SOME TRENDS ON SCHOOL EDUCATION IN EUROPE Introduction to the study of European School systems
<ul><li>European countries in general, achieved the nowadays school system before the end of the 19th century: </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Developments during the second half of the 20th century have brought radical social and economic changes to Europe...
<ul><li>To develop responses to the challenges of this new order, European countries have recognised knowledge as their mo...
<ul><li>FROM EDUCATION FOR SOCIAL HARMONY  </li></ul><ul><li>TO EDUCATION FOR SOCIAL COHESION.... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tr...
<ul><li>QUANTITY VERSUS QUALITY....... </li></ul><ul><li>Europe, in general terms, has succeeded in the policy of “school ...
<ul><ul><li>In all countries, curricula focusses knowledge and skills in   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>language, foreig...
<ul><li>........and new requests to the schools systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The imbalanced acquisition of key competenci...
<ul><li>There is a general consensus that mastery of  reading, writing and arithmetic  is a necessary but insufficient con...
<ul><li>European countries are concerned with the quality of their school systems:  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To i...
Similarities in the organisational structure of European education systems  Key  common carachteristics
<ul><ul><li>All European countries invest a significant share of their national wealth (on average 5 %) in education. Ever...
<ul><li>Pre-primary education is becoming an integral part of the education system. Children in many countries are admitte...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Admission to compulsory education is free in Europe.   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The path through sc...
<ul><li>In general, progression to secondary level depends on the satisfactory completion of primary education.  </li></ul...
COMMON TRENDS IN THE  TEACHING PROFESSION
<ul><ul><li>All student teachers for primary or secondary education receive tertiary education.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><ul><li>All student teachers for primary or secondary education receive tertiary education.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><ul><li>The teaching profession represents more than 2 % of the active population in all European countries. In all co...
<ul><li>International references </li></ul><ul><li>on the field of education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNESCO </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>UNESCO.  United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural  organisation .http://portal.unesco.org </li></ul><ul...
European Commission Education and Training http://ec.europa.eu/education/index_en.htm <ul><li>EU actions in education and ...
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School Systems

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School Systems

  1. 1. SOME TRENDS ON SCHOOL EDUCATION IN EUROPE Introduction to the study of European School systems
  2. 2. <ul><li>European countries in general, achieved the nowadays school system before the end of the 19th century: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary education for all satisfied the needs of nation building, religious education, and labour market requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary education as a general schooling was introduced after the World War II </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most European countries have a large proportion of their students in technical and vocational schools at upper secondary. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Developments during the second half of the 20th century have brought radical social and economic changes to Europe.......... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalisation, international integration and cooperation but also a new and intensified international competition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The likelihood of anybody staying in the same job, the same economic sector or in paid employment throughout the entire period of working life is becoming increasingly remote. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>To develop responses to the challenges of this new order, European countries have recognised knowledge as their most valuable resource and driving force behind personal development. </li></ul><ul><li>Where people acquire knowledge, learn skills and transform them into competence for meaningful use, they not only stimulate economic and technological progress but derive much personal satisfaction and well-being from their endeavours. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>FROM EDUCATION FOR SOCIAL HARMONY </li></ul><ul><li>TO EDUCATION FOR SOCIAL COHESION.... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional school systems were reproducers of the traditional social structures: educating citizens for a social statu quo . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, Education is seen as a way to decrease the social inequalities, to avoid conflicts, to learn respect and tolerance and to preserve Human Rights. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>QUANTITY VERSUS QUALITY....... </li></ul><ul><li>Europe, in general terms, has succeeded in the policy of “school for all”. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With very rare exceptions, the rate of compulsory schooling attendance in European countries is very high.(100%) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Many countries are now planning a further step: </li></ul><ul><li>after quantity (no children without school), </li></ul><ul><li>is the time for quality (high standards) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>but also for equity (quality for all) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>In all countries, curricula focusses knowledge and skills in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>language, foreign language, mathematics and science </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>personal and life skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ethical values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic skills are becoming the most important : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>communication, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>problem solving, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>creative and analitycal thinking, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>team work, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learn to learn..... </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>........and new requests to the schools systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The imbalanced acquisition of key competencies is generally seen as the main reason for social division and the disparities in income that lead to marginalisation and, ultimately, social exclusion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European countries are increasingly concerned to identify the knowledge, skills, competence, abilities and attitudes that will equip their citizens to play an active part in this emerging knowledge-driven society. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>There is a general consensus that mastery of reading, writing and arithmetic is a necessary but insufficient condition for a successful adult life. School systems has to be oriented to the acquisition of </li></ul><ul><li>Generic skills or transversal competencies: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>communication, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>problem-solving, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reasoning, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>leadership, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>creativity, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>motivation, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>team-work </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learn to learn. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>European countries are concerned with the quality of their school systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To improve learning achievements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To be more competitive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>And to improve the quality means: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- professionalize teachers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- give them more autonomy to innovate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>develop new teaching methods (team work, projects..) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- bring them more support (inspection, school based support, assistant teachers); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide individual support to students (instead of repetition) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- increase ICT </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Similarities in the organisational structure of European education systems Key common carachteristics
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>All European countries invest a significant share of their national wealth (on average 5 %) in education. Everywhere, expenditure on staff corresponds to the biggest budget heading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Despite budgetary restrictions, education continues to be a significant item of public expenditure in all countries, although the proportion of resources devoted to it may be twice as much in some countries as in others, ranging from 8-17 % . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Pre-primary education is becoming an integral part of the education system. Children in many countries are admitted at the age of 3 or 4. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In some countries (BE, EE, ES, FR, LT, LI, EI, SE and IC), the youngest children may attend school even earlier. Attendance at a pre-primary institution is optional in most countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Education is of compulsory attendance at the age of 5 or 6 and generally corresponds to the entry to primary school. In three Nordic countries education become compulsory at the age of 7. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the great majority of countries, full-time compulsory education lasts nine or ten years and continues until pupils are aged at least 15 or 16. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><ul><li>Admission to compulsory education is free in Europe. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The path through school is generally the same for all pupils until the end of lower secondary education (aged 14 or 15). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For the majority of pupils in Europe, it is from around the age of 15 that it becomes necessary to choose between different branches or types of education . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The primary curriculum everywhere consists of the same compulsory subjects and always allocates more time for teaching the language of instruction and mathematics. Artistic and sports activities are also well catered for in the recommended school timetable. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>In general, progression to secondary level depends on the satisfactory completion of primary education. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the age of 15, half of young people in Europe are enrolled at secondary compulsory level. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>As a general rule, the higher the level of a school certificate, the more frequently its award is subject to external assessment . In all countries, the possession of a general upper secondary school leaving certificate is a minimum requirement for admission to tertiary education. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where the choice between general and vocational education occurs at an early stage of schooling, it appears not to affect the distribution of pupils in these two branches at upper secondary level . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. COMMON TRENDS IN THE TEACHING PROFESSION
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>All student teachers for primary or secondary education receive tertiary education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools and therefore teachers are generally free to use their preferred textbooks and teaching methods. On the other hand, they have little say in the content of the curriculum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The profession consists of large numbers of women and many teachers are nearing retirement. In-service training is compulsory or necessary for teacher career advancement and/or salary increases. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>All student teachers for primary or secondary education receive tertiary education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools and therefore teachers are generally free to use their preferred textbooks and teaching methods. On the other hand, they have little say in the content of the curriculum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The profession consists of large numbers of women and many teachers are nearing retirement. In-service training is compulsory or necessary for teacher career advancement and/or salary increases. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>The teaching profession represents more than 2 % of the active population in all European countries. In all countries, the percentage of women teachers decreases at higher levels of education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions about the weekly timetable, teaching methods, choice of textbooks, and grouping and continuous assessment of pupils are almost always taken by schools themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools have some room for manoeuvre concerning use of the budget they receive for operational resources. By contrast, their scope for purchasing fixed assets (immovables) financed by public funds and for raising and using funds from private loans is limited </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>International references </li></ul><ul><li>on the field of education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNESCO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European Union. Education and Training Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Key Data on Education” (2005) Eurydice Network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Qualification systems. Bridges to lifelong learning”(2007) OECD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.eurydice.org/portal/page/portal/Eurydice </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>UNESCO. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural organisation .http://portal.unesco.org </li></ul><ul><li>Millennium Development Goals for 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>halve the proportion of people living in extreme poverty </li></ul><ul><li>achieve universal primary education in all countries </li></ul><ul><li>eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education </li></ul><ul><li>help countries implement a national strategy for sustainable development </li></ul><ul><li>to reverse current trends in the loss of environmental resources </li></ul>
  22. 22. European Commission Education and Training http://ec.europa.eu/education/index_en.htm <ul><li>EU actions in education and training aim to improve the quality of learning systems and provide greater opportunities for people at all stages of their lives. While each Member State is in charge of its own education and training system, co-ordinated action can help achieve common aims. </li></ul><ul><li>The European Commission focuses on two aspects: </li></ul><ul><li>co-operation with national authorities and European stakeholders on improving policies and exchanging good practice, </li></ul><ul><li>development and administration of funding programmes. </li></ul>
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