The Best Presentaion About Islam In English
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the besy about islam i wish you enjoy

the besy about islam i wish you enjoy

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The Best Presentaion About Islam In English Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Mohammed and the Rise of Islam
    • 600’s A.D.
    • loss of much of the Eastern Roman Empire
    • to a new religious and political power
      • Islam
  • 2. Middle East, ca. 600 A.D.
  • 3. Islam
    • Bedouin Arab named Mohammed
    • born ca. 570 A.D.
    • Merchant family, Hasimites
    • Qurayshis tribe, who dominate Mecca
      • controlling much of the religious pilgrim trade
    • raised by relatives
      • -father and mother died by age six
      • -raised by an impoverished uncle
  • 4. Mohammed
    • formal education ?? We don’t know
      • Normally only the Poets of the Tribes could read and write
    • commercial agent for a wealthy widow
      • Khadijah
      • supervising caravans from Mecca, north to Jerusalem
      • contact with both Jews and Christians
  • 5. Mohammed, con’t
    • He seems to have made an impression on his boss, because of his reputed honesty
      • married her and retired from commerce
      • to devote himself to religion
      • and to making society more fair and equitable
  • 6. Mohammed, con’t
    • monogamous until his wife died
    • eventually married nine wives and had assorted concubines
    • last marriage at 53 to Aishah, daughter of a friend
    • wives: widows of friends or political marriages
        • Women alone is such a world were very vulnerable
  • 7. Origins of Mohammed’s Teachings
    • periods of unconsciousness are indicated: explanations
      • revelations from Allah by holy trances, spoken to by Gabriel
      • epilepsy or a similar neurological disorder?
      • mental illness or hallucinations ?
    • Mohammed’s explanation:
      • revelations from God
      • Very unpleasant and painful for him
  • 8. The Quran
    • Record of revelations received during visions
    • Committed to writing c. 650 CE, compiled (Muhammad dies 632)
      • Under the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
    • Tradition of Muhammad’s life: hadith
  • 9. Nature of Revelations
    • diverse
    • social, agricultural, medical, military, astronomical, etc.
  • 10. Historical Origins of His Ideas
    • Arab polytheism
    • Hanifism: a belief in one God traced to Abraham, by tradition
    • Judaism
    • Christianity: Orthodox, Nestorian, Arianism
    • Manichaeism: a mixture of Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Judaism, and so forth
  • 11. Beginning of His Ministry
    • at about age 40, after a number of revelations
    • began to preach publicly
    • continued to receive revelations until death
      • usually related to current problems or concerns
      • Religious, political, social, economic
  • 12. Early religious career
    • not particularly successful
    • threatened the social, political, and religious structure, with his doctrine of social equity
    • threatened the economic basis of Mecca as a center of religious pilgrimage
    • particularly the Black Rock
      • sacred to the chief deity of the Arabs
    • run out of town, or at least encouraged to leave
      • Went to the desert with his family and lived for about a year
  • 13. The Hijra
    • flight from Mecca, to Yathrib (Medina)
    • -tradition: invited by the Jews of Medina
    • 622 A.D.
    • beginning of the Islamic calendar
    • forms the umma (community)
    • welcomed, then resisted
    • Mohammed becomes an absolute theocrat
  • 14. Muhammad’s Return to Mecca
    • Attack on Mecca, 630 -- jihad
    • Conversion of Mecca to Islam
    • Destruction of pagan sites, replaced with mosques
      • Ka’aba preserved in honor of importance of Mecca
      • Approved as pilgrimage site
  • 15. Jihad
    • holy war against Mecca
    • ten year blockade
    • a deal was made
  • 16. The Deal
    • Mecca preserved as a holy city and place of pilgrimage
      • to preserve the economic prosperity
    • the Ka’aba preserved as the central shrine
      • idols and icons destroyed
      • story of its origins emphasized the role of Abraham in its placement
      • pilgrimage as an act of faith, at least once in your life
  • 17. The Ka’aba in Mecca
  • 18. The Religion: the Koran (Qu’ran)
    • the Koran (Qu’ran): contains much of Mohammed recounting of Allah’s teachings
    • written down by his followers after his death
      • from notes and memories, on “stones and parchments”
    • Short: 114 chapters
      • arranged from longest to the shortest
      • not by subject or chronologically
      • length is the criterion of order for the text
  • 19. The Koran, con’t
    • some “Old” and “New” Testaments stories
      • but sometimes the story seems a bit different to Jews and Christians
    • parables and fables
    • political polemic and prophecy
    • “ non-religious” subjects
      • not dissimilar to Jewish and Christian scriptures in some ways
  • 20. Five Pillars of Islam
    • uniqueness of God
      • ‘There is no god, but God….’
    • prayer five times a day
    • observe the month of Ramadan
    • give alms to the poor
    • pilgrimage to Mecca
      • If possible, once in your life
  • 21. Additional teachings
    • dietary laws
    • no gambling or drinking
    • no sexual irregularities, as defined by tradition and custom
    • no faulty weights or usury
    • no infanticide
    • elaborate rules concerning inheritance and property
    • improvement in the status of women and children
  • 22. Changing Status of Women
    • Qu’ran improves status of women
      • Outlawed female infanticide
      • Brides, not husbands, claim dowries
    • Yet male dominance preserved
      • Patrilineal descent
      • Polygamy permitted, Polyandry forbidden
      • Veil adopted from ancient Mesopotamian practice
  • 23. Similarities to Judaism and Christianity
    • monotheism (defined a bit differently)
    • insistence on the responsibility of human beings
    • final judgment and rewards
    • angels and spirits
    • practice of virtues: truthfulness, compassion, etc.
  • 24. Differences
    • an emphasis on compassion and mercy
    • alms giving moderate
    • heaven conceived a bit differently
    • no priests or sacramental system
    • easy conversion: the Shahadah
      • ‘ There is no God by Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet.’
  • 25. Islamic Law: The Sharia
    • Codification of Islamic law
    • Based on Quran, hadith , logical schools of analysis
    • Extends beyond ritual law to all areas of human activity
      • This is the basis the idea of an “Islamic republic” for instance
  • 26. Expansion of Islam
    • early victories
    • backsliders (tribes) punished
      • Apostasy = treason = death
    • assaults on:
      • the Byzantine (Roman) empire
      • the Persian empire
  • 27. Spread of Islam
  • 28. Dome of the Rock, Temple Mount Jerusalem
  • 29. Victories
    • Syria: 635 A.D.
    • Palestine: 636 A.D.
    • Persia: captured in one battle
      • expansion into India
      • expansion to the borders of China
    • Egypt: help by local Christians
    • North Africa: the Berbers
  • 30. Expansion, con’t
    • Spain 711-720 A.D.
    • Battle of Tours: October 732 A.D.
      • Charles Martel
    • Siege of Constantinople: 717-718 A.D.
      • Leo III
      • Greek fire
    • beginnings of Christian reconquest of former Roman/Christian territory
  • 31. Reasons for success
    • exhaustion of Rome and Persia
      • End of a 400 year war
    • nationalist sentiments in Egypt and Syria
    • arguments among Christian factions
    • speed and size of Moslem armies
    • simplicity and uncomplicated nature of Islam
    • acceptance of the Old and New Testament
      • People of the Book
  • 32. Consequences of Expansion
    • loss of the oldest and most central lands of Christendom
    • aided the ascendancy of the bishop of Rome
    • virtual collapse of Zoroastrianism as a major religion
    • radically altered the balance of power between the Roman Empire and the East
    • disruption of the Mediterranean economic community
  • 33. Early Problems
    • Succession ?
      • Mohammed had no surviving male children
      • Daughter: Fatima
      • Son-in-law: Ali, child of his uncle
    • generated a permanent split in the Islamic community
      • Sunnis
      • Shi’as
  • 34. Sunnis
    • considered themselves the “orthodox” followers of Mohammed
    • consider the Shi’as to be “dissenters”
    • issue: who leads after Mohammed ??
    • the Caliph (or “leader”)
    • went successively to followers
      • -Abu Bakr, then Oman
      • -then Uthman and
  • 35. The Shia
    • Disagreements over selection of caliphs
    • Ali passed over for Abu Bakr
    • Served as caliph 656-661 CE, then assassinated along with most of his followers
    • Remaining followers organize separate party called “Shia”
      • Traditionalists: Sunni
  • 36. Abu Bakr
    • not particularly popular with the Muslim community
    • allowed raid, then invasions of Byzantine and Persian territory
    • subjugated any dissident elements or tribes
    • disposed of any “new prophets”
  • 37. Success = strain
    • success introduced luxury and change
      • From original caliphs to the Umayyad caliphs
    • new ideas and new ethnic groups
      • with their own customs and heritage, to try to assimilate
    • rise of a sort of “revivalist element”
      • Islam had strayed from its original path and purity
      • Muslims were being led back to paganism
      • caliphs were becoming idle, corrupt, tyrants
  • 38. Uthman: the third Caliph
    • murdered: warfare broke out
    • Ali: cousin and son-in-law of Mohammed
    • originally passed over as too young
    • contested the succession
    • Uthman supported by the Umayyad clan
      • early enemies of Mohammed
      • refused to accept Ali’s claims
  • 39. Umayyeds
    • successful in the war
    • Ali assassinated in 661 A.D.
      • by the Kharijites
    • beginning of the Umayyed dynasty
  • 40. Policy toward Conquered Peoples
    • Favoritism of Arab military rulers causes discontent
    • Limited social mobility for non-Arab Muslims
    • Head tax (jizya) on non-Muslims
    • Umayyad luxurious living causes further decline in moral authority
  • 41. Sunnis
    • accepted the legitimacy of early caliphs
    • “Sunni” : from an Arabic word
      • “usage” or “custom”
      • implies: “precedent”
  • 42. Shi’as
    • accepted Ali
    • word means: “party”, “faction”, “following”
  • 43. Factions
    • Sunni and Shi’as dominant
    • originally political
      • Eventually the differences became dogmatic in emphasis
    • Shi’as become a party of religious dissent
  • 44. Perceptions
    • Sunni: conservative, in favor of the “status quo”
      • consensus is the guiding principle
    • Shi’as: defenders of the oppressed, critics of privilege and power
      • obedience is required only as long as it can be forced, and no longer
  • 45. Umayyed empire
    • Atlantic Ocean to India
    • Syria: center of the Islamic World
    • eventually displaced by the Abbasids
      • an Arab family claiming decent from Mohammed
  • 46. The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 CE)
    • Abu al-Abbas Sunni Arab, allied with Shia, non-Arab Muslims
    • Seizes control of Persia and Mesopotamia
    • Defeats Umayyad army in 750
      • Invited Umayyads to banquet, then massacred them
      • Only Spain remains Umayyad
      • North Africa is disputed territory, ultimately Fatamid
  • 47. Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty
    • Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not exclusively Arab)
    • Militarily competent, but not bent on imperial expansion
    • Dar al-Islam
    • Growth through military activity of autonomous Islamic forces
  • 48. Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty
    • Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not exclusively Arab)
    • Militarily competent, but not bent on imperial expansion
    • Dar al-Islam
    • Growth through military activity of autonomous Islamic forces
  • 49. Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809 CE)
    • High point of Abbasid dynasty
    • Baghdad center of commerce
    • Great cultural activity
  • 50. Abbasid Decline
    • Civil war between sons of Harun al-Rashid
    • Provincial governers assert regional independence
    • Dissenting sects, heretical movements
    • Abbasid caliphs become puppets of Persian nobility
    • Later, Saljuq Turks influence, Sultan real power behind the throne
  • 51. Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition
    • Islamic values
      • Uniformity of Islamic law in dar al-Islam
      • Establishment of madrasas
      • Importance of the Hajj
    • Sufi missionaries
      • Asceticism, mysticism
      • Some tension with orthodox Islamic theologians
      • Wide popularity
  • 52. Cultural influences on Islam
    • Persia
      • Adminstration and governance
      • literature
    • India
      • Mathematics, science, medicine
        • “ Hindi” numbers
    • Greece
      • Philosophy, esp. Aristotle
      • Greek medicine
  • 53. Cultural Importance of Islam
    • Development of these received influences
    • Distribution throughout the Muslim world
    • Introduction and reintroduction of these ideas to medieval Europe
      • Through Spain
      • Spanish Jews