CHANGES ON THEWESTERN FRONTIER Cultures Clash on the Prairie
SECTION 1 Introduction Who might have moved into the West? Why? How did Westward expansion impact the Native inhabitants?
INTERACTIVE MAP OF U.S. Interactive Map of Early U.S. As the U.S. grew it expanded west into land inhabited by NativeAmerican tribes. How would each of you feel if outsiders came intoyour cities and told you to move; or follow their religious beliefs, learntheir language and their customs?
GREAT PLAINS INDIANS Distinctive and highly developed Native American ways of lifeexisted on the GREAT PLAINS. Great Plains: refers to the grassland extending through the west-central portion of the United States.
GREAT PLAINS INDIANS Numerous tribes had thrived on the Great Plains for hundreds ofyears prior to the arrival of settlers. Tribes such as Arapaho,Cheyenne, Comanche, Crow, Pawnee, and Sioux.
HORSES AND BUFFALO In 1598 Spanish settlers brought horses into New Mexico Native Americans were able to trade for guns and horses usingthese new animals and weapons to hunt and travel more efficiently. Increased mobility often led to war among competing tribes • Wars parties • Truces • Buffalo hunted for meat, clothing, blankets
FAMILY LIFE Native Americans on the plains usually lived small extended familygroups with ties to other bands that spoke the same language. Plains Indian tribes believed that powerful spirits controlled events inthe natural world. Children learned proper behavior and culture through stories andmyths, games, and good examples. Tribes ruled by counsel rather than force, land in common for the useof the whole tribe
SETTLERS PUSH WESTWARD Settlers versus Natives Native Americans didn’t believe land could be owned; whitesettlers did. White settlers would mine the land, farm, or start businesses White settlers argued that Natives gave up their “rights” to theland since they weren’t trying to “improve” the land like they werethrough farming, mining, building, etc.
GOLD AND SILVER The discovery of gold in Colorado in 1858 led to tens ofthousands of miners to head West. Most mining camps and frontier towns were small, dirty, withcramped living conditions People from all backgrounds sought out gold and silver, even a fewwomen too found work as laundresses, freight haulers, and evenminers.
GOVERNMENT RESTRICTS NATIVES In 1834 the federal government has passed an act designating theentire Great Plains as one reservation. In 1850s the act was revised to and created treaties that definedspecific boundaries for each tribe. Many Native tribes ignored the newgovernment treaties and continued to use their traditional landsclashing with settlers.
MASSACRE AT SAND CREEK 1864 the Cheyenne tribe returned to the Colorado Sand Creekreserve for the winter General S. R. Curtis, U.S. Army commander in the West sent atelegram to colonel John Chivington to make the Natives suffer Chivington and his troops descended on the Cheyenne andArapaho at Sand Creek. They had 200 warrior, and 500 women andchildren. By dawn 150 were killed mostly women and children.
DEATH ON THE BOZEMAN TRAIL Bozeman Trail ran directly through Sioux hunting grounds in theBighorn Mountains. The Sioux chief Red Cloud tried to stop white expansion into theirterritory December 1866 the warrior Crazy Horse ambushed CaptainWilliam J. Fetterman. 80 soldiers were killed.
TREATY TIME Numerous attacks continued until the government closed theBozeman Trail. In return for closing the trail the Sioux had to signeda treaty. The Treaty of Fort Laramie: stated the Sioux agreed to live onthe reservation along the Missouri River in 1868.
SITTING BULL Sitting Bull: leader of the Hunkpapa Sioux, had never signed thetreaty. He refused to give into U.S. Video link: Sitting Bull video clip
BLOODY BATTLESRed River War: 1868 war broke out between the Kiowa and theComanche after six years of raiding…their fighting led to the RedRiver War 1874-1875. Friendly tribes were taken by U.S. troops toreservations while all other tribes were fired upon.Gold Rush: Miners stated searching the Black Hills for gold upsettingthe Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho.
GEORGE A. CUSTER 1874 Colonel George A. Custer reported that the Black Hills wasfilled with gold, prompting a gold rush. 1876 When Colonel Custer and his troopsreached the Little Bighorn River,the Native Americans were ready for them.
THE END FOR THE SIOUX The Sioux despite their victory at Little Bighorn, were defeatedlater in the year 1876. Sitting Bull and few followers took refuge inCanada until 1881. Eventually Sitting Bull was forced to surrender and was forced toperform in William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody’s Wild West Show. Sitting Bull was killed by Native American Police at Standing RockReservation in 1890.
ASSIMILATION Assimilation- was a plan in which Native Americans would giveup their beliefs and way of life and become part of the white culture. The Dawes Act of 1887 aimed to “Americanize” the NativeAmericans. The act broke up the reservations and gave some of thereservation land to individual Native Americans-160 acres to eachhead of household and 80 acres to each unmarried adult.
BYE-BYE BUFFALO One of the most important changes to the tribal life was thedestruction of the buffalo for sport. Buffalo was a main source offood, clothing, shelter and fuel. 1800 about 65 million buffalo-----by1890 only 1000 remained!
BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEE December 28, 1890 the Seventh Calvary- (Custer’s old crew)rounded up about 350 starving, freezing Sioux and took them to acamp at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota. The Next day the Sioux were slaughtered 300 out of 350 werekilled several of those killed were children.
CATTLE AND COWBOYS Vaqueros and cowboys: The cowboy’s clothes, food, andvocabulary were heavily influenced by the Mexican vaquero. They worked with animals such as the Texas longhorns- a sturdy,short tempered breed accustomed to the dry grasslands of southernSpain.
COW TOWN Abilene, Kansas Joseph McCoy a major cattle dealer helped organize the buildingof the cow town, and helped survey a major cattle trail the ChisholmTrail; went from San Antonio Texas to Oklahoma and Kansas. The overland transport of cattle was known as a long drive. 1 cowboy for every 250-300 cows, 1 cook, a wrangler, and trailboss.
SECTION 2Settlers moving Westward to FarmThe transcontinental railroad lines made the rapidsettlement of the West possible.
QUOTE:A Personal Voice Quote From Esther ClarkHill A Pioneer Woman
RAILROADS 1850-1871: the federal government made huge land grantsto the railroads-170 million acres, worth half a billion dollarsfor laying track in the West.
RAILROADS 2 railroad companies Central Pacific moved eastward fromSacramento, and Union Pacific moved westward fromOmaha. Who built the railroad? • Civil War Veterans • Irish/Chinese immigrants • African Americans and Mexican Americans
SETTLEMENT 1862 Homestead Act passed-offering 160 acres of land fee to anycitizen or intended citizen who was head of household. 1862-1900 up to 600,000 families took advantage of thegovernment’s offer.
SETTLEMENT FOR ALL? Several thousand settlers were exodusters- African Americanswho moved from the post-Reconstruction South to Kansas. Private speculators and railroad and government agents used thelaw for their own gain. 10% of land was actually settled by families.
PROTECT THE WEST In 1872 Yellowstone National Park was created. By 1890 all the government owed land had been bought up, andthe Census Bureau declared that there was no more frontier.
CHALLENGES OF THE PLAINS Droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locust plagues, and raids byoutlaws and Native Americans.
DUGOUT AND SODDIES With scare resources most settlers built their homes from the landitself. Soddy- A dugout, a sod home, was warm in the winter and cool inthe summer. Soddies were small and had little light, and often hadsnakes, insects and other pests. They were fireproof but leaked.
WOMEN’S WORK Women worked beside the men in the fields, plowing the land andplanting and harvesting wheat. Sheared sheep, carded wool to make clothes Hauling water from wells that they had to dig, make soap, candles Can fruits and vegetables They sponsored schools and churches to build strong communities
TECH SUPPORT 1837 John Deere invented a steel plow that could slice throughheavy soil 1841 the grain drill to plant the seed 1847 Cyrus McCormick mass produced a reaping machine
MORE TECH SUPPORT 1869 spring-tooth harrow to prepare soil 1874 barbed wire fence 1878 corn binder By 1900 there were 900 manufacturers of farm equipment
FARM SCHOOLING Morrill Act of 1862 and 1890: gave federal land to the states tohelp finance agricultural colleges. The Hatch Act 1887 established agricultural experiment stationsto inform farmers of new developments.
FARMERS DEBT The new technology was expensive so farmers borrowed money tobuy it. Prices of crops impacted farmers ability to pay loans. Bonanza farms- enormous single crop spreads of 15,000-50,000acres.