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Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century

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Outlines the current state of the workforce in the 21st century and the necessary education and skills to meet the shifting needs of the labor market.

Outlines the current state of the workforce in the 21st century and the necessary education and skills to meet the shifting needs of the labor market.

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  • 1. Education and Workforce Developmentin the Early 21st Century Labor MarketCarl Van Horn, Ph.D.Professor and DirectorJohn J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Developmentand Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public PolicyApril 25, 2010www.heldrich.rutgers.edu
  • 2. Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century Labor Market2The Katrina of Recessions The nation’s longest recession; will take years to recover Highest official unemployment rate in 30 years Over 17 million officially unemployed; millions morediscouraged or underemployed 8.5 million jobs lost since December 2007 Longest average length of unemployment in 62 years 11 million more workers today than in 2000, but the samenumber of jobs
  • 3. Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century Labor Market3High Unemployment at All Levels of EducationThose with more formal education experience lower levels ofunemployment, but the unemployment rate has risen significantlyfor each group as compared to 10 years ago.The Unemployment Rate by Education Level5.83.52.51.715.310.595024681012141618Unemployment Rate-Less thana High School DiplomaUnemployment Rate-HighSchool Graduates, No CollegeUnemployment Rate-SomeCollege or Associate DegreeUnemployment Rate-BachelorsDegree or HigherDec. 1999 Dec. 2009Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, December 2009; U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics,Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program, December 2009.
  • 4. Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century Labor Market4New Realities of Workin the 21st Century EconomyMid to Late 20th Century Permanent Stable Economy Loyalty “One and Done” Education Defined Benefit Pension “Early” Retirement Safety Net for MostEarly 21st Century Temporary/Contingent Volatile Economy Ambiguity/Disaffection Lifelong Learning Defined Contribution “Never” Retire Safety Net for Fewer
  • 5. Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century Labor Market5Caution: Predicting Job Growth is DifficultPredicting which occupations will experience the largest growth is verydifficult. While some occupations met or came close to expectations, manyof these predictions were off by a long shot. Job growth depends largely onmacroeconomic trends and industry growth, which are difficult to forecastand can be derailed by an economic downturn.Occupations Projected to Experience the Largest Job Growth from 1998-2008, Against Actual Growth to 2008551 493 463 451 439 433 375433 374-1161-1873540137 71 121577 563 556-85-1400-1200-1000-800-600-400-2000200400600800SystemsAnalystsRetailSalespersonsCashiers GeneralManagers andTop ExecutivesTruck Drivers,Light andHeavyOffice Clerks,GeneralRegisteredNursesComputerSupportSpecialistsPersonal Careand HomeHealth AidesTeacherAssistantsEmploymentLevel(inthousands)Change Projected Actual ChangeSource: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections Program, Employment Projections 1998-2008, news release,November 30, 1999.
  • 6. Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century Labor Market6Will Most Jobs Expected to Grow Require Education and TrainingBeyond High School, but Not a Four-Year Degree?The occupations with the largest projected growth require a wide range ofeducation and skill levels, indicating opportunities for job seekers at various skilland education levels.Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Program, EmploymentProjections 2008-2018, news release, December 11, 2009.Most Significant Source of Postsecondary Education Requiredfor the 30 Occupations with the Largest Employment GrowthProjected, 2008-20187%33%57%3%Associate DegreeShort-term On-the-job-TrainingModerate-term On-the-jobTrainingPostsecondary VocationalAward
  • 7. Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century Labor Market7Where are the Big Job Opportunities in the Near Future?Occupations predicted for the largest job growth are ones that alreadycomprise a major source of employment. Occupations such as nurses, homehealth aides, retail salespersons, and office clerks cannot be outsourced toother countries.Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Program, Employment Projections 2008-2018, news release, December 11, 2009.Ten Occupations with the Largest Projected Growth, 2008-2018582461400 394 376 375 359279 276 2570100200300400500600700RegisteredNursesHome HealthAidesCustomerServiceRepresentativesCombined FoodPreparation andServing Workers,including FastFoodPersonal andHome CareAidesRetailSalespersonsOffice Clerks,GeneralAccountantsand AuditorsNursing Aides,Orderlies, andAttendantsPostsecondaryTeachers(inthousands)
  • 8. Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century Labor Market8Are Green Jobs and Training the Next Big Thing? Most “green jobs” are traditional jobs with a “green”component Competing and confusing credentials Amateur and experienced providers entering the training“Gold Rush” Huge disparity in training quality Online training is the new frontierSource: Jennifer Lenahan-Cleary, “Going Green: Ensuring Success for Green Job Training Programs and Participants,”presented at the U.S. Department of Employment and Training Administration Heartland Conference, April 7-9, 2010.
  • 9. Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century Labor Market9The Green Job Education and Training Landscapeis Not UniqueGrowing interest from students and jobseekers and government funding havefostered…Trend #1: “Crowding at theBottom”Trend #1: “Crowding at theBottom”Trend #2: Weak Connectionsbetween Job Market & RelatedTrainingTrend #2: Weak Connectionsbetween Job Market & RelatedTrainingTrend #3: Lack of Career LadderTransparencyTrend #3: Lack of Career LadderTransparencyTrend #4: Aggressive Recruitingespecially for Online CoursesTrend #4: Aggressive Recruitingespecially for Online Courses
  • 10. Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century Labor Market10What’s in Demand?Cross-Cutting Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities Critical Thinking and Problem Solving - making decisions, solvingproblems, and taking action Effective Communication - the ability to synthesize and transmityour ideas both in written and oral formats Collaboration and Team Building - the ability to work effectivelywith others, including those with diverse groups and with opposingpoints of view Creativity and Innovation - the ability to see what’s not there andmaking something happen Math/Science/Engineering/Technology SkillsSource: American Management Association and P21, “AMA 2010 Critical Skills Survey: Executive Summary,” April 2010.
  • 11. Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century Labor Market11Paradigm Evolution in Educationand Workforce DevelopmentPrevailing Paradigms Access (1960s+) Quality/Competitiveness(1970s and 1980s+) Graduation/Attainment(1990s+) Learning, Alignment, LaborMarket Outcomes (2000+)Dominant Strategies Funding Formulas; FinancialAid; Institutional Growth Standards/Assessments K-12 Policy Development,Reporting Skills & Abilities, PerformanceAccountability
  • 12. Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century Labor Market12Aligning Higher Education with Economic andLabor Market Goals Several states are developing comprehensive education strategiesthat redefine the role of education to include being accountablefor aligning with — and helping drive — economic prosperity aswell as economic opportunity. These states are…• Using labor market intelligence about employer needs,• Reforming curriculum to reflect the requirements of theglobal economy,• Measuring the success of education on students’employment outcomes and the ability of postsecondaryeducation to serve the region’s employers, and• Modifying funding formulas to incent or reward progresstoward strategic goals.Sources: National Governors Association (NGA) Center for Best Practices, “New Ground for State Economic Policy:Holding Higher Education Accountable for Meeting State Needs in a Knowledge-Based, Innovation Economy”(draft). Maria Heidkamp, “Initiative Strategies to Realign Postsecondary Education Outcomes with State EconomicDevelopment Goals,” presented at the NGA Center for Best Practices’ institute, Increasing PostsecondaryCredential Attainment by Adults, March 2010.
  • 13. Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century Labor Market13New Goals and Strategies for Educational Institutionsand Policymakers Link higher education and workforce development witheconomic development Bolster workforce preparation strategies — standards,curriculum reform, experiential learning Incent lifelong learning opportunities (Pell Grant, UI Reform)
  • 14. Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century Labor Market14New Goals and Strategies for Educational Institutionsand Policymakers Develop better labor market intelligence (TalentNetworks/Sector Strategies) Create culture of accountability, informed choice, andconsumer protection — Consumer Report Card, VoluntaryFramework for Accountability Allocate resources based on performance
  • 15. Education and Workforce Development in the Early 21st Century Labor Market15Contact InformationDr. Carl Van Hornvanhorn@rci.rutgers.edu732.932.4100 x6305www.heldrich.rutgers.edu

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