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Language and Critical Thinking

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  • 1. HELAINA MAMURIAN COMMUNICATIONS 104
  • 2.    THE SYSTEMS OF WORDS OR SIGNS THAT PEOPLE USE TO EXPRESS THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS TO EACHOTHER. ANY ONE OF THE SYSTEMS OF HUMAN LANGUAGE THAT ARE USED AND UNDERSTOOD BY A PARTICULAR GROUP OF PEOPLE. WORDS OF A PARTICULAR KIND
  • 3.   DISCIPLINED THINKING THAT IS CLEAR, RATIONAL, OPEN -MINDED, AND INFORMED BY EVIDENCE THE MENTAL PROCESS OF ACTIVELY AND SKILLFULLY CONCEPTUALIZING, APP LYING, ANALYZING, SYN THESIZING, AND EVALUATING INFORMATION TO REAACH AN ANSER OR CONCLUSION
  • 4. 6 QUESTIONS TO ASK YOURSELF WHEN SOMEONE HAS SOMETHING TO SAY!  WHO?- WHO SAID IT?  WHAT?- WHAT DID THEY SAY?  WHERE?- WHERE DID THEY SAY IT?  WHEN?- WHEN DID THEY SAY IT?  WHY?- WHY DID THEY SAY IT?  HOW? – HOW DID THEY SAY IT?
  • 5. CRTICAL THINKING PUT YOUR SKILLS TO USE!  THE MOST IMPORTANT THING EVERY CRITICAL THINKER NEEDS TO REMEMBER IS KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE!
  • 6.      WORD CHOICE AMBIGUITY DEFINITON INTENSITY IN THE NEXT COUPLE OF SLIDES WE WILL BEGIN TO EVALUATE THESE AREAS IN MORE DEPTH AND USE EXAMPLES TO HELP BETTER UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT. THIS TO CAN HELP YOU BECOME A BETTER THINKER AND COMMINUCATOR.
  • 7.  LANGUAGE IS VERY IMPORTANT TO OUR CULTURE, THEREFORE WE HAVE TO CHOOSE OUR WORDS VERY CAREFULLY, THINGS CAN CHANGE BECAUSE WE USED THE WRONG WORDS.  WORD CHOICE ALLOWS US TO INDIRECTY EXPRESS OUR “REAL” FEELINGS ABOUT THE PEOPLE, EVENTS AND THINGS IN OUR ENVIRONMENT.  THE WHORF-SAPIR HYPOTHESIS THEORIZES THAT THOUGHTS AND BEHAVIOR ARE DETEREMINED BY LANGUAGE.
  • 8.  LANGUAGE IS AMBIGUOUS, WHICH MEANS IT CAN HAVE MORE THAN ONE MEANING.  EUPHEMISM IS USED TO MAKE ANY GIVEN WORD MORE ACCEPTABE TO THE AUDIENCE IT IS BEING INTRODUCED TO.  DOUBLESPEAK IS A LANGUAGE WHICH, ACCORDING TO WILLIAM LUTZ, MAKES THE BAD SEEM GOOD.
  • 9.         DENOTATIVE MEANING REFERS TO THE WAY A WORD IS GENERALLU USED OR THE MEANING PEOPLE MOST FREQUENTLY ATTACH TO A WORD. CONNOTATIVE MEANING REFERS TO THE WAY A PERSON EMOTIONALLY RESPONDS TO IT. DICTIONARY DEFINITION IS THE MOST COMMON FROM OF CLARIFYING WHAT A WORD MEANS. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION IS SOMETIMES THE MOST USEFUL WAY TO DEFINE A WORD BY ITS FUNCTION OR OPERATION. DEFINITION BY EXAMPLE IS THE METHOD THAT ATTEMPTS TO DEFINE A WORD OR PHRASE BY CITING SPECIFIC INSTANCES OF THAT WORD OR PHRASE. DEFINITION BY NEGATION A FORM OF DEFINITION TELLS US WHAT A WORD OR PHRASE IS NOT. DEFINITION BY ETYMOLOGY IS A WAY OF DEFINING A WORD BY CITING ITS HISTORICAL ROOTS OR PLACE OF ORIGIN. SPECIAL DEFINITONS ARE OUR EVERYDAY CONVERSATIONS THAT MAY CONTAIN AN INFORMAL QUALITY THAT COMES FROM OUR USE OF SLANG AND COLLOQUIALISMS.
  • 10. THE INTENSITY OF A WORD, OR LANGUAGE IS IMPORTANT TO THE OVERALL IMPACT OF THE WORD.  NEGATIVE EVALUATIVE WORDS ARE ONES THAT CAN BE ONLY UNDERSTOOD THROUGH A COMPARISON WITH THEIR OPPOSITE.  STRONG EMOTIVE WORDS WHICH ARE USED TO DESCRIBE SOMETHINGS, BUT REALLY REPRESENTS THE PERSON‟S ATTITUDE TOWARD WHAT IS BEING DESCRIBED.  ABUSIVE LANGUAGE IS WORDS THAT INVOLVE NAME CALLING, INSULTS, SWEAR WORDS, SEXUAL OR RACIAL WORDS. 
  • 11.  LANGUAGE IS RELATED TO AUDIENCE AND COMPREHENSION.  LANGUAGE IS RELATED TO AUDIENCE ACCEPTANCE AND REJECTION OF AN ARGUMENT.  LANGUAGE AFFECTS ARGUER CREDIBILITY.  LANGUAGE DETERMINES HOW PEOPLE INTERPERT THEIR ENVIRONMENT
  • 12.  “TO SPEAK A LANGUAGE IS TO TAKE ON A WORLD, A CULTURE.” –FRANTZ FANON  “SPEECH HAS BOTH AN INDIVUDUAL AND A SOCIAL SIDE, AND WE CANNOT CONCEIVE OF ONE WITHOUT THE OTHER.” –FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE  “LANGUAGE DISGUISES THOUGHT.” –LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN  “LANGUAGE SHAPES THE WAY WE THINK, AND DETERMINES WHAT WE CAN THINK ABOUT.” BENJAMIN LEE WHORF  “CHANGE YOUR LANGUAGE AND YOU CAN CHANGE YOUR THOUGHT.” –KARL ALBRECHT  “I DON‟T WANT PEOPLE TO SAY, „SOMETHING IS TRUE BECAUSE TYSON SAYS IT IS TRUE.‟ THAT‟S NOT CRITICAL THINKING.” –NEIL DE GRASSE TYSON  “THE ESSENCE OF THE INDEPENDENT MIND LIES NOT IN WHAT IT THINKS, BUT IN HOW IT THINKS.” –CHRISTOPHER HITCHENS  “IF THERE WAS ONE LIFE SKILL EVERYONE ON THE PLANET NEEDED, IT WAS THE ABLILTY TO THINK WITH CRITICAL OBJECTIVITY.”
  • 13. 1. MARTENEY, JIM, AND STERK, JACK COMMUNICATION CRITICAL THINKING, 2008. PRINT.