alone, her mother repudiated her because she had dishonoured the name of the family and called her “fimmina lingua longa amica degli sbirri” that is a girl with a long tongue and a friend of the cops. Rita was forced to live in Rome, with another identity, under protection but resolute to continue her struggle. When she took her State degree she wrote an essay on the Judge Giovanni Falcone, a hero for his fight against “Mafia” in Sicily. Tragically, on the 19th July 1992 P. Borsellino, was murdered with a bomb. His death left in Rita’s hearth an infinite emptiness. She committed suicide a week later, 26th July 1992, as an act of extreme protest and rebellion, Rita’s the last cry for freedom. Her mother didn’t come to her funeral and after she destroyed her daughter’s tomb with a hammer. Yet Rita’s testimonies have been fundamental and priceless for the assertion of justice and legality, permitting the arrest of several Mafia members and encouraged the investigations on the interconnections between politics and Mafia. She asserted: “Before fighting Mafia, you have to do a self-examination of conscience and then after defeating the Mafia inside you, you can defeat the Mafia in the circle of your friends; We are the Mafia, our wrong way to behave”. Rita is dead but she continues to live in our memory. We must preserve the memory of our history, of our past, we have to know our roots if we want to build a better world. Rita’s sacrifice has not been useless, twenty years later her death, an Association, entitled to her name, is reviving Rita’s dream and her civil engagement. Rita has become a heroine for the younger generations, a symbol of legality and civil commitment.. 49 Different But Equal In Europe ITALY
  26. 26. Rita Levi-Montalcini Photo Source: www.vanityfair.it Rita Levi-Montalcini born 22 April 1909 was an Italian Neurologist who, together with her colleague Stanley Cohen, received the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery on nerve growth factor(NGF) Born in Turin to a Jewish family, together with her twin sister Paola she was the youngest of four children. Her parents were Adamo Levi, an electrical engineer and gifted mathematician, and Adele Montalcini, a painter. Levi-Montalcini decided to attend medical school,overcoming the objections of her father who believed that “a professional career would interfere with the duties of a wife and mother”. She enrolled in the Turin medical school in 1930. After graduating in 1936 her academic career was cut short by Benito Mussolini’s 1938 Manifesto of Race and the subsequent introduction of laws barring Jews from academic and professional careers. In September 1946, she accepted an invitation to Washington University in St. Louis and stayed there for thirty years. She was made a Full Professor in 1958, and in 1962, established a research unit in Rome, dividing the rest of her time between there and St. Louis. From 1961 to 1969 she directed the Research Center of Neurobiology of the CNR (Rome), and from 1969 to 1978 the Laboratory of Cellular Biology. On 1 August 2001 she was appointed as Senator for Life by the President of the Italian Republic, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi. “Furthermore, I would like to see many more women enter in political life and take a very active part in government at all levels, which I strongly believe would have a salutary effect on society as a whole. Discrimination in this area is particularly evident and I believe that only through much greater participation by women will our country play a more constructive both at home and abroad.” Rita Levi-Montalcini died in her home in Rome on 30 December 2012 at the age of 103. Upon her death, the Mayor of Rome stated it was a great loss “for all of humanity.” He praised her as someone who represented “civic conscience, culture and the spirit of research of our time.” Different But Equal In Europe ITALY 51
  27. 27. Photo Source: LITHUANIA Different But Equal In Europe 53
  28. 28. Alma Adamkienė Photo Source: www.alfa.lt Alma Adamkienė was born in Šiauliai on 10 February,1927. Her father was a trader and her mother assisted her husband in commercial activities. Her father died in 1977 in Chicago. Alma Adamkiene’s mother who lived with her in Lithuania died in 2006 at the age of 101. In 1944 with the Soviet army forcing its way into Lithuania, she retreated with her family to Germany. In Germany Alma Adamkienė studied at Eichstaff College and later at the faculty of Philology of the Erlaugen University of Bavaria. After moving to the United States she worked as a laboratory assistant at a steel factory. Later she took a position with an insurance company. Since 1962, for 25 years, she was the manager of the Tabor Farm Recreation Centre. The farm had become an important Lithuanian centre and for many years served as the venue for the meetings of the liberal Lithuanian emigre organisation Santara - Šviesa. In 1951 she married Valdas Adamkus. Since 4 February 1998, when Valdas Adamkus became President of the Republic of Lithuania, she has been actively involved in social activities, paying the prime attention to children’s homes and support of orphans and disabled children. That’s why in 1999 the Alma Adamkienė Charity and Support Fund was established. Between 1999-2003 benefactors donated to the fund almost 2,5 million litas as well as material contribution valued at 2,3 million litas. All the support was distributed to rural schools, children from needy families, the Kaunas Medical University Children’s Clinics and the Vilnius Santariskės Children’s Hospital. The fund intends to continue its effort in implementing the projects that have already become a tradition. Therefore, the concepts of welfare have also changed -it’s started investing in the pursuit of knowledge and spiritual values. Alma Adamkienė is a perfect example of love, kindness and generosity. www.adamkuslibrary.lt ; www.adamkiene-fondas.lt ; http://www.andersen.lt. Different But Equal In Europe LITHUANIA 55
  29. 29. Barbora Radvilaitė Photo Source: www.alytausgidas.lt Barbora Radvilaitė is a symbol of beauty who made a king go against the law and traditions in order to be with his love. She was born on the 6th of December in 1520 and was the Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania. Barbora was the daughter of a powerful magnate of the Radvilos family, noble of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Jurgis Radvila, and Barbara Kolanka. According to the writings of her contemporaries, Barbara was one of the most beautiful women in Europe. She had been well educated by her parents and spoke Lithuanian, Ruthenian (Old Belarusian), and Polish and could write in these languages. She got married on the 18th of May in 1537, to Stanislovas Goštautas, Voivode of Naugardukas and later Voivode of Trakai, who died in 1542. Her romance and later marriage in 1547, in Vilnius, to Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Sigismund II August, the last monarch of the Jogaila Dynasty, greatly increased the power of the Radvilos family in Poland and Lithuania. There was substantial opposition to her marriage to the King from many nobles, as the marriage was carried out without regard to the laws governing royal marriages. This resulted in conflicts between the King and many magnates but the opposition finally acquiesced, and Barbara was crowned Queen in 1550. Barbora died in 1551, in Kraków. five months after her coronation. Her death was a severe loss to the King. It had been Barbara’s wish to be buried in Lithuania, and a funeral cortege conveyed her body to Vilnius, where her crypt is found in Vilnius Cathedral. Barbora’s life and death have inspired legends, paintings, literary works and film. One notable play was written in Lithuania, in 1972, by Juozas Grušas „Barbora Radvilaitė“. Different But Equal In Europe LITHUANIA 57
  30. 30. Dalia Ibelhauptaitė Photo Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalia_Ibelhauptait% Dalia Ibelhauptaitė is a Lithuanian and British opera , theatre and film director, active cultural character. She was born in 1967 and became a director at the age of 15 when she formed the Young Theatre Company. At this company, Dalia was working as a director and playwright until 1985 when she became an assistant of the director at the Vilnius State Theatre. Ibelhauptaitė was invited to the Royal National Theatre Studio in London, and directed „A Lawsuit“ as well as doing a series of workshops on Russian classical plays, since then she has been living in London. Ibelhauptaitė has also given masterclasses at National Opera Studio in London. Dalia Ibelhauptaite has directed more than twenty classsic plays in various theatres around the world. She has also directed over a dozen operas in England, Italy, the Netherlands, Israel and New York, also she leads the actors mastery workshops. Since 2006 Dalia Ibelhauptaite has been directing her own plays called „Bohema“ and „Flute undrer the spell“. One of the most famous phenomenon in cultural events, associated with D. Ibelhauptaite is creation of a group of famous artists which is called „bohemians“. This group has been founded in 2003 when Ibelhauptaite started to cooperate with conductor G. Rinkevičius and designer J. Statkevičius. Speaking about her personal life, she married Dexter Fletcher in Westminster, London, in 1997, after the couple met on the set of one of her stage productions in London. Apart of rich creativity Dalia Ibelhaptaite is also famous for her charitable activities: she is atending in charity events for cancer victims, Africa`s kids. She was one of the participants in Christmas auction, which was organized by organization called „Save the children“. During this auction there was collected almost 60 thousand litas for socially supported children. Different But Equal In Europe LITHUANIA 59
  31. 31. Janina Lapinskaitė Photo Source: http://www.tiesa.com Janina Lapinskaitė is a well – known Lithuanian actress, film director, script writer. She made some television and cinema documentaries. Film characters are people who are on the edge of poverty, loners, eccentrics, their unordinary life is made clearer with theme and style contrast, unique point of perspective; poetry and realism is common in her films. Janina Lapinskaitė says that when she was seventeen and entered a university to be a director, she didn‘t fully understand what it really is. Now, when she‘s a popular film director, Lapinskaitė could state, that to direct a film takes a lot of time and effort. In her opinion, to direct a documentary is a challange– you can think what you want to show, but sometimes it all starts to fall apart. She tells her students that in creative work you can’t be categorical. In one of theninterviews about influence of film characters on herself she said: “We always think that we are strong, but people like characters of my films are weak. However, when I start to work with them, I realise that act posers who are scattered by life, eccentric Venecijus, residents of residential care home (“Iš skruzdėlių gyvenimo”), little elves (“Iš elfų gyvenimo”) and others are actually stronger. That’s why when life was getting out of hand, I would find new characters or return to the old ones so I would realise that life is beautiful and we would occasionally sink in details. My characters are like a fresh breath of air to me. “ But her life wasn’t just creative work. She, like most working Lithuanian women, is able to combine her work with her personal life. She thinks that at work there’s always a substitute for you, but if you’re a mother, no one can replace you. Different But Equal In Europe LITHUANIA 61
  32. 32. Marija Aušrinė Pavilionienė Photo Source: http://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marija_Aušrinė_Pavilionienė Marija Aušrinė Pavilionienė is a famous Lithuanian philologist, professor, human rights activist, feminist writer and politician. Marija Aušrinė was born in the family of actors. In 1967 M.A. Pavilionienė finished studies of English Language and Literature. Later she studied in postgraduate studies and penetrated into problems of American literature. In 1977 she defended a thesis for a PhD degree in Philology in the University of Kyiv. She successfully defended her habilitation thesis in 1999. 1973-2004, lecturer of English; senior lecturer , associate professor of the Department of General Literature at Vilnius University; 1995-2001, the Head of this Department. In 2001 she became professor of the Department of Literary History and Theory of Vilnius University. Political career: 1) 1991–1996, President of Lithuanian Association of University Women, a member of the Council of mass movement League of Light and the civil movement For Justice and Democratic Lithuania. 2) 2004-2008, a member of the Liberal- Democratic Party, since 2008, a member of the Social Democratic Party of Lithuania. 2004-2013, a member of Seimas (Parliament). Scientific activities: Mrs. Pavilionienė penetrated into issues of gender equality and human rights during study visits in the Universities of Washington, Wisconsin and Madison (USA) and the University of Lund (Sweden). From 1994 to 2000, Head of Women’s Studies Centre of Vilnius University; 1999-2002, establisher and editor of the journal ‘Feminism, society and culture’. In the press and literature textbooks she discusses the problems of human being, human rights and gender issues in such fields as literature, philosophy and psychology. The work was evaluated. She was granted Award of European Parliamentary Forum on Population and Development Cooperation in the 5th International Parliamentary Conference in Istanbul, which was dedicated to the implementation of the Acton Plan of the Cairo Conference of Population and Development Cooperation. Different But Equal In Europe LITHUANIA 63
  33. 33. Ona Skaistutė Idzelevičienė Photo Source: http://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ona_Skaistutė_Idzelevičienė Ona Skaistutė Idzelevičienė –famous Lithuanian dancer, coach and ballet master. Biography She was born in 1941, September 24 in Lieplaukė. She was deported with her parents by Soviet Union into the Vorkuta (city in north-west Russia). In 1958-1961 she was a kindergarden‘s teacher in Plungė. In 1960 she graduated from High School in Plungė and after that she studied at Medicine School of Klaipėda . Later she was a lecturer in the Pedagogical University of Šiauliai. Since 1990 she is a lecturer in the University of Klaipėda. In 1990-1995 she was a manager of ballroom dancing in a Faculty of Arts. In 1965- 1982 she was dancing in sports dances collective “Žuvėdra”. Later she became the coach of the collective and in 1994 the head coach. In 1995 she was given an international category of sport dances as a judge. While she and her husband Romualdas was in charge of the collective “Žuvėdra”, the ensemble won golden medals:four times in the Europe’s dance championships and four times in the World’s championships. She also released 10 educational books. Skaistutė and “Žuvėdra” performed in a lot of countries in the world. Achievements •1970 - medal for good job in 100 years anniversary of Lenin. •1985 - LSUR achiever in the education of nation. •1985 - LSUR acknowledged worker of education and culture. •1990 - LSUR acknowledged artist. •1996 - Acknowledged coach in Lithuania •2002, 2004, 2006 amd 2008-2010 -Medal for victories in the sport. •2003 - the lady of Klaipėda city. •2004 – the lady of the year (the title given by national daily newspaper, Lietuvos Rytas). •2005 - honor citizen of Klaipėda city. •2006 - honor citizen of Šiauliai city. •2008- the best coach in the not-olympic sport category. •2012 – she was awarded the Commander’s Cross of Gediminas. Different But Equal In Europe LITHUANIA 65
  34. 34. Violeta Urmana Photo Source: www.violetaurma.com Violeta Urmana was born in Kazlų Rūda, Lithuania in 1961. At the age of 7 she started studying piano and later graduated from the Lithuanian Academy of Music in Vilnius. After 4 years of local studies in voice (as a soprano), she relocated to Munich (1991) for studies with Josef Loibi. By 1993 she was gaining notice as a mezzo but found her voice was more comfortable with higher mezzo roles. In 2000 she decided to become a soprano and her career took off. The Lithuanian-born singer is now recognised as one of the leading dramatic sopranos in the Italian and German fach. At the very beginning of her career, she made a name for herself worldwide as a highly acclaimed Kundary in Parsifal and as Eboli. In recent years she has played such parts as Amelia in Un Ballo in Maschera, Elisabetta in Don Carlo, Lady in Macbeth, Odabella in Atilla, the title roles of Aida, La Gioconda, Tosca, Norma and etc. Violets Urmana is a regular guest at the world’s major opera houses - the Metropolitan Opera New York, the Teatro Real in Madrid, the Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona, Deutsche Oper Berlin, the Vienna State Opera, the Royal Opera House Covent Garden in London. As a highly acclaimed concert and recital singer Violeta Urmana performs music by Mahler, Schoenberg, Berlioz, Wagner, Verdi in the most famous concert halls of Europe, the USA and Japan. Many CD and DVD recordings document her career. Violeta Urmana has received many awards: in London the Royal Philharmonic Society Award for singers; in Vienna the title Osterreichische Kammersangerin. In Lithuania she got the most important award: the order, third class, “Grand Duke Gediminas of Lithuania”. The Lithuanian University of Music and Theatre in Vilnius has recently awarded her an honorary degree. Different But Equal In Europe LITHUANIA 67
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  36. 36. Amália Rodrigues Photo Source: www.arlindo-correia.com Amália da Piedade Rodrigues was a Portuguese singer and actress. She was known as the Rainha do Fado (“Queen of Fado”) and was most influential in popularizing fado worldwide. Fado is a typical portuguese musical genre that has its origins in chants from the slaves of Africa developed over the time into a music genre with lyrics about fate. Amália’s performances and choice of repertoire pushed Fado’s boundaries and helped redefine it and reconfigure it for her and subsequent generations. In fact, Amália wrote the rulebook on what Fado could be and on how a female Fado singer should perform it. She was the main inspiration to other well-known international Fado and popular music artists such as Madredeus, Dulce Pontes and Mariza. Amália Rodrigues is considered as Portugal’s most famous artist and singer, a woman who was born into an almost destitute family and who grew to become not only Portugal’s major star but also an internationally acclaimed artist and singer, recording songs in several languages (Portuguese, Spanish, French, English and Italian), and performing all over the world, achieving tremendous success in countries like France, Italy, Spain, the USA, Mexico, Brazil, Romania, Japan, The Netherlands and others. Her personality and charisma, and her timbre of voice, gave depth and intensity to Fado: the impression she made, her immediacy and the way she empathized with her public attracted more admirers throughout the world. In 1999 Amália had received more than 40 decorations and honors from all over the world (mostly France, including the Légion d’Honneur, Lebanon, Portugal, Spain, Israel and Japan). Most importantly Amália put Fado on the map of world music, in dictionaries, libraries and musical essays. She paved the way for the generations that would follow, and that continue her legacy. Different But Equal In Europe PORTUGAL 71
  37. 37. Carolina Beatriz Ângelo Photo Source: pt.wikipedia.org Carolina Beatriz Ângelo was a Portuguese woman, born on April 16th 1878 in Guarda and deceased on October 3rd 1911 in Lisbon with only 33 years old. She graduated in Medicine in 1902. Married to her cousin Januário Barreto, who was also a doctor and a republican activist. She was the first woman to perform surgery in the Hospital de São José in Lisbon. In 1906 along with four other doctors she joined a French association called “La Paix et le Désarmement par les Femmes”. In 1907, Carolina joined the Freemasonry, with the symbolic name of Lígia. She also formed a quartet with Ana de Castro Osório, Adelaide and Maria Cabete Veleda that traced the path of Portuguese feminism conquering a female group for the Republican field. She became the President of the Association of Feminist Propaganda and ViceChairman of the Republican League of the Portuguese Women. On May 28th 1911 Carolina was the first woman in Europe able to vote in the elections which made her the pioneer of the women’s vote. She starred in an act recognized by the international press at the time which allowed her to be interviewed by national newspapers and a Dutch newspaper called “Amsterdammer Weekblad voor Nederland”. She had the honor of being greeted by feminists of different European organizations. As evidence that Carolina Beatriz Ângelo was a remarkable woman in Portuguese history, a small square in Famões, a street in Bairro do Pinheiro, a school in Guarda and a hospital in Loures are named after her. Thanks to Carolina, the political right for women to vote was recognized in December 1968 although the Parish Councils continued to be elected by householders. Only after the April 25th 1974 Revolution were all restrictions on the electoral capacity of citizens based on gender abolished. Different But Equal In Europe PORTUGAL 73
  38. 38. Eunice Muñoz Photo Source: http://mesemquando.blogspot.pt/ Eunice Muñoz, born on 30th July 1928, is a Portuguese actress unanimously considered one of the greatest Portuguese actresses of all time. She grew up in a family of actors, being both her parents, Hernâni Muñoz and Júlia do Carmo, and her two brothers, Francisco Fernando do Carmo Munõz and Hernâni do Carmo Muñoz, also actors. Her premier was in 1941, in the theatre play Vendaval. Her talent was recognized right from the beginning which allowed her fast integration in a company. As a student in the National Conservatory Theatre School she was made famous in “A Casta Susana” and was graded 18 at the conservatory. Eunice becomes popular in the play “Chuva de Filhos” by Margaret Mayo. In 1946 she is released in the cinema, showing in Leitão Ramos’s film, “Camões” from this interpretation she won a SNI prize for the year’s best actress. She gets married for the first time in 1947 to Rui Ângelo do Couto with whom she had her only daughter, Susana Muñoz. She got married three times and she ended up divorcing all the times. She then participated not only in theatre plays but also in films and TV shows like “Hamlet” and “Os Pássaros das Asas Cortadas “, “Cantiga da Rua” and “Entre os Dedos”, “Destinos Cruzados” and “Ilha dos Amores”, working with many important artists, among them, Igrejas Caeiro, Maria Matos, Vasco Santana, Ruy de Carvalho, Fernando Curado Ribeiro, António Silva, Henrique Santana, João Perry, Lurdes Norberto, Diogo Infante and Carlos Avilez. She holds an Oscar of Merit and Excellence, 2008, aside with the awards Oficial and Grande-Oficial from the military order of Sant’Iago da Espada, given for literary and artistic merit, and Grande-Colar and Grã-Cruz from the order of Infante D. Henrique, given for expanding the Portuguese culture, history and values. Different But Equal In Europe PORTUGAL 75
  39. 39. Florbela Espanca Photo Source: http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florbela_Espanca Florbela Espanca was a precursor of the feminist movement in Portugal. Her birth name was Flor Bela de Alma da Conceição, and she was born on 8th December 1894, in Alentejo. She was baptized as the child of an “unknown” father. She was a writer who had a tumultuous and eventful life that shaped her love, erotic and feminine writings. In 1907 she writes her first short story “Mamã. She was one of the first women studying at a High School in Portugal. On December 8, on her birthday and the day of her wedding anniversary, Florbela Espanca commited suicide, but a legend was born. http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florbela_Espanca http://www.citi.pt/cultura/literatura/poesia/florbela_espanca/biografia.html   Different But Equal In Europe PORTUGAL 77
  40. 40. Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo Photo Source: www.arquivopintasilgo.pt Maria de Lourdes Ruivo da Silva Matos Pintasilgo (Abrantes, São João, January 18, 1930 - Lisbon, July 10, 2004) was an important chemical engineer, ecclesial and political leader. She was Portugal’s first woman Prime Minister and the third woman to assume this office in Europe, having headed the V Constitutional Government from July 1979 to January 1980. Since little she started to excel from all other students, not only for her ability to think for herself, take initiative, participate and be a leader in her daily life, but also for her capacity to believe and have faith in values of equality, development and rights in our society. In 1953 graduated in Chemical and Industrial Engineering from Instituto Superior Técnico in Lisbon, at a time when there were few women who probed into the field of engineering. With the choice of this degree, she wanted to show that the challenge of the industrial world and the novelty of the technique were also accessible to women. During her life, Maria Pintassilgo, held the posts of State Secretary for Social Security, and Minister of Social Affairs. As Ambassador of UNESCO, she was a member of the Executive Council as well as a member of the Portuguese Delegation to the UN General Assembly. Her extensive work for Portuguese women as a member of the International Movement, “The Graal,” and with the Women’s Liaison Group between Women’s Catholic Church and Ecumenical Council of Churches, has had an enormous impact. The published work of Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo is varied, covering from books, essays, reports, conferences, prefaces, and a vast number of articles in newspapers and magazines. The main themes addressed in her articles are about the participation of women in development, culture and politics, the renewal of political theory and practice, spirituality and Christian commitment. Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo was an important chemical engineer, ecclesial and political leader. She was Portugal’s first woman Prime Minister and the third woman to assume this office in Europe. Showing her ability to think for herself, take initiative and fight torwards values of equality, development and rights for our society Pintassilgo had an important role troughout her life. She is khnown for her extensive work for Portuguese women as a member of the International Movement, “The Graal,” and with the Women’s Liaison Group between Women’s Catholic Church and Ecumenical Council of Churches, whitch have had an enormous impact. Different But Equal In Europe PORTUGAL 79
  41. 41. Paula Rego Photo Source: www.local.pt The artist was born in Lisbon, Portugal, on the 26th January, 1935. She must be the best painter of women’s experiences alive nowadays. She lived and studied between Portugal and London. She got married to an artist as well and had three children. Rego is a manic depressive and she spent decades in therapy. It liberated her imagination, she says. She grew up obedient and terrified, without a specific fear. She won many awards, got numerous honors and has already showed her artwork in several museums around the world, being an international recognized artist. She has occasionally created political work for propaganda purposes, receiving much of the credit for influencing public opinion. Once, she said: “The Portuguese have a culture that lends itself to the most grotesque stories you can imagine” (Paula Rego, 2009). She illustrates some traditional folktales that her grandmother used to tell her and much of her work is directly inspired by literature. Her bright yellows, blues and pinks tell stories of rape and female circumcision, of impotence and unspeakable desire. The lives of women are her theme. Girls and Dogs (late 1980s) and Dog Women (early 1990s) series are among her most notable works, in which women are generally behaving as if they are dogs. Being this performance the exact opposite of what is considered feminine behaviour, the artist has been associated with feminism, between many other works where female violence is threatened or actually exposed. Rego takes everyday family life and twists it into something shocking. Her representation of women as animalistic or brutal beings also reflects the physical reality of a woman as a human being in the physical world, and not idealised types in men’s minds. She is a storyteller, myth-maker and magic realist. Her victims are often voracious monsters; her monsters passive victims. Different But Equal In Europe PORTUGAL 81
  42. 42. Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen Photo Source: www.teleios.com.br Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen was born in Porto in 1919 and died in Lisbon in 2004. She was one of the most important poets of the XX century and she was the first Portuguese woman to receive the prize “Prémio Camões” in 1999. She became one of the most representative liberal political figures that renounced Salazar’s regime. Her “Cantata da Paz” (“Peace Song”) was a popular intervention song known for the lyrics: “Vemos, Ouvimos e Lemos. Não podemos ignorar!” (“We see, listen and read. We can’t ignore!”) She married a journalist, politician and lawyer, Francisco Sousa Tavares, and she had five children which were her motivation to write her stories. Her books are studied at school. She was also a translator of Dante Alighieri and Shakespeare. From her childhood and youth she recalls the importance of home, which has an impact in her work when she describes the houses and objects inside. Referring to poetry she said that she only wrote during the night and she couldn’t write in the morning because she needed that special concentration that only the night can bring. This can be seen in some poems like: “Noite” (“Night”), “O Luar” (“The Moonlight”); “O Jardim e a Noite” (“The Garden and the Night”). She claimed that poetry was something that happened to her and not something she created. Some of her work inspirations were: • The contact with nature – nature is, for Sophia, an example of freedom, beauty, perfection and mystery and it’s used a lot in her books. • The sea – it’s one of the most important elements of her writing. In some poems she expresses the sea obsession, serenity and its myths. • The city – it is seen as a negative place. It represents the cold, artificial and false world.   Different But Equal In Europe PORTUGAL 83
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  44. 44. ANA ASLAN Photo Source: Ana Aslan is one of the most famous Romanian women throughout the world. She was born on February 1st, 1897 and she lived to be 91 years old, strongly believing she could defeat old age. She is the founder of the first Geriatric Institute in the world that she laid its foundation in 1952. After graduating, Ana researched the formula against ageing in order to create a face cream for women. In 1952, she invented Gerovital H3, a face cream for women over 40, aspiring to prevent and even cure the first signs of ageing. The name of the product is the combination of two words: “gero” which comes from Greek and means either “old” or “powerful ” and “vital” which means “life ”, in Latin. Being very passionate about cardiology, Ana Aslan used procaine, a local anaesthetic with vasodilatation as a side effect in peripheral arterial disease. The condition of patients improved so much after using the substance that doctors were very impressed. It was this discovery that made Ana Aslan so unique. In 1950, she argued that ageing can be slowed down and that procaine was a decisive factor. She also created a new medical specialisation – gerontology and geriatrics – which focuses on studying the process of ageing, preventing and treating diseases related to ageing. In 1957, Aslan homologated Gerovital, a pharmaceutical product which promised slowing the process of ageing by 40%. From that moment on, her name became known worldwide, a lot of personalities having undergone treatment with the product. Among them are Tito, Charles de Gaulle, Hrusciov, J.F. Kennedy, Indira Gandhi, Imelda Marcos, Marlene Dietrich, Konrad Adenauer, Charlie Chaplin, Kirk Douglas, Salvador Dali and many others. Different But Equal In Europe ROMANIA 87
  45. 45. Angela Gheorghiu Photo Source: Angela Gheorghiu was born in Adjud, Romania. She attended the School of Music in Bucharest and graduated from the National University of Music in Bucharest. Her unique voice and amazing stage presence soon made her a superstar of international opera. She made her international debut in 1992 at the Royal Opera House in London and then in the same year, at the New York Metropolitan Opera and the Vienna State Opera. She had concerts on the most important world scenes of lyrical music, together with the big names of the genre. Conductor Sir George Solti said of her, at one of the rehearsals at the Royal Opera House: “I shed tears. I had to leave. The girl is beautiful. She can do anything. “ She made audio and video recordings for famous branded labels (Decca, EMI). Angela Gheorghiu has received numerous awards from the Ministries of Culture of France and Romania. In December 2010, he was awarded the title “The Star of Romania”, the highest decoration given by the President. In October 2012, she received the royal decorations “Nihil Sine Deo” by His Majesty King Michael I for the promotion of the Romanian culture abroad. She was married to tenor Roberto Alagna for seventeen years. The ceremony took place on the stage of the Metropolitan Opera in New York, in 1996 and was officiated by the mayor of New York, Rudolph Giuliani. Angela Gheorghiu and Roberto Alagna were considered the “Golden Couple of the Opera”. They sang in many opera and concert productions and recorded numerous CDs. In June 2008, gave together an outdoor concert in Prospect Park, New York, in the presence of over 50,000 spectators. “Music and my artistic act is open to all alike, anywhere in the world. At a time of grace, we, the artists, and the public are one body to create divinity and magic and dreaming through art” said the artist in a magazine interview in Romania. Different But Equal In Europe ROMANIA 89
  46. 46. Herta Müller Photo Source: Romanian-born German writer Herta Müller was born on 17 August 1953, in the town of Nitchidorf, Region Timisoara (Timis today). Her father was of German nationality and, because of that he served into the Waffen-SS in the WWII. He was expropriated by the Romanian state during the communism. After the Communists came to power, Herta Müller´s mother was deported to the Soviet Union in the Novo-Gorlov camp, where she stayed for five years. Herta Müller studied German and Romanian language and literature at the University of Timisoara, completing her studies in 1976 In the “Cradle of Breath” novel published in Munich in 2009, the writer reached deportation issues relating to native Germans in Romania to the Soviet Union. The book was nominated for the “German Book Prize” by the Foundation “Robert Bosch”. Her debut novel, “Niederungen” - “Lowlands” appeared in 1982, censored; two years later the full text of the novel is published in Germany, and therefore it is prohibited from publishing in Romania. Following the ban on publishing, Herta Müller emigrated in 1987 in Germany, along with her then-husband, writer Richard Wagner. Before emigrating, there appeared in Romania “Druckender Tango”, Bucharest, 1984. Romanian- born German writer was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2009, being the twelfth woman to receive this distinction. German Government had proposed for the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1999 and 2008. In the 70’s, she was close to Aktionsgruppe Banat, a group of Romanian intellectuals of German descent, which was watched closely by security. Herta Müller attended the literary circle (Lireraturkreis) “Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn” which was affiliated to Writers Association of Timisoara. (”Chronology of Romanian Literary World”, Neagu Marin,Bibliotheca Publishing House, Târgovişte,2012) Different But Equal In Europe ROMANIA 91
  47. 47. MARIA UCA MARINESCU Photo Source: Maria Uca Marinescu was born on May 15, 1940 in the city of Gheorgheni, Harghita County. She was a performing sports coach of the national team of athletics and physical education teacher. She served as president of the Sport and Environment Commission of the Romanian Olympic Committee. She is a tireless explore, the first sexagenarian in the world who reached) the two poles of the Earth on skis in a single calendar year (2001).She has also had other amazing achievements: - climbing of important mountains: Elbrus – in the Caucasus, Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, Pic d’Aneto in Spain, Mt. Wilhelm- Papua, Tavan Bogd – in Altai, Mont Blanc – in the Alps, Kailash - Tibet. - climbing of glaciers in Antarctica, the Svalbard Islands, Greenland and Kamchatka; - in 1999, she was the only woman in the world to cross Africa from south to north, passing through 11 countries. - crossing expeditions in Canada from east to west, to the Eskimo settlements in northern regions of the Arctic Ocean. - an expedition on the footsteps of the Vikings - Scandinavia, Iceland and Greenland. In 2010, she travelled around the world for six months, traveling across five continents, crossing three oceans going through: Venezuela, Ecuador, the Galapagos Islands, Brazil, Panama, Guatemala, Mexico, the USA, Canada, Japan, China, Burma, Bhutan, Cambodia, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Iran, the United Arab Emirates, Kenya, Madagascar, France and Romania. Thousands of miles walking, or in the polar areas on skis, by plane, bus, icebreaker, canoes - the ways of the world, to know people and to know how they live, to learn from them, to prove the role of the human for the present and the future of the planet. In recognition of exceptional merit, on July 15, 2002, Romanian President awarded her the National Order “For Merit” in rank of Officer. Different But Equal In Europe ROMANIA 93
  48. 48. Nadia Comaneci Photo Source: phoolaurkankar.blogspot.com Nadia Elena Comaneci was born on 12th November 1961, in Onesti, district county of Bacau. She competed for the first time at national level in Romania, in 1970, representing her hometown. Soon after, she started training with Béla Károlyi and his wife, Márta Károlyi, who later emmigrated to the USA, couching many American gymnasts. At 13, Nadia won three Gold medals and a Silver one at the 1975 European Championshiop, in Skien, Norway. The same year, the Associated Press news agency named her „Athlet of the Year in Romania”. On the 8th July 1976, a 14 year old astonished the world of sport with an incredible performance: a perfect score of 10 at the Olimpic Summer Games in Montreal. The electronic board was not even set to show a 10, instead it was a 1.00 showing on the screen. Nadia Comaneci was awarded seven times the perfect score, winning three Gold medals at individual compus, balance beam and uneven bars, a silver medal – team compus- and a medal of bronze at soil. Since then, Nadia is known as the first gymnast in the history of gymnastics to be awarded a perfect score. Nadia defended her European title in 1977, but the Romanian team exit the final competition as a protest against the arbitration. In 1979, Nadia won her third supreme title (thus becoming the first gymnast in the history of sports to achieve this performance). At the World Championship, she won the preliminary contest, but she was hospitalized before participating in the team contest. However, despite the doctors’ recommendations Nadia left the hospital and participated at balance beam, where she obtained a score of 9.95. Her performance won for Romania the first Gold medal in the team contest. Different But Equal In Europe ROMANIA 95
  49. 49. Stephanie Mărăcineanu Photo Source: http://roncea.ro/ Stephanie Mărăcineanu was the first important Romanian woman physicist. She was born in Bucharest in 1882.She attended high school at Normal School “Lady Helen”, and Bucharest Central School, graduated in 1903, and the university at the Faculty of Physics and Chemistry at the University of Bucharest. For a while she taught physics at Central School, then attended the courses about radioactivity held by Marie Curie at the Radium Institute in Paris.In the capital of France, at the Sorbonne, she presented her Ph.D.thesis –“Research on the Constancy of Polonium and on the Penetration in Metals”, which was awarded “Très Honorable”, in 1924. Appointed in 1925 assistant professor at the Faculty of Sciences in Bucharest, in the laboratory of Professor Christache Musceleanu, she created here the first Radioactivity laboratory in the country, using equipment bought with her own money. Working on her PhD thesis, Stephanie Mărăcineanu released an assumption on artificial (or induced) radioactivity, prior the spouses Irene and Frederic Joliot - Curie. Her researches were published in several magazines. The procedure was explained physically and mathematically by Irène Joliot-Curie and her husband, the discovery was awarded with the Nobel Prize for the two personalities. The merits of the Romanian physicist were recognized by Marie Curie´s daughter in an article published in “Neues Wiener Journal” in 1934: “We remember that Miss Mărăcineanu, the Romanian scientist announced the discovery of artificial radioactivity in 1924”. In 1931 Stefania Mărăcineanu caused the first artificial rain in the world with the help of radioactivity in Baragan. Her main works were: “Actions spéciales du soleil sur la radioactive polonium et du Plomb du“ (Paris, 1926), “Radioactivity and Material Constitution“ (Bucharest, 1929), “ Radioactivité, soleil, pluie artificielle“ (Bucharest, 1934) and “La radioactivité du globe, les radiations et les tremblements de terre. Les pluies et les tremblements de terre“. Different But Equal In Europe ROMANIA 97
  50. 50. Virginia Haret Photo Source: www.bazavan.ro Maria Virginia Andreescu Haret also known as Virginia Haret is a famous Romanian woman who broke the rules imposed by the 20th century society, surpassing her condition as a housewife, and becoming the first woman architect in the world. Born on 21st June 1894, in Bucharest, she is the niece of the painter Ion Andreescu. An exceptional student, Virginia graduated with Honours The School of Architecture in 1914. She becomes the daughter-in-law of the current Minister of Education, Spiru Haret, and she is one of the most well known women of the time, beautiful, sensitive and brave, a true role model for all women passionate by architecture who could follow her path. She was the first woman to receive the distinction of General Inspector in architecture, position recognised in 1981, on the occasion of the 16th Congress of History of Science, taking place in Bucharest. She never gave up her passion for architecture and she designed some of the most important buildings in the capital. In the interwar period, Virginia Haret represented Romania at The International Congress of Architecture in Moscow, Bruxelles, Paris and Rome. In Bucharest, there are a lot of buildings designed by her which can be admired: Cantemir Voda High School, Gheorghe Sincai High School, the Haret House on Ana Ipatescu Street, Dumitru Stoica House on Veronica Micle Street, the unfinished building of the Govora Casino, the Medical Institute of Bucharest, Ghencea Church, etc. She also designed the building of our high school, Voievodul Mircea, in Targoviste, built in 1923. Virginia Haret died on the 6th May 1962, but her memory remains alive through her activity as an architect. She was a true path leader in a domain ruled by men and she encouraged women to follow their dreams. For her determination, talent and bravery, Virginia Haret brought honor to our country and we couldn’t be prouder! Different But Equal In Europe ROMANIA 99
  51. 51. Photo Source: Different But Equal In Europe 101
  52. 52. Azra Akın Photo Source: www.actorsbiography.com Azra Akın is a Turkish model and actress. She was born on 8 December 1981. She is a beauty pageant titleholder who was crowned Miss World 2002 and Miss Turkey 2002. Akın was born in Almelo, Netherlands, to Turkish parents. Akın’s father (Nazım) and mother (Ayda) emigrated from Turkey to the Netherlands in 1971. In 1998, at the age of 17, Akın was selected Elite Model of Turkey; she then participated in the Europe Elite Model competition in Nice, France where she reached the final 15. In 2002, Akın won Star TV’s Miss Turkey. Thus, she represented Turkey in the Miss World beauty pageant which was held on December 7, 2002 at Alexandra Palace, London, which she also won. Akin accepted the tiara and $156,000 prize from the previous year’s winner Agbani Darego. During her reign, Akın travelled to the United Kingdom, Turkey, the United States, New Zealand, Ireland, Jamaica, Australia, China and many more countries. In 2002, three of the “Big Four” international pageant winners come from dominant Muslim countries: Džejla Glavović, who won at Miss Earth, Christina Sawaya of Lebanon, who won Miss International 2002, and Azra Akın of Turkey, who won Miss World 2002.In 2003, Akın won a gold medal when she participated in the British reality TV show The Games. n 2004, Akın modelled for the postcards of the Eurovision Song Contest 2004 which were shown before each song. In 2010, she won on the TV dance show Yok Boyle Dans, the Turkish version of Dancing With the Stars. She also took part in many movies and television series successfully. Akın speaks fluent Dutch, Turkish and English. She is still one of the most successful models of Turkey. Different But Equal In Europe TURKEY 103
  53. 53. Halide Edip Adıvar Photo Source: Halide Edip Adıvar was a Turkish novelist and nationalist and feminist political leader. She was born in 1884 and died on 9 January 1964. She was best known for her novels criticizing the low social status of Turkish women and what she saw as the lack of interest of most women in changing their situation. Halide Edip was born in Istanbul in Ottoman period. Halide Edip was educated at home by private tutors from whom she learned European and Ottoman literature, religion, philosophy, sociology, piano playing, English, French, and Arabic. She published her first novel, Seviye Talip, in 1909. She worked on curriculum and pedagogy changes and also taught pedagogy, ethics, and history in various schools. She became involved with the Turkish Hearth in 1911 and became the first female member in 1912. She was also a founder of the Elevation of Women organization. She met with Yunus Nadi and they had decided to join the Nationalists. They agreed on the importance of informing the international public opinion about the developments regarding the Turkish Liberation. Halide Edip traveled widely, teaching and lecturing repeatedly in the United States and in India. She collected her impressions of India as a British colony in her book “Inside India”. In 1950, she was elected to Parliament, resigning in 1954; this was the only formal political position she ever held.Common themes in Halide Edip’s novels were strong, independent female characters who succeeded in reaching their goals against strong opposition. She was also a strong Turkish nationalist, and several stories highlighted the central role of women in the fight for Turkish Independence. Different But Equal In Europe TURKEY 105
  54. 54. İdil Biret Photo Source: İdil Biret is a Turkish concert pianist. She is renowned for her interpretations of the Romantic repertoire. She was born on 21st November 1941 in Ankara. Idil Biret’s interest in music started when she was two years old. She began playing Bach’s preludes when she was four. Biret submitted a proposal to the Parliament in order to meet the needs of education in abroad. This offer is exclusively for Idil Biret issued as a result of the law, “Great Children’s Act’’. She was sent to Conservatory of Paris with his family sent for training. Eight-yearold Biret gave his first concert in Paris Radio. She took lessons from French pianist Alfred Cortot. . Biret’s wide repertoire encompasses much of the late Classical and Romantic piano literature. She is probably best known for her Chopin recordings. In 2004 the sale of her Naxos CDs worldwide reached two million copies. Naxos commemorated this event by presenting Biret with a platinum disc. She has played in cycles the complete piano works of Beethoven and Brahms. She recorded the concertos with the Bilkent Symphony Orchestra conducted by Antoni Wit in 2008. Biret is the only pianist to have performed all of Beethoven’s piano sonatas, concertos and Liszt transcriptions of the nine symphonies in public concerts. She is now the first pianist to have recorded them all. Biret has been a State Artist since 1971, an honorary title issued to artists by the government of Turkey for their contributions into the Turkish culture.In 1995, Biret’s recordings of Chopin’s entire oeuvre was awarded the “Grand Prix du Disque Frédéric Chopin” in Poland. The same year, she won the “Diapason d’Or” prize in France for her recording of Boulez’s sonatas. Biret also received many other awards. She is the representative of successful female musicians in Turkey. Different But Equal In Europe TURKEY 107
  55. 55. Neslihan Demir Photo Source: www.cheerall.com Neslihan Demir is a Turkish volleyball star and she plays for Eczacıbaşı VitrA. She was born on December 9, 1983 in Eskişehir. She is one of the most successful athletes of Turkey and has been among FIVB Heroes. She represented her country as the flag-bearer at the 2012 Summer Olympics Parade of Nations and the official advertisement face of Turkey for 2020 Summer Olympics candidate with basketballer Hedo Türkoğlu. Her position is opposite-hitter and has a lot of personal awards in international tournaments. She studied at Gazi University. Neslihan is a classic left-handed opposite-hitter. She likes to take ball continuously and is always the first scorer of her team. She is one of the hardest female spikers in the world and can spike with over 100 km/s speed approximately. She has a unique technical ability to take points with little dinks and use them regularly on court. She is 1.87 m tall and can spike from 3.15 m. Blocking is part of her. She is been among the best opposite-hitters in the world with Ekaterina Gamova. She played for national team over 100 times. At age 19, Darnel was the leading player in the Turkish team that won the silver medal at the EC 2003 in Turkey making her a star in her home country and in the volleyball scene. Playing with VakıfBank Güneş Sigorta Türk Telekom at the CEV Indesit Champions League, she won the “Best Scorer” award. She was named Sportsperson of Year in 2003 & 2004 by Newspaper Sabah and in 2006 by Newspaper Milliyet. She was named Best Scorer at the 2006 World Championship and 2010 World Championship. Darnel was selected as FIVB Hero by FIVB in May 2012. Darnel was selected to be the flagbearer of her home country at the 2012 Summer Olympics. Different But Equal In Europe TURKEY 109
  56. 56. Sabiha Gökçen Photo Source: Sabiha Gökçen was the first female combat pilot in the world and the first Turkish aviatrix. She was born on 22th March 1913 in Bursa and died on 22th March 2001 in Ankara. She was one of the eight adopted children of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. She expressed her wish to study in a boarding school when she first met Atatürk. After learning about her miserable living conditions, Atatürk decided to adopt and take her to live among Atatürk’s other adoptive daughters. Sabiha attended the Çankaya Primary School in Ankara and the Üsküdar Girls’ College in Istanbul. Just after the introduction of the surname act, Atatürk gave her the family name Gökçen on December 19, 1934. Gök means sky in Turkish and Gökçen means ‘belonging or relating to the sky’. However, she was not an aviator at the date. Atatürk took Sabiha along with him to the opening ceremony of Türkkuşu (Turkishbird) Flight School in 1935. During the airshow of gliders and parachutists invited from foreign countries, she decided to be a skydiver at that moment. She received her pilot’s licence. Gökçen was sent to Russia for an advanced course in glider and powered aircraft piloting. Atatürk urged her to attend the Air Force Academy to become the first female military pilot of Turkey. She improved her skills by flying bomber and fighter planes at the 1st Aircraft Regiment and got experience after participating in the Aegean and Thrace exercises. She was also awarded theTurkish Aeronautical Association’s first “Jeweled Medal” due to her superior performance in some operations. Later, she was appointed chief trainer of the Türkkuşu Flight School of Turkish Aeronautical Association. She trained four female aviators. Thus, she became the representative of successful working women in Turkey. Her name was given to an airport to make her name immortal. Different But Equal In Europe TURKEY 111
  57. 57. Sertab Erener Photo Source: www.vmuzike.net Sertab Erener is a Turkish pop music singer and also a cross-over sopranowith a vocal range that extends to high F. She was born on 4 December 1964 in Istanbul. She is one of the most successful female Turkish pop singers in Turkey, and is considered one of the divas of Turkish pop music. In Europe, she is best known for winning the Eurovision Song Contest 2003 with her hit song “Every Way That I Can”, although she has had many other achievements outside Turkey. A native of Istanbul, Erener studied history of music in a university in the city. She released her first album, Sakin Ol, in 1992. Her album Lâ’l was included by Sony Music in its “Soundtrack for a Century” collection. After competing unsuccessfully in two national Eurovision Song Contest finals in 1989 and 1990, she was internally selected in 2003 and won theEurovision Song Contest 2003, representing Turkey with the song “Every Way That I Can”, co-written by Demir Demirkan. The song went on to top charts in countries all over Europe, including Sweden and Greece. In the wake of her Eurovision success, Erener released her first English-language album, No Boundaries, in 2004. Her renditions of “Here I Am” and Bob Dylan’s “One More Cup of Coffee” were used in international movie soundtracks. “One More Cup of Coffee” was used in the soundtrack to Masked and Anonymous a semi-biopic of Bob Dylan. In 2005, Erener appeared on Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision Song Contest, a competition to choose the best Eurovision song of all time, performing the final verse and chorus of “Every Way That I Can”. The song finished ninth in a field of fifteen. She is still very successful female singer in Turkey. Different But Equal In Europe TURKEY 113
  58. 58. Tansu Çiller Photo Source: www.todayszaman.com Tansu Çiller is a Turkish economist and politician. She is the first female and the 22nd Prime Minister of Turkey. She is Turkey’s first and only female prime minister to date. She was born on 24th May 1946. She is the daughter of a Turkish governor of Bilecik province during the 1950s. She graduated from the School of Economics at Robert College after finishing the American College for Girls in Istanbul. She received her M.S. from the University of New Hampshire and Ph.D. from the University of Connecticut. She completed her postdoctoral studies at Yale University. Çiller taught economics at Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. In 1978, she became a lecturer at Boğaziçi University in Istanbul and in 1983 she was appointed as professor by the same institution. Çiller entered politics in November 1990, joining the conservative True Path Party. She was first elected to the parliament in 1991 as deputy of Istanbul and served as Minister of State. She served as prime minister from 1993 to 1996. After the withdrawal of the Republican People’s Party from the coalition in 1995 she attempted to form a minority government, which failed. After that she agreed to form another cabinet with the CHP and went for general elections. Çiller also served as Turkey’s Foreign Affairs Minister and the vice prime minister between 1996 and 1997. The EU-Turkey Customs Union agreement was signed in 1995 and came into effect in 1996 during Çiller’s government. Tansu Çiller is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders, an international network of current and former women presidents and prime ministers whose mission is to mobilize the highest-level women leaders globally for collective action on issues of critical importance to women and equitable development. She is the representative of female politicians in Turkey. Different But Equal In Europe TURKEY 115
  59. 59. Comenius Project Photo Source: “We thank to all the local and national institutions that have supported our work ” Istituto d’Istruzione Secondaria Superiore “Ugo Mursia” Carini, Italy Grupul Scolar “Voievodul Mircea” Targoviste, Romania Escola Secundaria de Santa Maria Maior Viana do Castelo, Portugal Karamursel 100. yil Teknik ve Endustri Meslek Lisesi Kocaeli, Turkey Lycee Pierre Forest Maubeuge, France Vilniaus Jono Basanaviciaus Gimnazija Vilnius, Lithuania Evening High School of Aigaleo Aigaleo, Greece Different But Equal In Europe 117

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