Section 2• Main Idea: The rapid growth of cities forced people to contend with problems of housing, transportation, water, and sanitation.
Urban opportunities• The technological boom generated in the Second Industrial Revolution helped strengthen the United States.• This caused rapid growth of cities mostly in the northeast and Midwest regions of the United States, known as What? • Urbanization
Immigrants in the cities• Most immigrants lived in cities because it was ? • Cheaper and more convenient • and offered unskilled laborers jobs in mills or factories• What is the Americanization movement? o A movement designed to assimilate people of wide-ranging cultures into the dominant culture.
So over the city• Urban Problems, there were many list them. o Housing- buy a house outside of town and have to figure out a way to work; or rent cramped, cheap, and often dirty tenements. o Transportation- mass transit; designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes, allowed workers to get to work more easily. Street cars in San Francisco in 1873. electric subway 1897. o Water, Sanitation, crime, and fire
Please help us!• With mounting problems Americans came together to find solutions.• What early reform program preached salvation through the service to the poor? o Social Gospel Movement• What did these movements help establish to for the poor? o Settlement Houses
Who’s that girl?• These two ladies founded Chicagos Hull House in 1889, who were they? o Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr• This woman founded Locust Street house in 1890, the 1st settlement house to welcome African Americans, who was she? o Janie Porter Barrett
Section 3• Main Idea: Local and national political corruption in the 19th century led to calls for reform.
The Political Machine• Cities had a new social structure that of the political machine.• Political machines ?• were organized groups that controlled the activities of the political party in a city, they also offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support.
Who’s the Boss?• Whether or not the “boss” officially served as mayor or in another part of government,• What did have the ability to control?• He controlled access to city jobs, business licenses and influenced the courts and other city agencies.
Immigrants and the Machine• Many precinct captains or political bosses were 1st or second generation immigrants.• They helped immigrants find jobs, could often speak their language and even would help them find housing, why? o In return for helping them, immigrants were expected to vote for the political bosses candidates or in favor of issues they approved of.
Scams and bad bosses• What is a graft?• It is when a political machine got its candidates in office, they would use the political influence for personal gain. o Example: “kick Backs” a portion of money paid to a machine worker would come back to the political machine. Over charging on jobs, gambling , business favors.
Patronage, and Civil Service• Patronage what is it?• The giving of government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected.• What is the Civil Service exam?• A merit system of hiring jobs based on skills for government administrations, people who are the most qualifed.
Skilled folks only please• The Pendleton Civil Service Act passed after James A. Garfield was shot by a disgruntled patronage supporter. His Vice President who took office after his death was Chester A. Arthur. What did the act do• The Act made federal jobs use a performance based exam to hire only qualified people.
Business buys influence• Since patronage was dying out and political machines couldn’t force people to vote their way. They took funds from businesses to get their politicians in office.• Once in office the politicians were pressured to enact laws that favored businesses.
Map and Citizenship test• On the map worksheet you are going to write the distribution levels of immigrants and where they entered the country. Use Page 255 to help. Colored pencils are in the closet.• When you finish, complete the citizenship test. 100 questions that have been asked on a U.S. citizenship test.
Section 1• Main Idea:• Immigration from Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and Mexico reached a new high in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Why Come?• Why did people leave their home lands? o Lured by the promise of a better life o Some were known as “birds of passage” this refers to people who only came to the U.S. temporarily to make money and then return back to their homelands. o Escape difficult conditions such as: • Famine • Land shortages • Religious persecution • Political persecution
Europeans• 1870-1920: 20 million Europeans arrived into the U.S.• Beginning in the 1890s increasing numbers of immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe• WHY? o Many of the new immigrants left to escape the religious persecution: o Whole villages of Jewish people were driven out by pogroms. o Pogroms- are organized attacks often encouraged by local government or police.
Europeans Part II• Another problem in Europe was there were way too many people.• Land was scarce since there were so many people• Jobs were hard to find too• There was also waves of political movements which encouraged people to venture to the U.S. for a taste of independence.
Chinese and Japanese• Europeans arrived on the east coast; which coast did the Chinese and Japanese arrive on? • WEST COAST• 1851-1883: about 300,000 Chinese arrived. Many arrived in search of gold, other worked on the railroad.
Quick Review• What was the name of the railroad that these newly arriving immigrants from China worked on? Hint: it was the 1st to connect the Eastern and Western portions of the U.S. o The Transcontinental Railroad
Chinese and Japanese• The Chinese immigrants also worked on farms, mining, domestic services, and even opened their own businesses.• Japanese immigrants started arriving when Hawaiian planters were allowed to recruit Japanese people to work their fields.• The U.S. annexed Hawaii in 1898 and led to the Japanese increasingly immigrating into the West coast.• By 1920 more than 200,000 Japanese people lived on the West coast.
West Indies and Mexico• 1880-1920 200,000 immigrants arrived in the eastern and southeastern portion of the U.S. From the West Indies.• They came from: o Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other Islands
Mexicans• 1902 National Reclamation Act- o Encouraged the irrigation of arid land, created new farm land in Western states and drew Mexican farm workers northward.• 1910 political and social problems in Mexico caused immigration to increase. 7% of Mexico’s population at the time had come to the U.S.
REVIEW• What are “birds of passage”? o Temporary immigrants that come to make money and return to their homelands.• What are pogroms and in What country were they being used? o They are government sponsored violence against religious groups. These took place in Russia against the Jewish people.
Review• What caused Chinese and Japanese people to immigrant to the United States?
Enjoy the ride• How did immigrants arrive to the United States? o 1870s most arrived by steamship• Most traveled in steerage, rarely allowed on deck, over crowed, smelly, bug infested bedding, very few potties,
2 Islands• ELLIS ISLAND: East coast entry point for immigrants in New York harbor.• ANGEL ISLAND: West coast entry point for immigrants in San Francisco Bay.
Ellis vs. Angel Island processing• Ellis Island: processing could last for several hours if not days. o 1st physical exam to check for serious health issues or contagious diseases, if sick you are going back. o 2nd after medical clearance government inspector checked documents, to make sure they werent criminals, that they could work, and had a little money at least 25 dollars.
Ellis vs. Angel Island processing• Angel Island- Immigrants endured harsh questioning and long detention in filthy buildings awaiting entrance or rejection.
I’m here now what?• Once immigrants finally were able to enter the U.S. what are some challenges they might have faced? o Finding a place to live o Getting a job o Language o New culture
My Crew• How did immigrants cope in this new country? o Many immigrants sought out people who shared their cultural values, practiced their religion, and spoke their native languages. These ethnic communities helped immigrants cope.
Immigration Restrictions• Native born Americans thought of the country as a melting pot: o mixture of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs.
Boo Immigrants• This was a time of numerous anti-immigrant feelings in our country.• True or false: This was the only time period in our country where immigrants are treated badly and people feel they are ruining our country and stealing our job. oFALSE
Restrictions• Nativism- overt favoritism toward native born Americans.• Chinese Exclusion Act- 1882, banned entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, and government officials.
Restrictions• The Gentlemen’s Agreement:1907- 1908 o President Theodore Roosevelt worked out a deal under this agreement o Japan’s government limit emigration of unskilled workers to U.S. in exchange for the repeal of the San Francisco order.
What is the San Francisco segregation order?• In 1906, the local board of education in San Francisco segregated Japanese children by putting them in separate schools.
Assignment• Each of you are leaving you homeland. You will make a list of items you would bring with you to your new country.• Write why you would bring those items, and why you are leaving your homeland. The catch is you can only bring one bag, no larger than a bag pack.• Write things you would miss about your homeland. Write about some items you might have to leave behind. Examples: dog, cat, friends, family• You will share their answers at the start of class the next day.