Mohammed and the Rise of Islam <ul><li>600’s A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>loss of much of the Eastern Roman Empire </li></ul><ul...
Middle East, ca. 600 A.D.
Islam <ul><li>Bedouin Arab named Mohammed </li></ul><ul><li>born ca. 570 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Merchant family, Hasimites...
Mohammed <ul><li>formal education ?? We don’t know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally only the Poets of the Tribes could read ...
Mohammed, con’t <ul><li>He seems to have made an impression on his boss, because of his reputed honesty </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Mohammed, con’t  <ul><li>monogamous until his wife died </li></ul><ul><li>eventually married nine wives and had assorted c...
Origins of Mohammed’s Teachings <ul><li>periods of unconsciousness are indicated: explanations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>revel...
The Quran <ul><li>Record of revelations received during visions </li></ul><ul><li>Committed to writing c. 650 CE, compiled...
Nature of Revelations <ul><li>diverse </li></ul><ul><li>social, agricultural, medical, military, astronomical, etc. </li><...
Historical Origins of His Ideas <ul><li>Arab polytheism </li></ul><ul><li>Hanifism: a belief in one God traced to Abraham,...
Beginning of His Ministry <ul><li>at about age 40, after a number of revelations </li></ul><ul><li>began to preach publicl...
Early religious career <ul><li>not particularly successful </li></ul><ul><li>threatened the social, political, and religio...
The Hijra <ul><li>flight from Mecca, to Yathrib (Medina) </li></ul><ul><li>-tradition: invited by the Jews of Medina </li>...
Muhammad’s Return to Mecca <ul><li>Attack on Mecca, 630 --  jihad </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion of Mecca to Islam </li></ul...
Jihad <ul><li>holy war against Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>ten year blockade </li></ul><ul><li>a deal was made </li></ul>
The Deal <ul><li>Mecca preserved as a holy city and place of pilgrimage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to preserve the economic pro...
The Ka’aba in Mecca
The Religion: the Koran (Qu’ran) <ul><li>the Koran (Qu’ran): contains much of Mohammed recounting of Allah’s  teachings </...
The Koran, con’t <ul><li>some “Old” and “New” Testaments stories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>but sometimes the story seems a bit...
Five Pillars of Islam <ul><li>uniqueness of God </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘There is no god, but God….’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>...
Additional teachings <ul><li>dietary laws </li></ul><ul><li>no gambling or drinking </li></ul><ul><li>no sexual irregulari...
Changing Status of Women <ul><li>Qu’ran improves status of women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlawed female infanticide </li></...
Similarities to Judaism and Christianity <ul><li>monotheism (defined a bit differently) </li></ul><ul><li>insistence on th...
Differences <ul><li>an emphasis on compassion and mercy </li></ul><ul><li>alms giving moderate </li></ul><ul><li>heaven co...
Islamic Law: The  Sharia <ul><li>Codification of Islamic law </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Quran,  hadith , logical schools o...
Expansion of Islam <ul><li>early victories </li></ul><ul><li>backsliders (tribes) punished </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apostasy ...
Spread of Islam
Dome of the Rock,  Temple Mount Jerusalem
Victories <ul><li>Syria: 635 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Palestine: 636 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Persia: captured in one battle <...
Expansion, con’t <ul><li>Spain 711-720 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Tours: October 732 A.D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Char...
Reasons for success <ul><li>exhaustion of Rome and Persia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End of a 400 year war </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Consequences of Expansion  <ul><li>loss of the oldest and most central lands of Christendom </li></ul><ul><li>aided the as...
Early Problems <ul><li>Succession ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mohammed had no surviving male children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Sunnis <ul><li>considered themselves the “orthodox” followers of Mohammed </li></ul><ul><li>consider the Shi’as to be “dis...
The Shia <ul><li>Disagreements over selection of caliphs  </li></ul><ul><li>Ali passed over for Abu Bakr </li></ul><ul><li...
Abu Bakr <ul><li>not particularly popular with the Muslim community </li></ul><ul><li>allowed raid, then invasions of Byza...
Success = strain <ul><li>success introduced luxury and change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From original caliphs to the Umayyad c...
Uthman: the third Caliph <ul><li>murdered: warfare broke out </li></ul><ul><li>Ali: cousin and son-in-law of Mohammed </li...
Umayyeds <ul><li>successful in the war </li></ul><ul><li>Ali assassinated in 661 A.D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by the Khariji...
Policy toward Conquered Peoples <ul><li>Favoritism of Arab military rulers causes discontent </li></ul><ul><li>Limited soc...
Sunnis <ul><li>accepted the legitimacy of early caliphs </li></ul><ul><li>“Sunni” : from an Arabic word  </li></ul><ul><ul...
Shi’as <ul><li>accepted Ali </li></ul><ul><li>word means: “party”, “faction”, “following” </li></ul>
Factions <ul><li>Sunni and Shi’as dominant </li></ul><ul><li>originally political </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually the dif...
Perceptions <ul><li>Sunni: conservative, in favor of the “status quo” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consensus is the guiding princ...
Umayyed empire <ul><li>Atlantic Ocean to India </li></ul><ul><li>Syria: center of the Islamic World </li></ul><ul><li>even...
The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 CE) <ul><li>Abu al-Abbas Sunni Arab, allied with Shia, non-Arab Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Se...
Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty <ul><li>Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not exclusively Arab) </li></ul><ul><li>Milit...
Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty <ul><li>Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not exclusively Arab) </li></ul><ul><li>Milit...
Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809 CE) <ul><li>High point of Abbasid dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Baghdad center of commerce </l...
Abbasid Decline <ul><li>Civil war between sons of Harun al-Rashid </li></ul><ul><li>Provincial governers assert regional i...
Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition <ul><li>Islamic values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniformity of Islamic law in  dar ...
Cultural influences on Islam <ul><li>Persia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adminstration and governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Cultural Importance of Islam <ul><li>Development of these received influences </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution throughout th...
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The Best Presentaion About Islam In English

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  • The Best Presentaion About Islam In English

    1. 1. Mohammed and the Rise of Islam <ul><li>600’s A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>loss of much of the Eastern Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>to a new religious and political power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Middle East, ca. 600 A.D.
    3. 3. Islam <ul><li>Bedouin Arab named Mohammed </li></ul><ul><li>born ca. 570 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Merchant family, Hasimites </li></ul><ul><li>Qurayshis tribe, who dominate Mecca </li></ul><ul><ul><li>controlling much of the religious pilgrim trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>raised by relatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-father and mother died by age six </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-raised by an impoverished uncle </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Mohammed <ul><li>formal education ?? We don’t know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally only the Poets of the Tribes could read and write </li></ul></ul><ul><li>commercial agent for a wealthy widow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Khadijah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supervising caravans from Mecca, north to Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contact with both Jews and Christians </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Mohammed, con’t <ul><li>He seems to have made an impression on his boss, because of his reputed honesty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>married her and retired from commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to devote himself to religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and to making society more fair and equitable </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Mohammed, con’t <ul><li>monogamous until his wife died </li></ul><ul><li>eventually married nine wives and had assorted concubines </li></ul><ul><li>last marriage at 53 to Aishah, daughter of a friend </li></ul><ul><li>wives: widows of friends or political marriages </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women alone is such a world were very vulnerable </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Origins of Mohammed’s Teachings <ul><li>periods of unconsciousness are indicated: explanations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>revelations from Allah by holy trances, spoken to by Gabriel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>epilepsy or a similar neurological disorder? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mental illness or hallucinations ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mohammed’s explanation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>revelations from God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very unpleasant and painful for him </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The Quran <ul><li>Record of revelations received during visions </li></ul><ul><li>Committed to writing c. 650 CE, compiled (Muhammad dies 632) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tradition of Muhammad’s life: hadith </li></ul>
    9. 9. Nature of Revelations <ul><li>diverse </li></ul><ul><li>social, agricultural, medical, military, astronomical, etc. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Historical Origins of His Ideas <ul><li>Arab polytheism </li></ul><ul><li>Hanifism: a belief in one God traced to Abraham, by tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity: Orthodox, Nestorian, Arianism </li></ul><ul><li>Manichaeism: a mixture of Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Judaism, and so forth </li></ul>
    11. 11. Beginning of His Ministry <ul><li>at about age 40, after a number of revelations </li></ul><ul><li>began to preach publicly </li></ul><ul><li>continued to receive revelations until death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually related to current problems or concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious, political, social, economic </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Early religious career <ul><li>not particularly successful </li></ul><ul><li>threatened the social, political, and religious structure, with his doctrine of social equity </li></ul><ul><li>threatened the economic basis of Mecca as a center of religious pilgrimage </li></ul><ul><li>particularly the Black Rock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sacred to the chief deity of the Arabs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>run out of town, or at least encouraged to leave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Went to the desert with his family and lived for about a year </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. The Hijra <ul><li>flight from Mecca, to Yathrib (Medina) </li></ul><ul><li>-tradition: invited by the Jews of Medina </li></ul><ul><li>622 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>beginning of the Islamic calendar </li></ul><ul><li>forms the umma (community) </li></ul><ul><li>welcomed, then resisted </li></ul><ul><li>Mohammed becomes an absolute theocrat </li></ul>
    14. 14. Muhammad’s Return to Mecca <ul><li>Attack on Mecca, 630 -- jihad </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion of Mecca to Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of pagan sites, replaced with mosques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ka’aba preserved in honor of importance of Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approved as pilgrimage site </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Jihad <ul><li>holy war against Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>ten year blockade </li></ul><ul><li>a deal was made </li></ul>
    16. 16. The Deal <ul><li>Mecca preserved as a holy city and place of pilgrimage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to preserve the economic prosperity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the Ka’aba preserved as the central shrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>idols and icons destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>story of its origins emphasized the role of Abraham in its placement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pilgrimage as an act of faith, at least once in your life </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. The Ka’aba in Mecca
    18. 18. The Religion: the Koran (Qu’ran) <ul><li>the Koran (Qu’ran): contains much of Mohammed recounting of Allah’s teachings </li></ul><ul><li>written down by his followers after his death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from notes and memories, on “stones and parchments” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Short: 114 chapters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arranged from longest to the shortest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not by subject or chronologically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>length is the criterion of order for the text </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. The Koran, con’t <ul><li>some “Old” and “New” Testaments stories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>but sometimes the story seems a bit different to Jews and Christians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>parables and fables </li></ul><ul><li>political polemic and prophecy </li></ul><ul><li>“ non-religious” subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not dissimilar to Jewish and Christian scriptures in some ways </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Five Pillars of Islam <ul><li>uniqueness of God </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘There is no god, but God….’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>prayer five times a day </li></ul><ul><li>observe the month of Ramadan </li></ul><ul><li>give alms to the poor </li></ul><ul><li>pilgrimage to Mecca </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If possible, once in your life </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Additional teachings <ul><li>dietary laws </li></ul><ul><li>no gambling or drinking </li></ul><ul><li>no sexual irregularities, as defined by tradition and custom </li></ul><ul><li>no faulty weights or usury </li></ul><ul><li>no infanticide </li></ul><ul><li>elaborate rules concerning inheritance and property </li></ul><ul><li>improvement in the status of women and children </li></ul>
    22. 22. Changing Status of Women <ul><li>Qu’ran improves status of women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlawed female infanticide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brides, not husbands, claim dowries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yet male dominance preserved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patrilineal descent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polygamy permitted, Polyandry forbidden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veil adopted from ancient Mesopotamian practice </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Similarities to Judaism and Christianity <ul><li>monotheism (defined a bit differently) </li></ul><ul><li>insistence on the responsibility of human beings </li></ul><ul><li>final judgment and rewards </li></ul><ul><li>angels and spirits </li></ul><ul><li>practice of virtues: truthfulness, compassion, etc. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Differences <ul><li>an emphasis on compassion and mercy </li></ul><ul><li>alms giving moderate </li></ul><ul><li>heaven conceived a bit differently </li></ul><ul><li>no priests or sacramental system </li></ul><ul><li>easy conversion: the Shahadah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ There is no God by Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet.’ </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Islamic Law: The Sharia <ul><li>Codification of Islamic law </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Quran, hadith , logical schools of analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Extends beyond ritual law to all areas of human activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the basis the idea of an “Islamic republic” for instance </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Expansion of Islam <ul><li>early victories </li></ul><ul><li>backsliders (tribes) punished </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apostasy = treason = death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>assaults on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Byzantine (Roman) empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Persian empire </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Spread of Islam
    28. 28. Dome of the Rock, Temple Mount Jerusalem
    29. 29. Victories <ul><li>Syria: 635 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Palestine: 636 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Persia: captured in one battle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expansion into India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expansion to the borders of China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Egypt: help by local Christians </li></ul><ul><li>North Africa: the Berbers </li></ul>
    30. 30. Expansion, con’t <ul><li>Spain 711-720 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Tours: October 732 A.D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Martel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Siege of Constantinople: 717-718 A.D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leo III </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek fire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>beginnings of Christian reconquest of former Roman/Christian territory </li></ul>
    31. 31. Reasons for success <ul><li>exhaustion of Rome and Persia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End of a 400 year war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>nationalist sentiments in Egypt and Syria </li></ul><ul><li>arguments among Christian factions </li></ul><ul><li>speed and size of Moslem armies </li></ul><ul><li>simplicity and uncomplicated nature of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>acceptance of the Old and New Testament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People of the Book </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Consequences of Expansion <ul><li>loss of the oldest and most central lands of Christendom </li></ul><ul><li>aided the ascendancy of the bishop of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>virtual collapse of Zoroastrianism as a major religion </li></ul><ul><li>radically altered the balance of power between the Roman Empire and the East </li></ul><ul><li>disruption of the Mediterranean economic community </li></ul>
    33. 33. Early Problems <ul><li>Succession ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mohammed had no surviving male children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daughter: Fatima </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Son-in-law: Ali, child of his uncle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>generated a permanent split in the Islamic community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunnis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shi’as </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Sunnis <ul><li>considered themselves the “orthodox” followers of Mohammed </li></ul><ul><li>consider the Shi’as to be “dissenters” </li></ul><ul><li>issue: who leads after Mohammed ?? </li></ul><ul><li>the Caliph (or “leader”) </li></ul><ul><li>went successively to followers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Abu Bakr, then Oman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-then Uthman and </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. The Shia <ul><li>Disagreements over selection of caliphs </li></ul><ul><li>Ali passed over for Abu Bakr </li></ul><ul><li>Served as caliph 656-661 CE, then assassinated along with most of his followers </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining followers organize separate party called “Shia” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionalists: Sunni </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Abu Bakr <ul><li>not particularly popular with the Muslim community </li></ul><ul><li>allowed raid, then invasions of Byzantine and Persian territory </li></ul><ul><li>subjugated any dissident elements or tribes </li></ul><ul><li>disposed of any “new prophets” </li></ul>
    37. 37. Success = strain <ul><li>success introduced luxury and change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From original caliphs to the Umayyad caliphs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>new ideas and new ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with their own customs and heritage, to try to assimilate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>rise of a sort of “revivalist element” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam had strayed from its original path and purity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims were being led back to paganism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>caliphs were becoming idle, corrupt, tyrants </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Uthman: the third Caliph <ul><li>murdered: warfare broke out </li></ul><ul><li>Ali: cousin and son-in-law of Mohammed </li></ul><ul><li>originally passed over as too young </li></ul><ul><li>contested the succession </li></ul><ul><li>Uthman supported by the Umayyad clan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>early enemies of Mohammed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>refused to accept Ali’s claims </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Umayyeds <ul><li>successful in the war </li></ul><ul><li>Ali assassinated in 661 A.D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by the Kharijites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>beginning of the Umayyed dynasty </li></ul>
    40. 40. Policy toward Conquered Peoples <ul><li>Favoritism of Arab military rulers causes discontent </li></ul><ul><li>Limited social mobility for non-Arab Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Head tax (jizya) on non-Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Umayyad luxurious living causes further decline in moral authority </li></ul>
    41. 41. Sunnis <ul><li>accepted the legitimacy of early caliphs </li></ul><ul><li>“Sunni” : from an Arabic word </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“usage” or “custom” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implies: “precedent” </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Shi’as <ul><li>accepted Ali </li></ul><ul><li>word means: “party”, “faction”, “following” </li></ul>
    43. 43. Factions <ul><li>Sunni and Shi’as dominant </li></ul><ul><li>originally political </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually the differences became dogmatic in emphasis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shi’as become a party of religious dissent </li></ul>
    44. 44. Perceptions <ul><li>Sunni: conservative, in favor of the “status quo” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consensus is the guiding principle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shi’as: defenders of the oppressed, critics of privilege and power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>obedience is required only as long as it can be forced, and no longer </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Umayyed empire <ul><li>Atlantic Ocean to India </li></ul><ul><li>Syria: center of the Islamic World </li></ul><ul><li>eventually displaced by the Abbasids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an Arab family claiming decent from Mohammed </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 CE) <ul><li>Abu al-Abbas Sunni Arab, allied with Shia, non-Arab Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Seizes control of Persia and Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>Defeats Umayyad army in 750 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invited Umayyads to banquet, then massacred them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only Spain remains Umayyad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Africa is disputed territory, ultimately Fatamid </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty <ul><li>Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not exclusively Arab) </li></ul><ul><li>Militarily competent, but not bent on imperial expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Dar al-Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Growth through military activity of autonomous Islamic forces </li></ul>
    48. 48. Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty <ul><li>Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not exclusively Arab) </li></ul><ul><li>Militarily competent, but not bent on imperial expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Dar al-Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Growth through military activity of autonomous Islamic forces </li></ul>
    49. 49. Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809 CE) <ul><li>High point of Abbasid dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Baghdad center of commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Great cultural activity </li></ul>
    50. 50. Abbasid Decline <ul><li>Civil war between sons of Harun al-Rashid </li></ul><ul><li>Provincial governers assert regional independence </li></ul><ul><li>Dissenting sects, heretical movements </li></ul><ul><li>Abbasid caliphs become puppets of Persian nobility </li></ul><ul><li>Later, Saljuq Turks influence, Sultan real power behind the throne </li></ul>
    51. 51. Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition <ul><li>Islamic values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniformity of Islamic law in dar al-Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of madrasas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of the Hajj </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sufi missionaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asceticism, mysticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some tension with orthodox Islamic theologians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide popularity </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Cultural influences on Islam <ul><li>Persia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adminstration and governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>literature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics, science, medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hindi” numbers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy, esp. Aristotle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek medicine </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Cultural Importance of Islam <ul><li>Development of these received influences </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution throughout the Muslim world </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction and reintroduction of these ideas to medieval Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish Jews </li></ul></ul>

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