“ WILL WE PLAY GAMES TODAY?” PRESENTATION FOR ELEMENTARY PE CLASS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS Teaching Upper Elementary PE
Think back of your time in PE
Think of being in upper elementary / middle (Grade 4 and up)
Describe what a normal PE lesson would entail
How would the teacher begin?
Describe a lesson from start to finish
Teaching and Learning of Game Play in PE
Why it is taught? (philosophical and historical perspectives) Technical model (behaviorist) TGfU model (constructivist) Culture Factory/Product Model Progressive Education Belief System Dualism: separation of mind and body Integration of Mind, Body and Spirit Context Isolation; links with coaching and professional sports Integration of school and community Training Efficiency / military influence Movement Education Experience Specialism / Sport Integration and inclusivity
What is taught (Curriculum) Technical model (behaviorist) TGfU model (constructivist) Purpose Acquisition of knowledge Construction of meaning Objective Defining what we know Discovering what we don’t know and applying what we know Outcome Performance Thinking and Decision Making Game Frameworks Seasonal Activities Classification
How it is taught (Pedagogy) Technical model (behaviorist) TGfU model (constructivist) Instruction Teacher Centered Student Centered Strategy Part-Whole Whole-Part-Whole Content Techniques Based Concepts Based Context Teacher-student interaction Multidimensional Interaction Teacher Role Transmission of Information Facilitation of problem solving Learner Role Passive Learning Active Learning Evaluation Mastery Demonstration of understanding and contributions to process
History of TGfU
Developed in the early 1980’s in UK.
David Bunker and Rod Thorpe noticed that when students left school they knew little about how to play games because they had to use their decision-making skills.
Students were also having difficulty transferring previously learned skills over to game situations.
This resulted from the focus on learning technical skills in physical education classes with little to no emphasis on strategy and game sense.
n 1982 Bunker and Thorpe introduced their model for teaching games.
Use only “modified” games (small sided games, 3 on 3, …)
Ask questions to build problem solving and critical thinking skills
Start with game tactics before skills
Student Centered Approach
Developmentally Appropriate Games
Maximum Motto still stands!
Activity # 2
Categorize the following games
TGfU Classification of Games
Different games can be grouped together because they contain a similar structure. (Ellis, 1983)
Bunker and Thorpe (1982) categorized games of similar intents into the following headings:
Defining the Games
Target – propel an object, with a high degree of accuracy, at a target.
Sriking/fielding or run scoring - strike a ball so it eludes defenders
Net/Wall – propelling an object into space so an opponent is unable to make a return.
Invasion or Territory – to invade an opponent’s territory to score.
Classification Of Games
For one appointed category, identify the transferable skills and tactics (offense/defense) between the sports/games
Original TGfU Model (1986)
1. Game. All students are able to play the game. Margaret Ellis (1986) outlined the benefits and means of “enabling” every child to participate, regardless of skill level, by modifying such things as rules, equipment, playing areas, and group size.
2. Game appreciation . Students learn to understand and respect the necessity of rules because they create, implement, and refine them.
3. Tactical awareness . Students come to know and understand the game through solving problems as they are presented in game situations.
4. Decision making . Students learn to make good decisions by practicing the elements of decision making. These elements include paying attention to relevant actions (selective attention), anticipating responses by opponents, and choosing appropriate skills (those that will implement the decision most effectively).
5. Skill execution . Students are motivated to learn skills because they are learned in context and practiced after the game is played. The skills then enhance game play performance and help students implement the chosen strategy.
6. Performance . The level of student performance increases as the cycle continues.
Using the grid games, play the game and come up with a tactical oriented question
Questions that should be asked/answered while learning with the TGfU Model
Skill and movement execution - "How do you ...?"
Tactical awareness - "What did you ...?" How can you…? When should you…? Where should you…?
Example: let’s think of a game ….
Sampling – Transferable skills/tactics.
Game Representation – Creating developmentally appropriate game-like situations to demonstrate how to use a certain skill in a game.
Simplification – Modifying games to enhance success rate
Exaggeration – Modifying games to teach certain concepts.
Modification - Increase or decrease the complexity of any game. All modification should be used to adjust the game play to meet the needs of the students
Tactical Complexity - This point demonstrates that there should be developmental progression of tactical solutions.
Think of a game/sport
Create a modified game for grade 5
How is it representative to the real game?
Think of a tactical focus in that game
Think of a skill one needs to be successful in the game
Think of a simplification you can make to enhance success rate
Think of an exaggeration you can make to teach the tactical concept
Think of 2 modifications to increase (1) and decrease (1) the complexity of the game.