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Personal Knowledge Management Lecture - Chapter 3 WS09/10)

Personal Knowledge Management Lecture - Chapter 3 WS09/10)

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  • Wissensmanagement
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Wissensmanagement
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000 Tonspur: Leben in 1Tag: Mensch x-10 min, Wissenschaft: x-1 sek
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Diese Folie nur kurz am an die Modelle zu erinnern.
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000 Diese Folie nur kurz am an die Modelle zu erinnern.
  • creation, externalisation, TIME PASSES, retrieval, usage
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000
  • Ontologie-basiertes Wissensmanagement 12.1.2000

PKM Lecture 1 - Introduction and Tools - (2009) PKM Lecture 1 - Introduction and Tools - (2009) Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 3 PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (PKM) Heiko Haller 1 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Overview Knowledge starts in people’s minds PKM human Degree of externalisation (tacit) XXXXX XXXXX „system“ XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX (explicit) XXXXX XXXXX storage Community involvment 2 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Agenda  3.1 Why and What is PKM  3.2 PKM Tools  3.3 Soft Skills, Practices 3 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Agenda  3.1 Why and What is PKM  3.2 PKM Tools  3.3 Soft Skills, Practices 4 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • The most important contribution of management in the 20th century was to increase manual worker productivity fifty- fold. The most important contribution of management in the 21st century will be to increase knowledge worker productivity – hopefully by the same percentage. […] The methods, however, are totally different from those that increased the productivity of manual workers. Peter F. Drucker, 1958 5 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Why Personal Knowledge Management? Human long-term memory has giant capacity huge amounts of information are stored memory retrieval is the bottleneck Working memory is very limited Only 7±2 items can be held in working memory simultaneously (G. A. Miller, 1956) Dealing with complex subjects, this is a problem… 6 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Complex Problem Solving networked thinking Frederic Vester “The Art of Networked Thinking” Dietrich Dörner “The Logic of Failure” Heinz v. Foerster (Cybernetik) reducing complexity clustering, modularisation pattern recognition abstraction activating and relating to prior knowledge 7 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Cognitive Adequacy Evolution did not optimise our brains for the kinds and amounts of knowledge we deal with nowadays. 8 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Cognitive Adequacy To support knowledge work, we need methods and techniques mnemonics (memory techniques) meta cognition (thinking about thinking) meditation (practicing the mind) cognitive tools “Gedankenstützen”, “Denkwerkzeug” reduce cognitive load / cognitive overhead 9 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Recapitulation: Core activities of holistic KM according to Probst, Raub, Romhardt Knowledge Feedback Knowledge Goals Assessment Knowledge Knowledge Identification Utilization Knowledge Knowledge Acquisition Preservation Knowledge Knowledge Development Distribution 10 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Knowledge Transformation Processes SEKI (Nonaka/ Takeuchi) tacit explicit socialise learn tacit externalise explicit internalise learn combine 11 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • SECI Today Combination Socialisation 12 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Personal Knowledge Processes Creation (Organise, Formalize, 1 Externalisation Refine) 3 2 4 Retrieval 5 (search own + others) 6 Usage Model by Max Völkel (http://xam.de/ ) based on: Marc E. Nissen, 2006, WM Potsdam 13 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Re-Use Your Own Knowledge Externalisation Internalisation Note-taking is communication with yourself 14 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Degrees of Formality “Knowledge Cue” (Wissenshinweis) undetailled, degree of structuredness/explictness/formality detailed, raw, exact, short, explicit, needs prior knowledge common language, recipient Me Me Me (2 years later) general public (now) (later) others that I know well others that don„t know the subject others that know the subject PKM OKM 15 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Cost and Benefit of PKM • Total costs C = CE + CR • Benefit B = ?  Personal KM is always gambling:  Will I ever need this knowledge again? In what context?  Is it cheaper to recreate the knowledge? CC < CE + CR  What value will it have? How much effort to structure and formalize is justified? B > CE + CR 16 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Organisationales WM vs. Persönliches WM Organisationales WM Persönliches WM Perspektive Unternehmen Individuum Top-Down Bottom-Up Veränderungen Fluktuation der Mitarbeiter Wechsel des Arbeitgebers Ziel Produktivität steigern Formalitätsgrad Expliziter („Veröffentlichung“) Informaler („Notiz“) Kontext Beruf Beruf und Privat Geschwindigkeit der Ca. 10 Jahre Ca. 1 Jahr Umsetzung 17 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Status of the Topic By far less .... understood agreed integrated heavily researched on ... than other KM areas (groups, organizations, processes, ...) Nevertheless, central to KM ! Differentiation from surrounding areas a bit fuzzy eLearning, Skill Management Personal information management (“PIM”) Community knowledge management Personal task and self management 18 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Agenda  3.1 Why and What is PKM  3.2 PKM Tools  3.3 Soft Skills, Practices 19 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Agenda  3.1 Why and What is PKM  3.2 PKM Tools  3.3 Soft Skills, Practices 20 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Cognitive Tools Personal knowledge media representing problems supporting memory knowledge modelling organising resources  “extracortical organizers of thought” (Vygotsky, 1978) “We can‟t manage knowledge, only cues to knowledge.” Knowledge cues are things (symbols, words, artefacts), that help us reconstruct the original knowledge structures associated with them. Pictures Texts Keywords 21 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Conventional Tools paper-based tools calendars notebooks sketches … are well-established but have shortcomings especially for complex contents, computer-based tools have valuable possibilities full text search / filtering linking / browsing zooming interactive editing / refining easy sharing / collaborating 22 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • PKM Pioneers  Vannevar Bush (1945):  Douglas Engelbart  Niklas Luhmann MEMEX (1963): (1992) „enlarged intimate AUGMENT used Zettelkasten for supplement first hypertext 26 years: to his memory“ system „Als Ergebnis längerer Arbeit mit dieser Technik [dem Zettelkasten] entsteht eine Art Zweitgedächtnis, ein Alter ego, mit dem man laufend kommunizieren kann.“ • Vannevar Bush: As we may think, Atlantic Monthly, 1945, 176, 101-108 • Engelbart, D: A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man‘s Intellect, Vistas in Information Handling, Spartan Books: Washington, DC: London, 1963, 1-29 • Niklas Luhmann: Kommunikation mit Zettelkästen. Ein Erfahrungsbericht. In: ders.: Universität als Milieu. Kleine Schriften. Haux Verlag, Bielefeld: 1992, S.53-61. ISBN 3-925471-13-8 23 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • The MEMEX by Vannevar Bush Copyright by: 24 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI Taken from http://www-sop.inria.fr/acacia/personnel/Fabien.Gandon/lecture/saint_louis_2007_02/seminar/
  • Zettelkasten  extensible  no queries / text search  no automation 25 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • PIM – Personal Information Management specific application areas address book calendar task planer notes (communications, feeds (mail, RSS etc.)) 26 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • PIM – Personal Information Management Tools modular iCal, Address Book (Mac) Kontact, Kalendar (KDE) Sunbird (Mozilla) monolithic MS-Outlook/Exchange Lotus Organizer Novell Evolution web google (-calendar, -contacts, -notebook, -bookmarks, -Web History, iGoogle) “remember the milk“ and many others (task planer) 27 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • PIM vs. PKM – Overview shared private PKM concept mapping generic mind mapping personal wikis wikis note taking PIM groupware ... outliner specific task planer calendar contacts 28 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Computer-Based PKM Tools 29 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Example of an Outliner (Gliederungseditor) 30 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Example of an Outliner (Gliederungseditor) OmniOutliner 31 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Outliners can be used … … as an aid for writing long / complex texts … as a personal knowledge repository – like a Zettelkasten … for task/project planning siehe auch http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outliner http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gliederungseditor 32 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Task Manager (OmniOutliner) 33 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Personal Wiki Use using standard (multi-user) wikis online as single user pro: easy to set up (Wiki-Farms e.g. pbworks.com, wikia.com, referata.com) con: no offline use, limited control over personal data using standard (multi-user) wikis locally e.g. JSPWiki, (Semantic) MediaWiki pro: stable, well-known environment, own your data con: does not (automatically) sync with other devices (e.g. mobile) con: requires additional software, e.g. a Web server, (L)AMP personal editions of standard wikis 34 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Personal Wiki Engines additional features tree views drag and drop for external content (images, text, video, …) OLE – wikis as relational superstructures for desktop documents faster con: usually no syncing to other places of use see also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_wiki http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?PersonalWiki 35 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Voodoo Pad screen shot shows dragged in images 36 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Personal Wikis – Conclusion Wikis can be used locally as “personal wikis”. Have proven to be very efficient for PKM interlinking information units (pages) backlinks categories, tags, keywords full-text search structured and unstructured contents scalable (some people have several thousand pages) But don‟t allow to see overall structure  no overview 37 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Visual PKM Tools – why? Our sense of spatial orientation is highly efficient and automated. Automated actions do not interfere with conscious tasks. (Schneider & Shiffrin, 1977) Using our spatial sense to deal with knowledge helps orientation in our “knowledge space” very efficiently. Visual representations are easier turned into mental models because they bare the structure of the content matter (see next slide) 38 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Analysis of Map of Conceptual symbol Organisation analogue structures structures model construction propositional mental model representation model inspection processing selection thematic semantic visual text-surface [Source : Schmotz & Bannert, 1999] perception / representation imagination perception processing semantic Verbal Pictorial sub- Organisation Organisation text picture / diagram 39 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Example: Mind-Maps 40 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • some Mind-Mapping Tools Mind-Manager market leader easy to use, powerful, office-integrated http://mindjet.com/ FreeMind open source also quite popular http://freemind.sourceforge.net/ MindMeister Web2.0 upcoming http://mindmeister.com/ 41 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Example: Concept Maps 42 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Concept Mapping Tools inspiration commercial, widely used easy to use http://inspiration.com/ cMap Tools from Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) free (but not open source) http://cmap.ihmc.us/ many graphic programs... 43 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Example: Spatial Hypertext Knowledge Manager MindMeister Axxon FreeMind Inspiration MindManager cMap ConceptDraw SmartDraw Mindmap Pro Visual Mind The Brain Mind Mapper Ygnius VKB Tinderbox 44 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Example: Spatial Hypertext Concept Mapping Tools Spatial Hypertext taugliche Tools Tools die Mind-Mapping unterstützen Knowledge Manager MindMeister Axxon FreeMind Inspiration MindManager cMap ConceptDraw SmartDraw Tools ohne freie Positionierung Mindmap Pro Visual Mind The Brain Mind Mapper Ygnius VKB Tinderbox 45 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Spatial Hypertext Tools Tinderbox commercial, widely used Mac only http://www.eastgate.com/Tinderbox/ Visual Knowledge Builder working research prototype free but dead http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/vkb/ iMapping research prototype (under construction) by FZI deep zooming semantic desktop http://imapping.info/ 46 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • Mapping Techniques in Comparison Mind-Mapping (see T. Buzan) easy, fast but vague Concept Mapping (see J.D. Novak) expressive, stresses structure but need more effort Spatial Hypertext (see F. M. Shipman) constructive ambiguity but no explicit relations 47 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • why not have maps of maps? 48 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • iMapping 49 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI
  • more about mapping techniques “Mappingverfahren zur Wissensorganisation” (Diploma Thesis) http://heikohaller.de/literatur/ For future scenario read last chapter iMapping (PhD Thesis) http://imapping.info/ 50 20.11.2009 Vorlesung Wissensmanagement WS 2009/2010 Institut AIFB & FZI